Abstract

Flat lenses enable thinner, lighter, and simpler imaging systems. However, large-area and high-NA flat lenses have been elusive due to computational and fabrication challenges. Here we applied inverse design to create a multi-level diffractive lens (MDL) with thickness $ \lt {1}.{35}\;\unicode{x00B5} {\rm m}$, diameter of 4.13 mm, and ${\rm NA} = {0.9}$ at wavelength of 850 nm (bandwidth $\sim {35}\;{\rm nm}$). Since the MDL is created in polymer, it can be cost-effectively replicated via imprint lithography.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (2)

S. Banerji, M. Meem, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Optica 6, 805 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. Vasquez-Guevara, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 21375 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

2017 (1)

P. Lalanne and P. Chavel, Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600295 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 6, 21545 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, L. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 16, 7229 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, Science 352, 1190 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. Friedman, and R. Menon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 123901 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2005 (1)

D. Chao, A. Patel, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and R. Menon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2657 (2005).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Astilean, S.

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ball, A. J.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Banerji, S.

S. Banerji, M. Meem, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Optica 6, 805 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. Vasquez-Guevara, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 21375 (2019).
[Crossref]

Barwicz, T.

D. Chao, A. Patel, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and R. Menon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2657 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bentley, J.

J. Bentley and C. Olson, SPIE Press Book (2012).

Cambril, E.

Capasso, F.

A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, Opt. Express 26, 1573 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, L. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 16, 7229 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, Science 352, 1190 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chao, D.

D. Chao, A. Patel, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and R. Menon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2657 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chavel, P.

Chen, W. T.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, Science 352, 1190 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, L. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 16, 7229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-J.

Z.-B. Fan, Z.-K. Shao, M.-Y. Xie, X.-N. Pang, W.-S. Ruan, F.-L. Zhao, Y.-J. Chen, S.-Y. Yu, and J.-W. Dong, “Silicon nitride metalenses for unpolarized high-NA visible imaging,” arXiv:1709.00573.

Chung, H.

H. Chung and O. D. Miller, “High-NA achromatic metalenses by inverse design,” arXiv:1905.09213.

Clarke, D. R.

Collins, J. P.

Devlin, R. C.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, L. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 16, 7229 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, Science 352, 1190 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dominguez-Caballero, J.-A.

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. Friedman, and R. Menon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 123901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.-W.

Z.-B. Fan, Z.-K. Shao, M.-Y. Xie, X.-N. Pang, W.-S. Ruan, F.-L. Zhao, Y.-J. Chen, S.-Y. Yu, and J.-W. Dong, “Silicon nitride metalenses for unpolarized high-NA visible imaging,” arXiv:1709.00573.

Fan, Z.-B.

Z.-B. Fan, Z.-K. Shao, M.-Y. Xie, X.-N. Pang, W.-S. Ruan, F.-L. Zhao, Y.-J. Chen, S.-Y. Yu, and J.-W. Dong, “Silicon nitride metalenses for unpolarized high-NA visible imaging,” arXiv:1709.00573.

Faraon, A.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Friedman, D.

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. Friedman, and R. Menon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 123901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Horie, Y.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Khorasaninejad, M.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, Science 352, 1190 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, L. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 16, 7229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kim, G.

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. Friedman, and R. Menon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 123901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lalanne, P.

Launois, H.

Lee, H.

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. Friedman, and R. Menon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 123901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mait, J. N.

Majumder, A.

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. Vasquez-Guevara, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 21375 (2019).
[Crossref]

Meem, M.

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. Vasquez-Guevara, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 21375 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji, M. Meem, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Optica 6, 805 (2019).
[Crossref]

Menon, R.

S. Banerji, M. Meem, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Optica 6, 805 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. Vasquez-Guevara, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 21375 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 6, 21545 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Shen, P. Wang, R. C. Polson, and R. Menon, Optica 1, 356 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Shen, P. Wang, R. C. Polson, and R. Menon, Opt. Express 22, 27175 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. Friedman, and R. Menon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 123901 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Wang and R. Menon, Opt. Express 20, 1849 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Chao, A. Patel, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and R. Menon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2657 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miller, O. D.

H. Chung and O. D. Miller, “High-NA achromatic metalenses by inverse design,” arXiv:1905.09213.

Mirotznik, M. S.

Mishra, L.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, L. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 16, 7229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mohammad, N.

P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 6, 21545 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oh, J.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, L. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 16, 7229 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, Science 352, 1190 (2016).
[Crossref]

Olson, C.

J. Bentley and C. Olson, SPIE Press Book (2012).

Pang, X.-N.

