Abstract

Modern communication strives towards provably secure systems which can be widely deployed. Quantum key distribution provides a methodology to verify the integrity and security of a key exchange based on physical laws. However, physical systems often fall short of theoretical models, meaning they can be compromised through uncharacterized side-channels. The complexity of detection means that the measurement system is a vulnerable target for an adversary. Here, we present secure key exchange up to 200 km while removing all side-channels from the measurement system. We use mass-manufacturable, monolithically integrated transmitters that represent an accessible, quantum-ready communication platform. This work demonstrates a network topology that allows secure equipment sharing which is accessible with a cost-effective transmitter, significantly reducing the barrier for widespread uptake of quantum-secured communication.

Published by The Optical Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI.

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2019 (2)

2018 (2)

2017 (2)

P. Sibson, C. Erven, M. Godfrey, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. L. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Chip-based quantum key distribution,” Nat. Commun. 8, 13984 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Valivarthi, Q. Zhou, C. John, F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, M. D. Shaw, S. W. Nam, D. Oblak, and W. Tittel, “A cost-effective measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution system for quantum networks,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 2, 04LT01 (2017).

2016 (4)

H.-L. Yin, T.-Y. Chen, Z.-W. Yu, H. Liu, L.-X. You, Y.-H. Zhou, S.-J. Chen, Y. Mao, M.-Q. Huang, W.-J. Zhang, H. Chen, M. J. Li, D. Nolan, F. Zhou, X. Jiang, Z. Wang, Q. Zhang, X.-B. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 190501 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Comandar, M. Lucamarini, B. Fröhlich, J. Dynes, A. Sharpe, S.-B. Tam, Z. Yuan, R. Penty, and A. Shields, “Quantum key distribution without detector vulnerabilities using optically seeded lasers,” Nat. Photonics 10, 312 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Vetter, S. Ferrari, P. Rath, R. Alaee, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, S. Diewald, G. N. Goltsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Cavity-enhanced and ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nano Letters 16, 7085–7092 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Zhou, Z.-W. Yu, and X.-B. Wang, “Making the decoy-state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution practically useful,” Phys. Rev. A 93, 042324 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

O. Kahl, S. Ferrari, V. Kovalyuk, G. N. Goltsman, A. Korneev, and W. H. Pernice, “Waveguide integrated superconducting single-photon detectors with high internal quantum efficiency at telecom wavelengths,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10941 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and K. Tamaki, “Secure quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 8, 595–604 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

A. Rubenok, J. A. Slater, P. Chan, I. Lucio-Martinez, and W. Tittel, “Real-world two-photon interference and proof-of-principle quantum key distribution immune to detector attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130501 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

H.-K. Lo, M. Curty, and B. Qi, “Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 130503 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

L. Masanes, S. Pironio, and A. Acín, “Secure device-independent quantum key distribution with causally independent measurement devices,” Nat. Commun. 2, 238 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. G. Thompson, A. Politi, J. C. Matthews, and J. L. O’Brien, “Integrated waveguide circuits for optical quantum computing,” IET Circuits, Dev. Syst. 5, 94–102 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181110 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

L. Lydersen, C. Wiechers, C. Wittmann, D. Elser, J. Skaar, and V. Makarov, “Hacking commercial quantum cryptography systems by tailored bright illumination,” Nat. Photonics 4, 686–689 (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. G. Rarity, P. R. Tapster, and R. Loudon, “Non-classical interference between independent sources,” J. Opt. B 7, S171 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. Calsamiglia and N. Lütkenhaus, “Maximum efficiency of a linear-optical bell-state analyzer,” Appl. Phys. B 72, 67–71 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, and Y. Ohmori, “Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180–1182 (2000).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2046 (1987).
[Crossref]

Abel, S.

F. Eltes, G. E. Villarreal-Garcia, D. Caimi, H. Siegwart, A. A. Gentile, A. Hart, P. Stark, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. Barreto, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “An integrated cryogenic optical modulator,” arXiv:1904.10902 (2019).

Achouche, M.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Acín, A.

L. Masanes, S. Pironio, and A. Acín, “Secure device-independent quantum key distribution with causally independent measurement devices,” Nat. Commun. 2, 238 (2011).
[Crossref]

Alaee, R.

A. Vetter, S. Ferrari, P. Rath, R. Alaee, O. Kahl, V. Kovalyuk, S. Diewald, G. N. Goltsman, A. Korneev, C. Rockstuhl, and W. H. P. Pernice, “Cavity-enhanced and ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nano Letters 16, 7085–7092 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ambrosius, H.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Augustin, L.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bakker, A.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barreto, J.

F. Eltes, G. E. Villarreal-Garcia, D. Caimi, H. Siegwart, A. A. Gentile, A. Hart, P. Stark, G. D. Marshall, M. G. Thompson, J. Barreto, J. Fompeyrine, and S. Abel, “An integrated cryogenic optical modulator,” arXiv:1904.10902 (2019).

Beetz, J.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 181110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems, and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1985), pp. 175–179.

Bente, E.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bhat, S.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bitincka, E.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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Bolk, J.

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Some examples of commercial entities developing QKD systems are ID Quantique, KETS Quantum Security, MagiQ Technologies, QuintessenceLabs, and Toshiba.

Y. Yun, A. Vetter, R. Stegmueller, S. Ferrari, W. H. Pernice, C. Rockstuhl, and C. Lee, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon spectrometer exploiting cascaded photonic crystal cavities,” arXiv:1908.01681 (2019).

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Integrated MDI-QKD: (a) Schematic of the $ 6 \times 2\,\,{{\rm mm}^2} $ InP chips used to generate the time-bin encoded BB84 weak coherent states through cascaded MZIs. Timing information is encoded with T. Enc, decoy intensities varied with I. Mod, and phase encoded with Ph. Enc. A 1 GHz photodiode (PD) can be used for power monitoring and feedback. (b) Microscope images of the on-chip DBR laser (top) and an MZI (bottom) measuring only 1 mm in length. (c) Bell state projections for $ |{\psi ^ + }\rangle $ (purple) and $ |{\psi ^ - }\rangle $ (red) in time-bin encoding. $ t_j^i $ corresponds to a detection event in the $ i $th detector, where $ j $ is either an early ($ e $) or late ($ l $) time-bin. (d) MDI-QKD experimental schematic. Two identical devices generate BB84 states independently and send them to the receiver. The states are projected in the Bell basis using a beam splitter and single-photon detectors (SPDs). A bank of four detectors is used to increase count rate, coincidence probability, and key rate.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. BB84 States: Histogram of the weak coherent states generated on-chip as measured by single-photon detectors. The time bins are separated by 500 ps and exhibit a 30 dB extinction ratio and 130 ps FWHM.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Wavelength overlap: By varying the relative wavelength between the two lasers, the $ X $ basis error oscillates as the time bins tune in and out of phase. A reduction in visibility is due to the wavelength detuning. We demonstrate fine control to achieve a 30% error, limited to a theoretical minimum of 25%. $ Z $ basis errors are independent of the interference and remain below 1%.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Key rate: Plot of the asymptotic key rates estimated from the system over an emulated fiber link assuming 0.2 dB/km. We measure a secret key rate of 12 kbps at 25 km, while at 100 km, 1 kbps of key can be securely exchanged. A model of the system using experimental parameters estimates that positive key rates are possible at distances of greater than 350 km.

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