Abstract

New insights into the laser dynamics of interband cascade lasers reveal the possibility to generate frequency-modulated combs by utilizing their inherent gain nonlinearity. The resulting comb state is characterized by chirped instantaneous frequency, which appears to be universal to frequency combs based on gain-induced four-wave mixing. The fast dynamics in the injectors further allow the realization of exceptionally sensitive and high-speed photodetectors, operating at room temperature, using the very same epilayer structure. With the capability of integrating frequency combs and ultra-fast detectors on a single chip consuming less than a watt of electric power, interband cascade laser technology provides a complete and unmatched platform for future monolithic and battery-driven dual-comb spectrometers.

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References

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2018 (7)

B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562, 401–405 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Feng, L. Shterengas, T. Hosoda, A. Belyanin, and G. Kipshidze, “Passive mode-locking of 3.25  μm GaSb-based cascade diode lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4978–4985 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm,” Nat. Photonics 12, 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Bagheri, C. Frez, L. A. Sterczewski, I. Gruidin, M. Fradet, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, and J. R. Meyer, “Passively mode-locked interband cascade optical frequency combs,” Sci. Rep. 8, 3322 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Hillbrand, A. M. Andrews, H. Detz, G. Strasser, and B. Schwarz, “Coherent injection locking of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13, 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Piccardo, D. Kazakov, N. A. Rubin, P. Chevalier, Y. Wang, F. Xie, K. Lascola, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Time-dependent population inversion gratings in laser frequency combs,” Optica 5, 475–478 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Singleton, P. Jouy, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Evidence of linear chirp in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 5, 948–953 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

Y. Yang, D. Burghoff, J. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Achieving comb formation over the entire lasing range of quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 42, 3888–3891 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. A. Sterczewski, J. Westberg, C. L. Patrick, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and G. Wysocki, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 57, 011014 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, C. A. Wang, L. Missaggia, T. S. Mansuripur, P. Chevalier, M. K. Connors, D. McNulty, J. Cederberg, G. Strasser, and F. Capasso, “Watt-level continuous-wave emission from a bifunctional quantum cascade laser/detector,” ACS Photon. 4, 1225–1231 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, A. Harrer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “The limit of quantum cascade detectors: a single period device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 061107 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, G. Villares, L. Bosco, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip, self-detected terahertz dual-comb source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 171104 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lotfi, L. Li, S. M. S. Rassel, R. Q. Yang, C. J. Corrége, M. B. Johnson, P. R. Larson, and J. A. Gupta, “Monolithically integrated mid-IR interband cascade laser and photodetector operating at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151111 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lotfi, L. Li, L. Lei, H. Ye, S. M. S. Rassel, Y. Jiang, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. A. Gupta, and M. B. Johnson, “High-frequency operation of a mid-infrared interband cascade system at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 201101 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3, 414–426 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. G. Schunemann, K. T. Zawilski, L. A. Pomeranz, D. J. Creeden, and P. A. Budni, “Advances in nonlinear optical crystals for mid-infrared coherent sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, D36–D43 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

D. Burghoff, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Evaluating the coherence and time-domain profile of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Opt. Express 23, 1190–1202 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with 10 active stages,” Opt. Express 23, 9664–9672 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, C. D. Merritt, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and M. Kim, “Interband cascade lasers with > 40% continuous-wave wallplug efficiency at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 121102 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D 48, 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

G. Villares, A. Hugi, S. Blaser, and J. Faist, “Dual-comb spectroscopy based on quantum-cascade-laser frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 5, 5192 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Burghoff, T.-Y. Kao, N. Han, C. W. I. Chan, X. Cai, Y. Yang, D. J. Hayton, J.-R. Gao, J. L. Reno, and Q. Hu, “Terahertz laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 462–467 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191109 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman, W. Bewley, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, C. Merritt, J. Abell, J. Lindle, and J. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Andriukaitis, T. Balčiūnas, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “90  GW peak power few-cycle mid-infrared pulses from an optical parametric amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 36, 2755–2757 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. T. Reid, B. J. S. Gale, and J. Sun, “Frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope phase control in femtosecond optical parametric oscillators,” Laser Phys. 18, 87–103 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

