Abstract

The RF/photonic link is the basic element of microwave photonics. Previous RF photonic links often rely on optical intensity modulation. The inherent modulation nonlinearity leads to inadequate spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) for many sought-after microwave photonic applications in radar. A new phase-modulated (PM) link with an optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) demodulator could afford a promising solution for the SFDR. However, the efficacy of the PM link approach remained unsubstantiated as previous OPLL implementations had too restricted of a bandwidth for realistic applications. Here, we present a new OPLL photonic integrated circuit (PIC) chip that offered quadrupled bandwidth enhancement over the state of the art. The OPLL PIC represents the first OPLL linear optical phase demodulator with sufficient bandwidth for realistic microwave photonic applications. With help of the OPLL PIC, a PM RF/photonic link demonstrated a record-breaking SFDR of 129.3dB·Hz2/3 and a 3 dB SFDR bandwidth of 1GHz. The combined SFDR and bandwidth performance amounts to around 1 order of magnitude improvement over the prior state of the art.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Down-conversion RF/photonic link with a monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL phase demodulator

Longtao Xu, Shilei Jin, and Yifei Li
Opt. Express 25(18) 21705-21710 (2017)

Recent progress in attenuation counterpropagating optical phase-locked loops for high-dynamic-range radio frequency photonic links [Invited]

Shilei Jin, Longtao Xu, Peter Herczfeld, Ashish Bhardwaj, and Yifei Li
Photon. Res. 2(4) B45-B53 (2014)

Feedforward linearization for RF photonic link with broadband adjustment-free operation

Yitang Dai, Xiaodong Liang, Feifei Yin, Junyi Zhang, Jianqiang Li, Wangzhe Li, and Kun Xu
Opt. Express 25(17) 20770-20779 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. J. Seeds and K. J. Willams, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4628–4641 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 314–335 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. H. Schaffner and W. B. Bridges, “Intermodulation distortion in high dynamic range microwave fiber-optic links with linearized modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 3–6 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. Ackerman and C. H. Cox, “Effect of pilot tone-based modulator bias control on external modulation link performance,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2000), pp. 121–124.
  6. E. Ackerman, “Broad-band linearization of a Mach-Zehnder electrooptic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2271–2279 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Li, D. Yoo, P. Herczfeld, A. Rosen, A. Madjar, and S. Goldwasser, “Receiver for a coherent fiber-optic link with high dynamic range and low noise figure,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2000), p. 273.
  8. J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.
  9. Y. Li and P. R. Herczfeld, “Novel attenuation-counter-propagating phase modulator for highly fiber-optic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3709–3718 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Li, R. Wang, J. Klamkin, S. Madison, P. Juodawlkis, P. R. Herczfeld, and J. Bowers, “Delay of counter-propagating photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2099–2104 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. Y. Li and P. R. Herczfeld, “Coherent PM optical link employing ACP-PPLL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 1086–1094 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. H. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, N. Nunoya, J. Klamkin, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Linear phase demodulation using an integrated coherent receiver with an ultra-compact grating beam splitter,” in Device Research Conference Technical Digest (IEEE, 2009), p. 223.
  13. A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. Klamkin, H.-F. Chou, C. Sheldon, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated coherent receivers for high-linearity microwave photonic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 209–216 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, and P. R. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Jin, L. Xu, P. Herczfeld, A. Bhardwaj, and Y. Li, “Recent progress in attenuation counterpropagating optical phase-locked loops for high-dynamic-range radio frequency photonic links,” OSA Photon. Res. 2, B45–B53 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. Xu, S. Jin, and Y. Li, “Monolithically integrated virtual balanced ACP-OPLL for PM RF photonic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 789–796 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. Zibar, L. Johansson, H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, M. Rodwell, and J. E. Bowers, “Novel optical phase demodulator based on a sampling phase-locked loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 686–688 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. Ding, L. Xu, and Y. Li, “Stability, noise, and nonlinear distortion analysis of a sampling OPLL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2783–2790 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

2014 (1)

S. Jin, L. Xu, P. Herczfeld, A. Bhardwaj, and Y. Li, “Recent progress in attenuation counterpropagating optical phase-locked loops for high-dynamic-range radio frequency photonic links,” OSA Photon. Res. 2, B45–B53 (2014).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, and P. R. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Zibar, L. Johansson, H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, M. Rodwell, and J. E. Bowers, “Novel optical phase demodulator based on a sampling phase-locked loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 686–688 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

1999 (1)

E. Ackerman, “Broad-band linearization of a Mach-Zehnder electrooptic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2271–2279 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. H. Schaffner and W. B. Bridges, “Intermodulation distortion in high dynamic range microwave fiber-optic links with linearized modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 3–6 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ackerman, E.

