Abstract

Atomic defects in wide-bandgap materials, such as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in diamond, show considerable promise for the development of a new generation of quantum information technologies, but progress has been hampered by the inability to produce and engineer the defects in a controlled manner. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical method for the deterministic writing of individual NV centers at selected locations with high positioning accuracy. Ultrashort pulse laser processing is used to both create and diffuse defects inside the crystal through local annealing. During the laser-annealing process, online fluorescence feedback provides a trigger to stop processing once the NV formation is detected. This method provides a new tool for the optical fabrication of engineered materials and devices for quantum technologies.

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References

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2018 (3)

2017 (2)

V. V. Kononenko, I. I. Vlasov, V. M. Gololobov, T. V. Kononenko, T. A. Semenov, A. A. Khomich, V. A. Shershulin, V. S. Krivobok, and V. I. Konov, “Nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond produced by femtosecond laser nanoablation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081101 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Chen, P. S. Salter, S. Knauer, L. Weng, A. C. Frangeskou, C. J. Stephen, S. N. Ishmael, P. R. Dolan, S. Johnson, B. L. Green, G. W. Morley, M. E. Newton, J. G. Rarity, M. J. Booth, and J. M. Smith, “Laser writing of coherent colour centers in diamond,” Nat. Photonics 11, 77–80 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

S. Lagomarsino, S. Sciortino, B. Obreshkov, T. Apostolova, C. Corsi, M. Bellini, E. Berdermann, and C. J. Schmidt, “Photoionization of monocrystalline CVD diamond irradiated with ultrashort intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 085128 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. A. McLellan, B. A. Myers, S. Kraemer, K. Ohno, D. D. Awschalom, and A. C. Bleszynski Jayich, “Patterned formation of highly coherent nitrogen-vacancy centers using a focused electron irradiation technique,” Nano Lett. 16, 2450–2454 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Scarabelli, M. Trusheim, O. Gaathon, D. Englund, and S. J. Wind, “Nanoscale engineering of closely-spaced electronic spins in diamond,” Nano Lett. 16, 4982–4990 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Courvoisier, M. J. Booth, and P. S. Salter, “Inscription of 3D waveguides in diamond using an ultrafast laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 031109 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Sotillo, V. Bharadwaj, J. P. Hadden, M. Sakakura, A. Chiappini, T. T. Fernandez, S. Longhi, O. Jedrkiewicz, Y. Shimotsuma, L. Criante, R. Osellame, G. Galzerano, M. Ferrari, K. Miura, R. Ramponi, P. E. Barclay, and S. M. Eaton, “Diamond photonics platform enabled by femtosecond laser writing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35566 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

R. Buividas, I. Aharonovich, G. Seniutinas, X. W. Wang, L. Rapp, A. V. Rode, T. Taniguchi, and S. Juodkazis, “Photoluminescence from voids created by femtosecond-laser pulses inside cubic-BN,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5711–5713 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Rong, J. Geng, F. Shi, Y. Liu, K. Xu, W. Ma, F. Kong, Z. Jiang, Y. Wu, and J. Du, “Experimental fault-tolerant universal quantum gates with solid-state spins under ambient conditions,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8748 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-F. Roch, P. Maletinsky, and V. Jacques, “Magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 77, 056503 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, D. D. Awschalom, and D. Rugar, “Nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance with a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor,” Science 339, 557–560 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. Delgado and R. Vila, “Statistical molecular dynamics study of displacement energies in diamond,” J. Nuclear Mater. 419, 32–38 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. D. Simmonds, P. S. Salter, A. Jesacher, and M. J. Booth, “Three dimensional laser microfabrication in diamond using a dual adaptive optics system,” Opt. Express 19, 24122–24128 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. Simon, M. Afzelius, J. Appel, A. Boyer de la Giroday, S. J. Dewhurst, N. Gisin, C. Y. Hu, F. Jelezko, S. Kröll, J. H. Müller, J. Nunn, E. S. Polzik, J. G. Rarity, H. De Riedmatten, W. Rosenfeld, A. J. Shields, N. Sköld, R. M. Stevenson, R. Thew, I. A. Walmsley, M. C. Weber, H. Weinfurter, J. Wrachtrup, and R. J. Young, “Quantum memories,” Eur. Phys. J. D 58, 1–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. M. Toyli, C. D. Weis, G. D. Fuchs, T. Schenkel, and D. D. Awschalom, “Chip-scale nanofabrication of single spins and spin arrays in diamond,” Nano Lett. 10, 3168–3172 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, G. Tamanyan, D. N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, and J. Wrachtrup, “Implantation of labelled single nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond using 15N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 023113 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