P. D. Grant, R. Dudek, M. Buchanan, and H. C. Liu, “Room-temperature heterodyne detection up to 110 GHz with a quantum-well infrared photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2218–2220 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

J. L. Bradshaw, R. Q. Yang, J. D. Bruno, J. T. Pham, and D. E. Wortman, “High-efficiency interband cascade lasers with peak power exceeding 4  w/facet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2362–2364 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

R. Q. Yang and S. S. Pei, “Novel type-II quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8197–8203 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

H. Liu, G. Jenkins, E. Brown, K. McIntosh, K. Nichols, and M. Manfra, “Optical heterodyne detection and microwave rectification up to 26 GHz using quantum well infrared photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 253–255 (1995).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

Abell, J.

M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with 10 active stages,” Opt. Express 23, 9664–9672 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D 48, 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman, W. Bewley, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, C. Merritt, J. Abell, J. Lindle, and J. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

Ališauskas, S.

Andrews, A. M.

J. Hillbrand, A. M. Andrews, H. Detz, G. Strasser, and B. Schwarz, “Coherent injection locking of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13, 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, A. Harrer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “The limit of quantum cascade detectors: a single period device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 061107 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Andriukaitis, G.

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, M.

M. Bagheri, C. Frez, L. A. Sterczewski, I. Gruidin, M. Fradet, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, and J. R. Meyer, “Passively mode-locked interband cascade optical frequency combs,” Sci. Rep. 8, 3322 (2018).
[Crossref]

Balciunas, T.

Baltuška, A.

Baumann, E.

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm,” Nat. Photonics 12, 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

Baumgartner, O.

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

M. Singleton, P. Jouy, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Evidence of linear chirp in mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers,” Optica 5, 948–953 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, G. Villares, L. Bosco, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip, self-detected terahertz dual-comb source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 171104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Belyanin, A.

T. Feng, L. Shterengas, T. Hosoda, A. Belyanin, and G. Kipshidze, “Passive mode-locking of 3.25  μm GaSb-based cascade diode lasers,” ACS Photon. 5, 4978–4985 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Piccardo, D. Kazakov, N. A. Rubin, P. Chevalier, Y. Wang, F. Xie, K. Lascola, A. Belyanin, and F. Capasso, “Time-dependent population inversion gratings in laser frequency combs,” Optica 5, 475–478 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bewley, W.

I. Vurgaftman, W. Bewley, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, C. Merritt, J. Abell, J. Lindle, and J. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bewley, W. W.

M. Bagheri, C. Frez, L. A. Sterczewski, I. Gruidin, M. Fradet, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, and J. R. Meyer, “Passively mode-locked interband cascade optical frequency combs,” Sci. Rep. 8, 3322 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. A. Sterczewski, J. Westberg, C. L. Patrick, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and G. Wysocki, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 57, 011014 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, C. D. Merritt, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and M. Kim, “Interband cascade lasers with > 40% continuous-wave wallplug efficiency at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 121102 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D 48, 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

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T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332, 555–559 (2011).
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I. Vurgaftman, W. Bewley, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, C. Merritt, J. Abell, J. Lindle, and J. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
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B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562, 401–405 (2018).
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H. Liu, G. Jenkins, E. Brown, K. McIntosh, K. Nichols, and M. Manfra, “Optical heterodyne detection and microwave rectification up to 26 GHz using quantum well infrared photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 253–255 (1995).
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H. Lotfi, L. Li, S. M. S. Rassel, R. Q. Yang, C. J. Corrége, M. B. Johnson, P. R. Larson, and J. A. Gupta, “Monolithically integrated mid-IR interband cascade laser and photodetector operating at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151111 (2016).
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B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, A. Harrer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “The limit of quantum cascade detectors: a single period device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 061107 (2017).
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H. Liu, G. Jenkins, E. Brown, K. McIntosh, K. Nichols, and M. Manfra, “Optical heterodyne detection and microwave rectification up to 26 GHz using quantum well infrared photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 253–255 (1995).
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B. Schwarz, C. A. Wang, L. Missaggia, T. S. Mansuripur, P. Chevalier, M. K. Connors, D. McNulty, J. Cederberg, G. Strasser, and F. Capasso, “Watt-level continuous-wave emission from a bifunctional quantum cascade laser/detector,” ACS Photon. 4, 1225–1231 (2017).
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M. Bagheri, C. Frez, L. A. Sterczewski, I. Gruidin, M. Fradet, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, and J. R. Meyer, “Passively mode-locked interband cascade optical frequency combs,” Sci. Rep. 8, 3322 (2018).
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M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with 10 active stages,” Opt. Express 23, 9664–9672 (2015).
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I. Vurgaftman, W. Bewley, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, C. Merritt, J. Abell, J. Lindle, and J. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
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M. Bagheri, C. Frez, L. A. Sterczewski, I. Gruidin, M. Fradet, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, and J. R. Meyer, “Passively mode-locked interband cascade optical frequency combs,” Sci. Rep. 8, 3322 (2018).
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L. A. Sterczewski, J. Westberg, C. L. Patrick, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and G. Wysocki, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 57, 011014 (2017).
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C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, C. D. Merritt, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and M. Kim, “Interband cascade lasers with > 40% continuous-wave wallplug efficiency at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 121102 (2015).
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I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D 48, 123001 (2015).
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M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with 10 active stages,” Opt. Express 23, 9664–9672 (2015).
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H. Lotfi, L. Li, L. Lei, H. Ye, S. M. S. Rassel, Y. Jiang, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. A. Gupta, and M. B. Johnson, “High-frequency operation of a mid-infrared interband cascade system at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 201101 (2016).
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B. Schwarz, C. A. Wang, L. Missaggia, T. S. Mansuripur, P. Chevalier, M. K. Connors, D. McNulty, J. Cederberg, G. Strasser, and F. Capasso, “Watt-level continuous-wave emission from a bifunctional quantum cascade laser/detector,” ACS Photon. 4, 1225–1231 (2017).
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Newbury, N.

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H. Liu, G. Jenkins, E. Brown, K. McIntosh, K. Nichols, and M. Manfra, “Optical heterodyne detection and microwave rectification up to 26 GHz using quantum well infrared photodetectors,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 16, 253–255 (1995).
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B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562, 401–405 (2018).
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N. Opačak and B. Schwarz, “Theory of frequency modulated combs in lasers with spatial hole burning, dispersion and Kerr,” arXiv:1905.13635v2 (2019).

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L. A. Sterczewski, J. Westberg, C. L. Patrick, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and G. Wysocki, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 57, 011014 (2017).
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R. Q. Yang and S. S. Pei, “Novel type-II quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8197–8203 (1996).
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J. L. Bradshaw, R. Q. Yang, J. D. Bruno, J. T. Pham, and D. E. Wortman, “High-efficiency interband cascade lasers with peak power exceeding 4  w/facet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2362–2364 (1999).
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Popmintchev, T.

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H. Lotfi, L. Li, S. M. S. Rassel, R. Q. Yang, C. J. Corrége, M. B. Johnson, P. R. Larson, and J. A. Gupta, “Monolithically integrated mid-IR interband cascade laser and photodetector operating at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151111 (2016).
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H. Lotfi, L. Li, L. Lei, H. Ye, S. M. S. Rassel, Y. Jiang, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. A. Gupta, and M. B. Johnson, “High-frequency operation of a mid-infrared interband cascade system at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 201101 (2016).
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D. T. Reid, B. J. S. Gale, and J. Sun, “Frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope phase control in femtosecond optical parametric oscillators,” Laser Phys. 18, 87–103 (2008).
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B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, A. Harrer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “The limit of quantum cascade detectors: a single period device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 061107 (2017).
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B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
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B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191109 (2012).
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B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
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H. Lotfi, L. Li, L. Lei, H. Ye, S. M. S. Rassel, Y. Jiang, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. A. Gupta, and M. B. Johnson, “High-frequency operation of a mid-infrared interband cascade system at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 201101 (2016).
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M. Rösch, G. Scalari, G. Villares, L. Bosco, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip, self-detected terahertz dual-comb source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 171104 (2016).
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A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6, 440–449 (2012).
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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
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B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, A. Harrer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “The limit of quantum cascade detectors: a single period device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 061107 (2017).
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B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
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Schwarz, B.