E. Ackerman, “Broad-band linearization of a Mach-Zehnder electrooptic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2271–2279 (1999).
[Crossref]

E. Ackerman and C. H. Cox, “Effect of pilot tone-based modulator bias control on external modulation link performance,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2000), pp. 121–124.

Bhardwaj, A.

S. Jin, L. Xu, P. Herczfeld, A. Bhardwaj, and Y. Li, “Recent progress in attenuation counterpropagating optical phase-locked loops for high-dynamic-range radio frequency photonic links,” OSA Photon. Res. 2, B45–B53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, and P. R. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J.

Y. Li, R. Wang, J. Klamkin, S. Madison, P. Juodawlkis, P. R. Herczfeld, and J. Bowers, “Delay of counter-propagating photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2099–2104 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.

Bowers, J. E.

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, and P. R. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. Klamkin, H.-F. Chou, C. Sheldon, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated coherent receivers for high-linearity microwave photonic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 209–216 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Zibar, L. Johansson, H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, M. Rodwell, and J. E. Bowers, “Novel optical phase demodulator based on a sampling phase-locked loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 686–688 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, N. Nunoya, J. Klamkin, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Linear phase demodulation using an integrated coherent receiver with an ultra-compact grating beam splitter,” in Device Research Conference Technical Digest (IEEE, 2009), p. 223.

Bridges, W. B.

J. H. Schaffner and W. B. Bridges, “Intermodulation distortion in high dynamic range microwave fiber-optic links with linearized modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 3–6 (1993).
[Crossref]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, N. Nunoya, J. Klamkin, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Linear phase demodulation using an integrated coherent receiver with an ultra-compact grating beam splitter,” in Device Research Conference Technical Digest (IEEE, 2009), p. 223.

Chou, H.

D. Zibar, L. Johansson, H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, M. Rodwell, and J. E. Bowers, “Novel optical phase demodulator based on a sampling phase-locked loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 686–688 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chou, H.-F.

Coldren, L.

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, and P. R. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.

Coldren, L. A.

A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. Klamkin, H.-F. Chou, C. Sheldon, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated coherent receivers for high-linearity microwave photonic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 209–216 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, N. Nunoya, J. Klamkin, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Linear phase demodulation using an integrated coherent receiver with an ultra-compact grating beam splitter,” in Device Research Conference Technical Digest (IEEE, 2009), p. 223.

Cox, C. H.

E. Ackerman and C. H. Cox, “Effect of pilot tone-based modulator bias control on external modulation link performance,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2000), pp. 121–124.

Dais, R.

J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.

Ding, D.

Goldwasser, S.

Y. Li, D. Yoo, P. Herczfeld, A. Rosen, A. Madjar, and S. Goldwasser, “Receiver for a coherent fiber-optic link with high dynamic range and low noise figure,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2000), p. 273.

Herczfeld, P.

S. Jin, L. Xu, P. Herczfeld, A. Bhardwaj, and Y. Li, “Recent progress in attenuation counterpropagating optical phase-locked loops for high-dynamic-range radio frequency photonic links,” OSA Photon. Res. 2, B45–B53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, D. Yoo, P. Herczfeld, A. Rosen, A. Madjar, and S. Goldwasser, “Receiver for a coherent fiber-optic link with high dynamic range and low noise figure,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2000), p. 273.

Herczfeld, P. R.

Jin, S.

L. Xu, S. Jin, and Y. Li, “Monolithically integrated virtual balanced ACP-OPLL for PM RF photonic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 789–796 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Jin, L. Xu, P. Herczfeld, A. Bhardwaj, and Y. Li, “Recent progress in attenuation counterpropagating optical phase-locked loops for high-dynamic-range radio frequency photonic links,” OSA Photon. Res. 2, B45–B53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, and P. R. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[Crossref]

Johansson, L.

D. Zibar, L. Johansson, H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, M. Rodwell, and J. E. Bowers, “Novel optical phase demodulator based on a sampling phase-locked loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 686–688 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.

Johansson, L. A.

A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. Klamkin, H.-F. Chou, C. Sheldon, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated coherent receivers for high-linearity microwave photonic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 209–216 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, N. Nunoya, J. Klamkin, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Linear phase demodulation using an integrated coherent receiver with an ultra-compact grating beam splitter,” in Device Research Conference Technical Digest (IEEE, 2009), p. 223.

Juodawlkis, P.

Klamkin, J.

Y. Li, R. Wang, J. Klamkin, S. Madison, P. Juodawlkis, P. R. Herczfeld, and J. Bowers, “Delay of counter-propagating photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2099–2104 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. Klamkin, H.-F. Chou, C. Sheldon, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated coherent receivers for high-linearity microwave photonic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 209–216 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, N. Nunoya, J. Klamkin, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Linear phase demodulation using an integrated coherent receiver with an ultra-compact grating beam splitter,” in Device Research Conference Technical Digest (IEEE, 2009), p. 223.

J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.

Lembo, L.

J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.

Li, Y.

L. Xu, S. Jin, and Y. Li, “Monolithically integrated virtual balanced ACP-OPLL for PM RF photonic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 789–796 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Ding, L. Xu, and Y. Li, “Stability, noise, and nonlinear distortion analysis of a sampling OPLL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2783–2790 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Jin, L. Xu, P. Herczfeld, A. Bhardwaj, and Y. Li, “Recent progress in attenuation counterpropagating optical phase-locked loops for high-dynamic-range radio frequency photonic links,” OSA Photon. Res. 2, B45–B53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, and P. R. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, R. Wang, J. Klamkin, S. Madison, P. Juodawlkis, P. R. Herczfeld, and J. Bowers, “Delay of counter-propagating photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2099–2104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Li and P. R. Herczfeld, “Coherent PM optical link employing ACP-PPLL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 1086–1094 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Li and P. R. Herczfeld, “Novel attenuation-counter-propagating phase modulator for highly fiber-optic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3709–3718 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, D. Yoo, P. Herczfeld, A. Rosen, A. Madjar, and S. Goldwasser, “Receiver for a coherent fiber-optic link with high dynamic range and low noise figure,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2000), p. 273.

Ly, P.

J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.

Madison, S.

Madjar, A.

Y. Li, D. Yoo, P. Herczfeld, A. Rosen, A. Madjar, and S. Goldwasser, “Receiver for a coherent fiber-optic link with high dynamic range and low noise figure,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2000), p. 273.

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nunoya, N.

C. H. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, N. Nunoya, J. Klamkin, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Linear phase demodulation using an integrated coherent receiver with an ultra-compact grating beam splitter,” in Device Research Conference Technical Digest (IEEE, 2009), p. 223.

Ramaswamy, A.

A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, J. Klamkin, H.-F. Chou, C. Sheldon, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, and J. E. Bowers, “Integrated coherent receivers for high-linearity microwave photonic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 209–216 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Zibar, L. Johansson, H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, M. Rodwell, and J. E. Bowers, “Novel optical phase demodulator based on a sampling phase-locked loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 686–688 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, N. Nunoya, J. Klamkin, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Linear phase demodulation using an integrated coherent receiver with an ultra-compact grating beam splitter,” in Device Research Conference Technical Digest (IEEE, 2009), p. 223.

J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.

Rodwell, M.

D. Zibar, L. Johansson, H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, M. Rodwell, and J. E. Bowers, “Novel optical phase demodulator based on a sampling phase-locked loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 686–688 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.

Rodwell, M. J.

Rosen, A.

Y. Li, D. Yoo, P. Herczfeld, A. Rosen, A. Madjar, and S. Goldwasser, “Receiver for a coherent fiber-optic link with high dynamic range and low noise figure,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2000), p. 273.

Schaffner, J. H.

J. H. Schaffner and W. B. Bridges, “Intermodulation distortion in high dynamic range microwave fiber-optic links with linearized modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 3–6 (1993).
[Crossref]

Scott, D.

J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.

Seeds, A. J.

Sheldon, C.

Sysak, M.

J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.

Wang, R.

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, and P. R. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, R. Wang, J. Klamkin, S. Madison, P. Juodawlkis, P. R. Herczfeld, and J. Bowers, “Delay of counter-propagating photodiodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 2099–2104 (2010).
[Crossref]

Willams, K. J.

Xu, L.

D. Ding, L. Xu, and Y. Li, “Stability, noise, and nonlinear distortion analysis of a sampling OPLL,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 2783–2790 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, S. Jin, and Y. Li, “Monolithically integrated virtual balanced ACP-OPLL for PM RF photonic links,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36, 789–796 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Jin, L. Xu, P. Herczfeld, A. Bhardwaj, and Y. Li, “Recent progress in attenuation counterpropagating optical phase-locked loops for high-dynamic-range radio frequency photonic links,” OSA Photon. Res. 2, B45–B53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Yoo, D.

Y. Li, D. Yoo, P. Herczfeld, A. Rosen, A. Madjar, and S. Goldwasser, “Receiver for a coherent fiber-optic link with high dynamic range and low noise figure,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2000), p. 273.

Yoshimitsu, R.

J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.

Zibar, D.

D. Zibar, L. Johansson, H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, M. Rodwell, and J. E. Bowers, “Novel optical phase demodulator based on a sampling phase-locked loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 686–688 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Li, A. Bhardwaj, R. Wang, S. Jin, L. Coldren, J. E. Bowers, and P. R. Herczfeld, “A monolithically integrated ACP-OPLL receiver for RF/photonic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1475–1477 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Zibar, L. Johansson, H. Chou, A. Ramaswamy, M. Rodwell, and J. E. Bowers, “Novel optical phase demodulator based on a sampling phase-locked loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 686–688 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

E. Ackerman, “Broad-band linearization of a Mach-Zehnder electrooptic modulator,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2271–2279 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (9)

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics 1, 319–330 (2007).
[Crossref]

OSA Photon. Res. (1)

S. Jin, L. Xu, P. Herczfeld, A. Bhardwaj, and Y. Li, “Recent progress in attenuation counterpropagating optical phase-locked loops for high-dynamic-range radio frequency photonic links,” OSA Photon. Res. 2, B45–B53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

Y. Li, D. Yoo, P. Herczfeld, A. Rosen, A. Madjar, and S. Goldwasser, “Receiver for a coherent fiber-optic link with high dynamic range and low noise figure,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2000), p. 273.

J. Bowers, A. Ramaswamy, L. Johansson, J. Klamkin, M. Sysak, D. Zibar, L. Coldren, M. Rodwell, L. Lembo, R. Yoshimitsu, D. Scott, R. Dais, and P. Ly, “Linear coherent receiver based on a broadband and sampling optical phase-locked loop,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2007), p. 225.

E. Ackerman and C. H. Cox, “Effect of pilot tone-based modulator bias control on external modulation link performance,” in International Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics Technical Digest (IEEE, 2000), pp. 121–124.

C. H. Chen, A. Ramaswamy, L. A. Johansson, N. Nunoya, J. Klamkin, J. E. Bowers, and L. A. Coldren, “Linear phase demodulation using an integrated coherent receiver with an ultra-compact grating beam splitter,” in Device Research Conference Technical Digest (IEEE, 2009), p. 223.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. High dynamic range phase-modulated RF/photonic link with an optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) phase demodulator.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. OPLL PIC layout. The PIC contains a pair of 2.2 mm long ACP MQW local phase modulators, a 0.66 mm long MMI 3 dB optical coupler, and a 0.2 mm long waveguide UTC photodetector pair. Metal traces connected the photodetector and modulator electrodes to complete the feedback.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. OPLL PIC fabrication flow. (a) PD region definition; (b) P-cladding layer regrow; (c) optical ridge waveguide etch; (d) p-mesa etch and n-metal deposition; (e) proton implantation and selective top p-contact layer removal; (f) n-mesa etch; (g) p-metal deposition; (h) thick dielectric film deposition; (i) via opening; (j) thick interconnect metal deposition.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SEM images of the PIC’s (a) modulator and (b) photodetector regions after vias were opened on the thick dielectric film, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Fabricated OPLL PICs mounted on AlN carrier.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. RF reflection coefficient measurement and extrapolation of the OPLL’s lumped element model. (a) RF reflection coefficients; (b) the OPLL’s lumped element model.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. OPLL PIC measurement setup. The PD bias was 7V. Each PD generates a photocurrent of 45 mA.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Two tone intermodulation distortion measurement outcome with 14 dBm RF input per tone at 500 MHz. (a) OPLL PIC output; (b) output intermodulation distortion of a reference MZ modulator under the identical modulation index condition.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. OPLL PIC OIP3, noise floor, and SFDR measurement at 500 MHz.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Frequency-dependent SFDR performance. (a) The shot-noise-limited SFDR of the OPLL PIC; (b) the SFDR of the PM link with the OPLL PIC phase demodulator.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕIP3_OPLL=4·|1+G(ω0)|3rad·rms,
G0(ω)=2·HACPPM(ω)·RPD(ω)·ZPD(ω)·Popt,
δθn=e/IPD,
SFDR=403·log10ϕIP3_OPLLδθn.
Rs6.5OhmC_PD+C_mod2.9pF.
BW=1(Rs+R_load)·(C_mod+C_PD)·2·π970MHz.
δθn=e/IPD=1.88×109rad·rms/Hz.
ϕIP3_OPLL=44.6×π/6=7.44πrad·rms.
SFDR=403·log10ϕIP3_OPLLδθn=134.6dB×Hz2/3.

Metrics