B. Lounis and M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 1129–1179 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Meijer, B. Burchard, M. Domhan, C. Wittmann, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Generation of single colour centers by focussed nitrogen implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261909 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, A. Gruber, and J. Wrachtrup, “Observation of coherent oscillation of a single nuclear spin and realization of a two-qubit conditional quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 130501 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. J. Twitchen, D. J. Twitchen, D. C. Hunt, C. Wade, M. E. Newton, J. M. Baker, T. R. Anthony, and W. F. Banholzer, “The production and annealing stages of the self-interstitial (R2) defect in diamond,” Physica B 273, 644–646 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Gruber, A. Dräbenstedt, C. Tietz, L. Fleury, J. Wrachtrup, and C. Von Borczyskowski, “Scanning confocal optical microscopy and magnetic resonance on single defect centers,” Science 276, 2012–2014 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

G. Davies, S. C. Lawson, A. T. Collins, A. Mainwood, and S. J. Sharp, “Vacancy-related centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 13157–13170 (1992).
[Crossref]

Abellán, C.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

Afzelius, M.

C. Simon, M. Afzelius, J. Appel, A. Boyer de la Giroday, S. J. Dewhurst, N. Gisin, C. Y. Hu, F. Jelezko, S. Kröll, J. H. Müller, J. Nunn, E. S. Polzik, J. G. Rarity, H. De Riedmatten, W. Rosenfeld, A. J. Shields, N. Sköld, R. M. Stevenson, R. Thew, I. A. Walmsley, M. C. Weber, H. Weinfurter, J. Wrachtrup, and R. J. Young, “Quantum memories,” Eur. Phys. J. D 58, 1–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aharonovich, I.

Almutairi, A. F. M.

Amaya, W.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

Anthony, T. R.

D. J. Twitchen, D. J. Twitchen, D. C. Hunt, C. Wade, M. E. Newton, J. M. Baker, T. R. Anthony, and W. F. Banholzer, “The production and annealing stages of the self-interstitial (R2) defect in diamond,” Physica B 273, 644–646 (1999).
[Crossref]

Apostolova, T.

S. Lagomarsino, S. Sciortino, B. Obreshkov, T. Apostolova, C. Corsi, M. Bellini, E. Berdermann, and C. J. Schmidt, “Photoionization of monocrystalline CVD diamond irradiated with ultrashort intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 085128 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appel, J.

C. Simon, M. Afzelius, J. Appel, A. Boyer de la Giroday, S. J. Dewhurst, N. Gisin, C. Y. Hu, F. Jelezko, S. Kröll, J. H. Müller, J. Nunn, E. S. Polzik, J. G. Rarity, H. De Riedmatten, W. Rosenfeld, A. J. Shields, N. Sköld, R. M. Stevenson, R. Thew, I. A. Walmsley, M. C. Weber, H. Weinfurter, J. Wrachtrup, and R. J. Young, “Quantum memories,” Eur. Phys. J. D 58, 1–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

Armellini, C.

Awschalom, D. D.

C. A. McLellan, B. A. Myers, S. Kraemer, K. Ohno, D. D. Awschalom, and A. C. Bleszynski Jayich, “Patterned formation of highly coherent nitrogen-vacancy centers using a focused electron irradiation technique,” Nano Lett. 16, 2450–2454 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, D. D. Awschalom, and D. Rugar, “Nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance with a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor,” Science 339, 557–560 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. M. Toyli, C. D. Weis, G. D. Fuchs, T. Schenkel, and D. D. Awschalom, “Chip-scale nanofabrication of single spins and spin arrays in diamond,” Nano Lett. 10, 3168–3172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Babin, C.

Y.-C. Chen, P. S. Salter, M. Niethammer, M. Widmann, F. Kaiser, R. Nagy, N. Morioka, C. Babin, J. Erlekampf, P. Berwian, M. Booth, and J. Wrachtrup, “Laser writing of scalable single colour centre in silicon carbide,” arXiv:1812.04284 (2018).

Baker, J. M.

D. J. Twitchen, D. J. Twitchen, D. C. Hunt, C. Wade, M. E. Newton, J. M. Baker, T. R. Anthony, and W. F. Banholzer, “The production and annealing stages of the self-interstitial (R2) defect in diamond,” Physica B 273, 644–646 (1999).
[Crossref]

Banholzer, W. F.

D. J. Twitchen, D. J. Twitchen, D. C. Hunt, C. Wade, M. E. Newton, J. M. Baker, T. R. Anthony, and W. F. Banholzer, “The production and annealing stages of the self-interstitial (R2) defect in diamond,” Physica B 273, 644–646 (1999).
[Crossref]

Barclay, P. E.

J. P. Hadden, V. Bharadwaj, B. Sotillo, S. Rampini, R. Osellame, J. D. Witmer, H. Jayakumar, T. T. Fernandez, A. Chiappini, C. Armellini, M. Ferrari, R. Ramponi, P. E. Barclay, and S. M. Eaton, “Integrated waveguides and deterministically positioned nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond created by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 43, 3586–3589 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Sotillo, V. Bharadwaj, J. P. Hadden, M. Sakakura, A. Chiappini, T. T. Fernandez, S. Longhi, O. Jedrkiewicz, Y. Shimotsuma, L. Criante, R. Osellame, G. Galzerano, M. Ferrari, K. Miura, R. Ramponi, P. E. Barclay, and S. M. Eaton, “Diamond photonics platform enabled by femtosecond laser writing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35566 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bellini, M.

S. Lagomarsino, S. Sciortino, B. Obreshkov, T. Apostolova, C. Corsi, M. Bellini, E. Berdermann, and C. J. Schmidt, “Photoionization of monocrystalline CVD diamond irradiated with ultrashort intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 085128 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berdermann, E.

S. Lagomarsino, S. Sciortino, B. Obreshkov, T. Apostolova, C. Corsi, M. Bellini, E. Berdermann, and C. J. Schmidt, “Photoionization of monocrystalline CVD diamond irradiated with ultrashort intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 085128 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bernien, H.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berwian, P.

Y.-C. Chen, P. S. Salter, M. Niethammer, M. Widmann, F. Kaiser, R. Nagy, N. Morioka, C. Babin, J. Erlekampf, P. Berwian, M. Booth, and J. Wrachtrup, “Laser writing of scalable single colour centre in silicon carbide,” arXiv:1812.04284 (2018).

Bharadwaj, V.

J. P. Hadden, V. Bharadwaj, B. Sotillo, S. Rampini, R. Osellame, J. D. Witmer, H. Jayakumar, T. T. Fernandez, A. Chiappini, C. Armellini, M. Ferrari, R. Ramponi, P. E. Barclay, and S. M. Eaton, “Integrated waveguides and deterministically positioned nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond created by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 43, 3586–3589 (2018).
[Crossref]

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L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-F. Roch, P. Maletinsky, and V. Jacques, “Magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 77, 056503 (2014).
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Jamieson, D. N.

J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, G. Tamanyan, D. N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, and J. Wrachtrup, “Implantation of labelled single nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond using 15N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 023113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jayakumar, H.

Jedrkiewicz, O.

B. Sotillo, V. Bharadwaj, J. P. Hadden, M. Sakakura, A. Chiappini, T. T. Fernandez, S. Longhi, O. Jedrkiewicz, Y. Shimotsuma, L. Criante, R. Osellame, G. Galzerano, M. Ferrari, K. Miura, R. Ramponi, P. E. Barclay, and S. M. Eaton, “Diamond photonics platform enabled by femtosecond laser writing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35566 (2016).
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Jelezko, F.

C. Simon, M. Afzelius, J. Appel, A. Boyer de la Giroday, S. J. Dewhurst, N. Gisin, C. Y. Hu, F. Jelezko, S. Kröll, J. H. Müller, J. Nunn, E. S. Polzik, J. G. Rarity, H. De Riedmatten, W. Rosenfeld, A. J. Shields, N. Sköld, R. M. Stevenson, R. Thew, I. A. Walmsley, M. C. Weber, H. Weinfurter, J. Wrachtrup, and R. J. Young, “Quantum memories,” Eur. Phys. J. D 58, 1–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, G. Tamanyan, D. N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, and J. Wrachtrup, “Implantation of labelled single nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond using 15N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 023113 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Meijer, B. Burchard, M. Domhan, C. Wittmann, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Generation of single colour centers by focussed nitrogen implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261909 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, A. Gruber, and J. Wrachtrup, “Observation of coherent oscillation of a single nuclear spin and realization of a two-qubit conditional quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 130501 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jesacher, A.

Jiang, Z.

X. Rong, J. Geng, F. Shi, Y. Liu, K. Xu, W. Ma, F. Kong, Z. Jiang, Y. Wu, and J. Du, “Experimental fault-tolerant universal quantum gates with solid-state spins under ambient conditions,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8748 (2015).
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Johnson, B. C.

Johnson, S.

Y.-C. Chen, P. S. Salter, S. Knauer, L. Weng, A. C. Frangeskou, C. J. Stephen, S. N. Ishmael, P. R. Dolan, S. Johnson, B. L. Green, G. W. Morley, M. E. Newton, J. G. Rarity, M. J. Booth, and J. M. Smith, “Laser writing of coherent colour centers in diamond,” Nat. Photonics 11, 77–80 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. J. Stephen, B. L. Green, Y. N. D. Lekhai, L. Weng, P. Hill, S. Johnson, A. C. Frangeskou, P. L. Diggle, M. J. Strain, E. Gu, M. E. Newton, J. M. Smith, P. S. Salter, and G. W. Morley, “Three-dimensional solid-state qubit arrays with long-lived spin coherence,” arXiv:1807.03643 (2018).

Juodkazis, S.

Kaiser, F.

Y.-C. Chen, P. S. Salter, M. Niethammer, M. Widmann, F. Kaiser, R. Nagy, N. Morioka, C. Babin, J. Erlekampf, P. Berwian, M. Booth, and J. Wrachtrup, “Laser writing of scalable single colour centre in silicon carbide,” arXiv:1812.04284 (2018).

Kalb, N.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
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Kang, T. B.

Katkus, T.

Khomich, A. A.

V. V. Kononenko, I. I. Vlasov, V. M. Gololobov, T. V. Kononenko, T. A. Semenov, A. A. Khomich, V. A. Shershulin, V. S. Krivobok, and V. I. Konov, “Nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond produced by femtosecond laser nanoablation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081101 (2017).
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H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, D. D. Awschalom, and D. Rugar, “Nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance with a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor,” Science 339, 557–560 (2013).
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Knauer, S.

Y.-C. Chen, P. S. Salter, S. Knauer, L. Weng, A. C. Frangeskou, C. J. Stephen, S. N. Ishmael, P. R. Dolan, S. Johnson, B. L. Green, G. W. Morley, M. E. Newton, J. G. Rarity, M. J. Booth, and J. M. Smith, “Laser writing of coherent colour centers in diamond,” Nat. Photonics 11, 77–80 (2017).
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Kong, F.

X. Rong, J. Geng, F. Shi, Y. Liu, K. Xu, W. Ma, F. Kong, Z. Jiang, Y. Wu, and J. Du, “Experimental fault-tolerant universal quantum gates with solid-state spins under ambient conditions,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8748 (2015).
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Kononenko, T. V.

V. V. Kononenko, I. I. Vlasov, V. M. Gololobov, T. V. Kononenko, T. A. Semenov, A. A. Khomich, V. A. Shershulin, V. S. Krivobok, and V. I. Konov, “Nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond produced by femtosecond laser nanoablation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081101 (2017).
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V. V. Kononenko, I. I. Vlasov, V. M. Gololobov, T. V. Kononenko, T. A. Semenov, A. A. Khomich, V. A. Shershulin, V. S. Krivobok, and V. I. Konov, “Nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond produced by femtosecond laser nanoablation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081101 (2017).
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Konov, V. I.

V. V. Kononenko, I. I. Vlasov, V. M. Gololobov, T. V. Kononenko, T. A. Semenov, A. A. Khomich, V. A. Shershulin, V. S. Krivobok, and V. I. Konov, “Nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond produced by femtosecond laser nanoablation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081101 (2017).
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Kraemer, S.

C. A. McLellan, B. A. Myers, S. Kraemer, K. Ohno, D. D. Awschalom, and A. C. Bleszynski Jayich, “Patterned formation of highly coherent nitrogen-vacancy centers using a focused electron irradiation technique,” Nano Lett. 16, 2450–2454 (2016).
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Krivobok, V. S.

V. V. Kononenko, I. I. Vlasov, V. M. Gololobov, T. V. Kononenko, T. A. Semenov, A. A. Khomich, V. A. Shershulin, V. S. Krivobok, and V. I. Konov, “Nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond produced by femtosecond laser nanoablation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 081101 (2017).
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Kröll, S.

C. Simon, M. Afzelius, J. Appel, A. Boyer de la Giroday, S. J. Dewhurst, N. Gisin, C. Y. Hu, F. Jelezko, S. Kröll, J. H. Müller, J. Nunn, E. S. Polzik, J. G. Rarity, H. De Riedmatten, W. Rosenfeld, A. J. Shields, N. Sköld, R. M. Stevenson, R. Thew, I. A. Walmsley, M. C. Weber, H. Weinfurter, J. Wrachtrup, and R. J. Young, “Quantum memories,” Eur. Phys. J. D 58, 1–22 (2010).
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Kumagai, K.

Lagomarsino, S.

S. Lagomarsino, S. Sciortino, B. Obreshkov, T. Apostolova, C. Corsi, M. Bellini, E. Berdermann, and C. J. Schmidt, “Photoionization of monocrystalline CVD diamond irradiated with ultrashort intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 085128 (2016).
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G. Davies, S. C. Lawson, A. T. Collins, A. Mainwood, and S. J. Sharp, “Vacancy-related centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 13157–13170 (1992).
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Lekhai, Y. N. D.

C. J. Stephen, B. L. Green, Y. N. D. Lekhai, L. Weng, P. Hill, S. Johnson, A. C. Frangeskou, P. L. Diggle, M. J. Strain, E. Gu, M. E. Newton, J. M. Smith, P. S. Salter, and G. W. Morley, “Three-dimensional solid-state qubit arrays with long-lived spin coherence,” arXiv:1807.03643 (2018).

Liu, Y.

X. Rong, J. Geng, F. Shi, Y. Liu, K. Xu, W. Ma, F. Kong, Z. Jiang, Y. Wu, and J. Du, “Experimental fault-tolerant universal quantum gates with solid-state spins under ambient conditions,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8748 (2015).
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Longhi, S.

B. Sotillo, V. Bharadwaj, J. P. Hadden, M. Sakakura, A. Chiappini, T. T. Fernandez, S. Longhi, O. Jedrkiewicz, Y. Shimotsuma, L. Criante, R. Osellame, G. Galzerano, M. Ferrari, K. Miura, R. Ramponi, P. E. Barclay, and S. M. Eaton, “Diamond photonics platform enabled by femtosecond laser writing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35566 (2016).
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Lounis, B.

B. Lounis and M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 1129–1179 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ma, W.

X. Rong, J. Geng, F. Shi, Y. Liu, K. Xu, W. Ma, F. Kong, Z. Jiang, Y. Wu, and J. Du, “Experimental fault-tolerant universal quantum gates with solid-state spins under ambient conditions,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8748 (2015).
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Mainwood, A.

G. Davies, S. C. Lawson, A. T. Collins, A. Mainwood, and S. J. Sharp, “Vacancy-related centers in diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 13157–13170 (1992).
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Maletinsky, P.

L. Rondin, J.-P. Tetienne, T. Hingant, J.-F. Roch, P. Maletinsky, and V. Jacques, “Magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 77, 056503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mamin, H. J.

H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, D. D. Awschalom, and D. Rugar, “Nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance with a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor,” Science 339, 557–560 (2013).
[Crossref]

Markham, M.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref]

Maurice, A.

McLellan, C. A.

C. A. McLellan, B. A. Myers, S. Kraemer, K. Ohno, D. D. Awschalom, and A. C. Bleszynski Jayich, “Patterned formation of highly coherent nitrogen-vacancy centers using a focused electron irradiation technique,” Nano Lett. 16, 2450–2454 (2016).
[Crossref]

Meijer, J.

J. Meijer, B. Burchard, M. Domhan, C. Wittmann, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Generation of single colour centers by focussed nitrogen implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261909 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mitchell, M. W.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
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Miura, K.

B. Sotillo, V. Bharadwaj, J. P. Hadden, M. Sakakura, A. Chiappini, T. T. Fernandez, S. Longhi, O. Jedrkiewicz, Y. Shimotsuma, L. Criante, R. Osellame, G. Galzerano, M. Ferrari, K. Miura, R. Ramponi, P. E. Barclay, and S. M. Eaton, “Diamond photonics platform enabled by femtosecond laser writing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35566 (2016).
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Morioka, N.

Y.-C. Chen, P. S. Salter, M. Niethammer, M. Widmann, F. Kaiser, R. Nagy, N. Morioka, C. Babin, J. Erlekampf, P. Berwian, M. Booth, and J. Wrachtrup, “Laser writing of scalable single colour centre in silicon carbide,” arXiv:1812.04284 (2018).

Morley, G. W.

Y.-C. Chen, P. S. Salter, S. Knauer, L. Weng, A. C. Frangeskou, C. J. Stephen, S. N. Ishmael, P. R. Dolan, S. Johnson, B. L. Green, G. W. Morley, M. E. Newton, J. G. Rarity, M. J. Booth, and J. M. Smith, “Laser writing of coherent colour centers in diamond,” Nat. Photonics 11, 77–80 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. J. Stephen, B. L. Green, Y. N. D. Lekhai, L. Weng, P. Hill, S. Johnson, A. C. Frangeskou, P. L. Diggle, M. J. Strain, E. Gu, M. E. Newton, J. M. Smith, P. S. Salter, and G. W. Morley, “Three-dimensional solid-state qubit arrays with long-lived spin coherence,” arXiv:1807.03643 (2018).

Müller, J. H.

C. Simon, M. Afzelius, J. Appel, A. Boyer de la Giroday, S. J. Dewhurst, N. Gisin, C. Y. Hu, F. Jelezko, S. Kröll, J. H. Müller, J. Nunn, E. S. Polzik, J. G. Rarity, H. De Riedmatten, W. Rosenfeld, A. J. Shields, N. Sköld, R. M. Stevenson, R. Thew, I. A. Walmsley, M. C. Weber, H. Weinfurter, J. Wrachtrup, and R. J. Young, “Quantum memories,” Eur. Phys. J. D 58, 1–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

Myers, B. A.

C. A. McLellan, B. A. Myers, S. Kraemer, K. Ohno, D. D. Awschalom, and A. C. Bleszynski Jayich, “Patterned formation of highly coherent nitrogen-vacancy centers using a focused electron irradiation technique,” Nano Lett. 16, 2450–2454 (2016).
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Nagy, R.

Y.-C. Chen, P. S. Salter, M. Niethammer, M. Widmann, F. Kaiser, R. Nagy, N. Morioka, C. Babin, J. Erlekampf, P. Berwian, M. Booth, and J. Wrachtrup, “Laser writing of scalable single colour centre in silicon carbide,” arXiv:1812.04284 (2018).

Newton, M. E.

Y.-C. Chen, P. S. Salter, S. Knauer, L. Weng, A. C. Frangeskou, C. J. Stephen, S. N. Ishmael, P. R. Dolan, S. Johnson, B. L. Green, G. W. Morley, M. E. Newton, J. G. Rarity, M. J. Booth, and J. M. Smith, “Laser writing of coherent colour centers in diamond,” Nat. Photonics 11, 77–80 (2017).
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D. J. Twitchen, D. J. Twitchen, D. C. Hunt, C. Wade, M. E. Newton, J. M. Baker, T. R. Anthony, and W. F. Banholzer, “The production and annealing stages of the self-interstitial (R2) defect in diamond,” Physica B 273, 644–646 (1999).
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C. J. Stephen, B. L. Green, Y. N. D. Lekhai, L. Weng, P. Hill, S. Johnson, A. C. Frangeskou, P. L. Diggle, M. J. Strain, E. Gu, M. E. Newton, J. M. Smith, P. S. Salter, and G. W. Morley, “Three-dimensional solid-state qubit arrays with long-lived spin coherence,” arXiv:1807.03643 (2018).

Niethammer, M.

Y.-C. Chen, P. S. Salter, M. Niethammer, M. Widmann, F. Kaiser, R. Nagy, N. Morioka, C. Babin, J. Erlekampf, P. Berwian, M. Booth, and J. Wrachtrup, “Laser writing of scalable single colour centre in silicon carbide,” arXiv:1812.04284 (2018).

Nunn, J.

C. Simon, M. Afzelius, J. Appel, A. Boyer de la Giroday, S. J. Dewhurst, N. Gisin, C. Y. Hu, F. Jelezko, S. Kröll, J. H. Müller, J. Nunn, E. S. Polzik, J. G. Rarity, H. De Riedmatten, W. Rosenfeld, A. J. Shields, N. Sköld, R. M. Stevenson, R. Thew, I. A. