Abstract

Over the past decade, remarkable advances have been realized in chip-based nonlinear photonic devices for classical and quantum applications in the near- and mid-infrared regimes. However, few demonstrations have been realized in the visible and near-visible regimes, primarily due to the large normal material group-velocity dispersion (GVD) that makes it challenging to phase match third-order parametric processes. In this paper, we show that exploiting dispersion engineering of higher-order waveguide modes provides waveguide dispersion that allows for small or anomalous GVD in the visible and near-visible regimes and phase matching of four-wave mixing processes. We illustrate the power of this concept by demonstrating in silicon nitride microresonators a near-visible mode-locked Kerr frequency comb and a narrowband photon-pair source compatible with Rb transitions. These realizations extend applications of nonlinear photonics towards the visible and near-visible regimes for applications in time and frequency metrology, spectral calibration, quantum information, and biomedical applications.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Corrections

Yun Zhao, Xingchen Ji, Bok Young Kim, Prathamesh S. Donvalkar, Jae K. Jang, Chaitanya Joshi, Mengjie Yu, Chaitali Joshi, Renato R. Domeneguetti, Felippe A. S. Barbosa, Paulo Nussenzveig, Yoshitomo Okawachi, Michal Lipson, and Alexander L. Gaeta, "Visible nonlinear photonics via high-order-mode dispersion engineering: publisher’s note," Optica 7, 198-198 (2020)
https://www.osapublishing.org/optica/abstract.cfm?uri=optica-7-3-198

29 January 2020: A typographical correction was made to the author listing.


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References

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2019 (6)

A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Photonic-chip-based frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13, 158–169 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Kues, C. Reimer, J. M. Lukens, W. J. Munro, A. M. Weiner, D. J. Moss, and R. Morandotti, “Quantum optical microcombs,” Nat. Photonics 13, 170–179 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Obrzud, M. Rainer, A. Harutyunyan, M. H. Anderson, J. Liu, M. Geiselmann, B. Chazelas, S. Kundermann, S. Lecomte, M. Cecconi, A. Ghedina, E. Molinari, F. Pepe, F. Wildi, F. Bouchy, T. J. Kippenberg, and T. Herr, “A microphotonic astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 31–35 (2019).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, X. Yi, Y.-H. Lai, S. Leifer, I. S. Grudinin, G. Vasisht, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, J. Wang, D. Mawet, S. B. Papp, S. A. Diddams, C. Beichman, and K. Vahala, “Searching for exoplanets using a microresonator astrocomb,” Nat. Photonics 13, 25–30 (2019).
[Crossref]

S.-P. Yu, T. C. Briles, G. T. Moille, X. Lu, S. A. Diddams, K. Srinivasan, and S. B. Papp, “Tuning Kerr-soliton frequency combs to atomic resonances,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11, 044017 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Lu, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, G. Moille, A. Singh, V. Anant, and K. Srinivasan, “Chip-integrated visible-telecom entangled photon pair source for quantum communication,” Nat. Phys. 15, 373–381 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (9)

J. B. Christensen, J. G. Koefoed, K. Rottwitt, and C. J. McKinstrie, “Engineering spectrally unentangled photon pairs from nonlinear microring resonators by pump manipulation,” Opt. Lett. 43, 859–862 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, H. Jung, Z. Gong, A. Bruch, L. Jiang, and H. X. Tang, “Efficient generation of a near-visible frequency comb via Cherenkov-like radiation from a Kerr microcomb,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 10, 014012 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, A. L. Gaeta, M. Lipson, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Dissipative Kerr solitons in optical microresonators,” Science 361, eaan8083 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562, 401–405 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Yu, Y. Okawachi, A. G. Griffith, N. Picqué, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9, 1869 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Dutt, C. Joshi, X. Ji, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, K. Luke, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip dual-comb source for spectroscopy,” Sci. Adv. 4, e1701858 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Trocha, M. Karpov, D. Ganin, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, A. Kordts, S. Wolf, J. Krockenberger, P. Marin-Palomo, C. Weimann, S. Randel, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Ultrafast optical ranging using microresonator soliton frequency combs,” Science 359, 887–891 (2018).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh and K. J. Vahala, “Soliton microcomb range measurement,” Science 359, 884–887 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, T. Drake, T. C. Briles, J. Stone, L. C. Sinclair, C. Fredrick, Q. Li, D. Westly, B. R. Ilic, A. Bluestone, N. Volet, T. Komljenovic, L. Chang, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, M.-G. Suh, K. Y. Yang, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, T. J. Kippenberg, E. Norberg, L. Theogarajan, K. Vahala, N. R. Newbury, K. Srinivasan, J. E. Bowers, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “An optical-frequency synthesizer using integrated photonics,” Nature 557, 81–85 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