Z.-B. Fan, Z.-K. Shao, M.-Y. Xie, X.-N. Pang, W.-S. Ruan, F.-L. Zhao, Y.-J. Chen, S.-Y. Yu, and J.-W. Dong, “Silicon nitride metalenses for unpolarized high-NA visible imaging,” arXiv:1709.00573.

Patel, A.

D. Chao, A. Patel, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and R. Menon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2657 (2005).
[Crossref]

Polson, R. C.

Prather, D. W.

Roques-Carmes, C.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, L. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 16, 7229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ruan, W.-S.

Z.-B. Fan, Z.-K. Shao, M.-Y. Xie, X.-N. Pang, W.-S. Ruan, F.-L. Zhao, Y.-J. Chen, S.-Y. Yu, and J.-W. Dong, “Silicon nitride metalenses for unpolarized high-NA visible imaging,” arXiv:1709.00573.

Sensale-Rodriguez, B.

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. Vasquez-Guevara, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 21375 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Banerji, M. Meem, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Optica 6, 805 (2019).
[Crossref]

Shao, Z.-K.

Z.-B. Fan, Z.-K. Shao, M.-Y. Xie, X.-N. Pang, W.-S. Ruan, F.-L. Zhao, Y.-J. Chen, S.-Y. Yu, and J.-W. Dong, “Silicon nitride metalenses for unpolarized high-NA visible imaging,” arXiv:1709.00573.

She, A.

Shen, B.

Shian, S.

Smith, H. I.

D. Chao, A. Patel, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and R. Menon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2657 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vasquez-Guevara, F.

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. Vasquez-Guevara, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 21375 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Xie, M.-Y.

Z.-B. Fan, Z.-K. Shao, M.-Y. Xie, X.-N. Pang, W.-S. Ruan, F.-L. Zhao, Y.-J. Chen, S.-Y. Yu, and J.-W. Dong, “Silicon nitride metalenses for unpolarized high-NA visible imaging,” arXiv:1709.00573.

Yu, S.-Y.

Z.-B. Fan, Z.-K. Shao, M.-Y. Xie, X.-N. Pang, W.-S. Ruan, F.-L. Zhao, Y.-J. Chen, S.-Y. Yu, and J.-W. Dong, “Silicon nitride metalenses for unpolarized high-NA visible imaging,” arXiv:1709.00573.

Zhang, S.

Zhao, F.-L.

Z.-B. Fan, Z.-K. Shao, M.-Y. Xie, X.-N. Pang, W.-S. Ruan, F.-L. Zhao, Y.-J. Chen, S.-Y. Yu, and J.-W. Dong, “Silicon nitride metalenses for unpolarized high-NA visible imaging,” arXiv:1709.00573.

Zhu, A. Y.

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, Science 352, 1190 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, L. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 16, 7229 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

D. Chao, A. Patel, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and R. Menon, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2657 (2005).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

P. Lalanne and P. Chavel, Laser Photon. Rev. 11, 1600295 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, L. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, Nano Lett. 16, 7229 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. Kim, J.-A. Dominguez-Caballero, H. Lee, D. Friedman, and R. Menon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 123901 (2013).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. Meem, S. Banerji, A. Majumder, F. Vasquez-Guevara, B. Sensale-Rodriguez, and R. Menon, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116, 21375 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

P. Wang, N. Mohammad, and R. Menon, Sci. Rep. 6, 21545 (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

M. Khorasaninejad, W. T. Chen, R. C. Devlin, J. Oh, A. Y. Zhu, and F. Capasso, Science 352, 1190 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J. Bentley and C. Olson, SPIE Press Book (2012).

Z.-B. Fan, Z.-K. Shao, M.-Y. Xie, X.-N. Pang, W.-S. Ruan, F.-L. Zhao, Y.-J. Chen, S.-Y. Yu, and J.-W. Dong, “Silicon nitride metalenses for unpolarized high-NA visible imaging,” arXiv:1709.00573.

H. Chung and O. D. Miller, “High-NA achromatic metalenses by inverse design,” arXiv:1905.09213.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Details of the fabricated MDL. (a) Wide-field optical micrograph. The inset shows the radial cross section through the last 50 rings of the design. Scanning-confocal images of (b) the central rings and (c) a portion of the outer rings.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Characterization of the MDL. (a) Measured PSF. (b) MTF obtained from the PSF (inset: contrast in log scale). (c) Relative encircled power versus the radius of the spot. (d) Image of resolution chart. Illumination for (a) was a laser, while that for (d) was an LED flashlight, both centered at $ \lambda = 850\;{\rm nm}$.