J. Hillbrand, A. M. Andrews, H. Detz, G. Strasser, and B. Schwarz, “Coherent injection locking of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13, 101–104 (2018).
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B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, A. Harrer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “The limit of quantum cascade detectors: a single period device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 061107 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, C. A. Wang, L. Missaggia, T. S. Mansuripur, P. Chevalier, M. K. Connors, D. McNulty, J. Cederberg, G. Strasser, and F. Capasso, “Watt-level continuous-wave emission from a bifunctional quantum cascade laser/detector,” ACS Photon. 4, 1225–1231 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191109 (2012).
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N. Opačak and B. Schwarz, “Theory of frequency modulated combs in lasers with spatial hole burning, dispersion and Kerr,” arXiv:1905.13635v2 (2019).

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[Crossref]

L. A. Sterczewski, J. Westberg, C. L. Patrick, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and G. Wysocki, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 57, 011014 (2017).
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B. Stern, X. Ji, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Battery-operated integrated frequency comb generator,” Nature 562, 401–405 (2018).
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J. Hillbrand, A. M. Andrews, H. Detz, G. Strasser, and B. Schwarz, “Coherent injection locking of quantum cascade laser frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 13, 101–104 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, A. Harrer, D. MacFarland, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “The limit of quantum cascade detectors: a single period device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 061107 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, C. A. Wang, L. Missaggia, T. S. Mansuripur, P. Chevalier, M. K. Connors, D. McNulty, J. Cederberg, G. Strasser, and F. Capasso, “Watt-level continuous-wave emission from a bifunctional quantum cascade laser/detector,” ACS Photon. 4, 1225–1231 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, D. Ristanić, H. Detz, A. M. Andrews, W. Schrenk, and G. Strasser, “Monolithically integrated mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip using plasmonics and quantum cascade structures,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4085 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Schwarz, P. Reininger, H. Detz, T. Zederbauer, A. M. Andrews, S. Kalchmair, W. Schrenk, O. Baumgartner, H. Kosina, and G. Strasser, “A bi-functional quantum cascade device for same-frequency lasing and detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 191109 (2012).
[Crossref]

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D. T. Reid, B. J. S. Gale, and J. Sun, “Frequency comb generation and carrier-envelope phase control in femtosecond optical parametric oscillators,” Laser Phys. 18, 87–103 (2008).
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Villares, G.

M. Rösch, G. Scalari, G. Villares, L. Bosco, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “On-chip, self-detected terahertz dual-comb source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 171104 (2016).
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A. Hugi, G. Villares, S. Blaser, H. C. Liu, and J. Faist, “Mid-infrared frequency comb based on a quantum cascade laser,” Nature 492, 229–233 (2012).
[Crossref]

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M. Bagheri, C. Frez, L. A. Sterczewski, I. Gruidin, M. Fradet, I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, and J. R. Meyer, “Passively mode-locked interband cascade optical frequency combs,” Sci. Rep. 8, 3322 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. A. Sterczewski, J. Westberg, C. L. Patrick, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and G. Wysocki, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 57, 011014 (2017).
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C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, C. D. Merritt, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and M. Kim, “Interband cascade lasers with > 40% continuous-wave wallplug efficiency at cryogenic temperatures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 121102 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D 48, 123001 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with 10 active stages,” Opt. Express 23, 9664–9672 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Vurgaftman, W. Bewley, C. Canedy, C. Kim, M. Kim, C. Merritt, J. Abell, J. Lindle, and J. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nat. Commun. 2, 585 (2011).
[Crossref]

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B. Schwarz, C. A. Wang, L. Missaggia, T. S. Mansuripur, P. Chevalier, M. K. Connors, D. McNulty, J. Cederberg, G. Strasser, and F. Capasso, “Watt-level continuous-wave emission from a bifunctional quantum cascade laser/detector,” ACS Photon. 4, 1225–1231 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Weih, R.

I. Vurgaftman, R. Weih, M. Kamp, J. R. Meyer, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and S. Höfling, “Interband cascade lasers,” J. Phys. D 48, 123001 (2015).
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L. A. Sterczewski, J. Westberg, C. L. Patrick, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and G. Wysocki, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 57, 011014 (2017).
[Crossref]

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P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450, 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref]

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J. L. Bradshaw, R. Q. Yang, J. D. Bruno, J. T. Pham, and D. E. Wortman, “High-efficiency interband cascade lasers with peak power exceeding 4  w/facet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2362–2364 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wysocki, G.

L. A. Sterczewski, J. Westberg, C. L. Patrick, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, C. D. Merritt, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, and G. Wysocki, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy using interband cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 57, 011014 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xie, F.

Yang, R. Q.

H. Lotfi, L. Li, S. M. S. Rassel, R. Q. Yang, C. J. Corrége, M. B. Johnson, P. R. Larson, and J. A. Gupta, “Monolithically integrated mid-IR interband cascade laser and photodetector operating at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 151111 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Lotfi, L. Li, L. Lei, H. Ye, S. M. S. Rassel, Y. Jiang, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. A. Gupta, and M. B. Johnson, “High-frequency operation of a mid-infrared interband cascade system at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 201101 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. L. Bradshaw, R. Q. Yang, J. D. Bruno, J. T. Pham, and D. E. Wortman, “High-efficiency interband cascade lasers with peak power exceeding 4  w/facet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2362–2364 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Q. Yang and S. S. Pei, “Novel type-II quantum cascade lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8197–8203 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Ycas, G.

G. Ycas, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, I. Coddington, D. Herman, S. A. Diddams, and N. R. Newbury, “High-coherence mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy spanning 2.6 to 5.2 μm,” Nat. Photonics 12, 202–208 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ye, H.

H. Lotfi, L. Li, L. Lei, H. Ye, S. M. S. Rassel, Y. Jiang, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. A. Gupta, and M. B. Johnson, “High-frequency operation of a mid-infrared interband cascade system at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 201101 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. ICL frequency comb. (a) Frequency-modulation capabilities of the optimized devices measured optically via a fast QWIP (red) and electrically via RF rectification [22] (blue). The black curve is corrected by the contribution due to the parasitic capacitance of the ICL and QWIP response to extract the portion due to the response of the gain medium. Inset: sketch of the two-section device. (b) The spectral lines of the ICL beat together, leading to a modulation of the laser intensity at the cavity round-trip frequency. The resulting electrical beat note can be measured by recording the RF spectrum of the absorber current and tunes with the absorber bias. Regions of self-starting comb operation are highlighted by the rectangles. (c) Narrow electrical beat note with a linewidth of 4 kHz. (d, e) Shifted Wave Intermode Beat Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (SWIFTS) analysis and corresponding time-domain signal of the ICL frequency comb. The intermode difference phases cover the range from π to π. This and the minimum in the SWIFTS interferograms at zero-phase are characteristic for the suppression of amplitude modulation. The spectrum consists of 114 modes spaced by frep0=10.17GHz. The mode grouping might be due to parasitic reflections in the two-section laser. (f) Time-domain signal of a QCL frequency comb [23]. Irrespective of the sign, the both combs show the same characteristic dominantly frequency-modulated output. This suggests that the ICL frequency comb is indeed governed by the inherent gain nonlinearity, which is connected to the suppression of amplitude modulations.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Coherent injection-locking and on-chip detection capabilities. (a) Optical beat note spectrum of the ICL depending on the injection frequency for three different injection powers. The large locking range is due to the optimized RF injection. (b, c) Intensity and SWIFTS spectral maps at 5 dB injection power as a function of the injection frequency. (d) Spectral responsivity and noise equivalent power of the on-chip interband cascade detector (ICD), which was cleaved from the same chip. (e) Direct modulation response of the ICL measured with the ICD. (f) Narrow beat note of the ICL comb measured with the ICD. (frep0=10.17GHz).

Tables (1)

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Table 1. The Presented ICL Frequency Comb Platform is the Only Available Mid-Infrared Technology that Meets All Requirements to Build Ultra-Compact and Battery-Driven Dual-Comb Spectrometers

Equations (2)

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F(X+iY)(τ)=nAnAn1[cos(ωrτ2)+cos(ωn1/2τ)].
c=|AnAn1e(i(φnφn1))||An||An1|,