P. Marin-Palomo, J. N. Kemal, M. Karpov, A. Kordts, J. Pfeifle, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, P. Trocha, S. Wolf, V. Brasch, M. H. Anderson, R. Rosenberger, K. Vijayan, W. Freude, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature 546, 274–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. G. Pavlov, G. Lihachev, S. Koptyaev, E. Lucas, M. Karpov, N. M. Kondratiev, I. A. Bilenko, T. J. Kippenberg, and M. L. Gorodetsky, “Soliton dual frequency combs in crystalline microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 42, 514–517 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. H. Lee, D. Y. Oh, Q.-F. Yang, B. Shen, H. Wang, K. Y. Yang, Y.-H. Lai, X. Yi, X. Li, and K. Vahala, “Towards visible soliton microcomb generation,” Nat. Commun. 8, 1295 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. P. Pfeiffer, C. Herkommer, J. Liu, H. Guo, M. Karpov, E. Lucas, M. Zervas, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave-spanning dissipative Kerr soliton frequency combs in Si3N4 microresonators,” Optica 4, 684–691 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. C. Cole, E. S. Lamb, P. Del’Haye, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Soliton crystals in Kerr resonators,” Nat. Photonics 11, 671–676 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

C. Joshi, J. K. Jang, K. Luke, X. Ji, S. A. Miller, A. Klenner, Y. Okawachi, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Thermally controlled comb generation and soliton modelocking in microresonators,” Opt. Lett. 41, 2565–2568 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, X. Jiang, S. Kasumie, G. Zhao, L. Xu, J. M. Ward, L. Yang, and S. N. Chormaic, “Four-wave mixing parametric oscillation and frequency comb generation at visible wavelengths in a silica microbubble resonator,” Opt. Lett. 41, 5266–5269 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, L. Chang, N. Volet, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, H. Guo, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Frequency comb generation in the green using silicon nitride microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 631–638 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Soltani, A. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Enabling arbitrary wavelength frequency combs on chip,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 158–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

M.-G. Suh, Q.-F. Yang, K. Y. Yang, X. Yi, and K. J. Vahala, “Microresonator soliton dual-comb spectroscopy,” Science 354, 600–603 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Vernon, M. Liscidini, and J. E. Sipe, “No free lunch: the trade-off between heralding rate and efficiency in microresonator-based heralded single photon sources,” Opt. Lett. 41, 788–791 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (4)

L.-W. Luo, N. Ophir, C. P. Chen, L. H. Gabrielli, C. B. Poitras, K. Bergmen, and M. Lipson, “WDM-compatible mode-division multiplexing on a silicon chip,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3069 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8, 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator frequency comb optical clock,” Optica 1, 10–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Miller, K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, J. Cardenas, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “On-chip frequency comb generation at visible wavelengths via simultaneous second- and third-order optical nonlinearities,” Opt. Express 22, 26517–26525 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

M. Förtsch, J. U. Fürst, C. Wittmann, D. Strekalov, A. Aiello, M. V. Chekhova, C. Silberhorn, G. Leuchs, and C. Marquardt, “A versatile source of single photons for quantum information processing,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1818 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Coen, H. G. Randle, T. Sylvestre, and M. Erkintalo, “Modeling of octave-spanning Kerr frequency combs using a generalized mean-field Lugiato–Lefever model,” Opt. Lett. 38, 37–39 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Kerr combs with selectable central frequency,” Nat. Photonics 5, 293–296 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

C.-H. Li, A. J. Benedick, P. Fendel, A. G. Glenday, F. X. Kärtner, D. F. Phillips, D. Sasselov, A. Szentgyorgyi, and R. L. Walsworth, “A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1  cm s-1,” Nature 452, 610–612 (2008).
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P. Siddons, C. S. Adams, C. Ge, and I. G. Hughes, “Absolute absorption on rubidium D lines: comparison between theory and experiment,” J. Phys. B 41, 155004 (2008).
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2007 (1)

P. Kok, W. J. Munro, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 135–174 (2007).
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2006 (2)

2005 (3)

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 421–442 (2005).
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T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories,” Nature 438, 833–836 (2005).
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V. Balić, D. A. Braje, P. Kolchin, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, “Generation of paired photons with controllable waveforms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 183601 (2005).
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2004 (1)

2003 (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, “Optical coherence tomography: principles and applications,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239 (2003).
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2001 (4)

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Ultrahigh scanning speed optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb generators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L878 (2001).
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C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
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D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, “Storage of light in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783–786 (2001).
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R. Ell, U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, T. Tschudi, M. J. Lederer, A. Boiko, and B. Luther-Davies, “Generation of 5-fs pulses and octave-spanning spectra directly from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 26, 373–375 (2001).
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1999 (1)

Z. Y. Ou and Y. J. Lu, “Cavity enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion for the prolongation of correlation time between conjugate photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2556–2559 (1999).
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1980 (1)

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X. Lu, Q. Li, D. A. Westly, G. Moille, A. Singh, V. Anant, and K. Srinivasan, “Chip-integrated visible-telecom entangled photon pair source for quantum communication,” Nat. Phys. 15, 373–381 (2019).
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J. Smith, J. Monroy-Ruz, J. G. Rarity, and K. C. Balram, “Single photon emission and single spin coherence of a nitrogen vacancy centre encapsulated in silicon nitride,” arXiv:1909.09383 (2019).

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L. Wang, L. Chang, N. Volet, M. H. P. Pfeiffer, M. Zervas, H. Guo, T. J. Kippenberg, and J. E. Bowers, “Frequency comb generation in the green using silicon nitride microresonators,” Laser Photon. Rev. 10, 631–638 (2016).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Normalized GVD. Inset, structure of the slab waveguide. (b) Simulated GVD for a 730 × 1330 nm microring resonator with a bending radius of 22 μm. (c) Effective refractive index of the TE 00 mode of a straight waveguide and TE 10 mode of a ring. Efficient mode conversion is realized when the two modes have the same effective indices. (d) Device schematic. Inset, measured mode profile. (e) Measured resonance.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Voltage pattern used to modulate the on-chip heater. (b) Evolution of comb power corresponding to the pattern in (a). (c) Experimental comb spectrum calibrated for collection losses. Inset, simulated intracavity four-soliton state. (d–f) Optical spectra corresponding to point A (minicomb formation), B (chaotic state), and C (soliton state) in (b), respectively. (g–i) RF noise corresponding to (d)–(f).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Asymmetric four-soliton state with denser comb line spacing. (b) Simulated spectrum of (a). (c) Rb D1 transition probed by a comb line of our near-visible comb. The Doppler-free transitions and their relative strengths are shown as vertical sticks.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Normalized coincidence between signal and idler g si ( 2 ) ( τ ) . (b) PPG rate scaling. The plot is corrected for collection and detector losses. (c) Photon interaction with Rb D1 transition.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Simulated dispersion of a microresonantor with 400 nm × 1000 nm cross section and 100 μm bending radius. (b) Simulated Kerr comb spectrum for the TE 20 mode in (a).

Equations (5)

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V = ω c h n co 2 n cl 2 ,
b 2 n co n eff n co 2 n cl 2 ,
V 1 b = m π + 2 tan 1 b / ( 1 b ) ,
β 2 , w g = ( n co 2 n cl 2 ) 3 2 h 2 n co c 2 B 2 ( V ) ,
S ( ω ) 1 ( 4 ω 2 + Δ ω 2 W ) 2 + 4 Δ ω 2 W ,

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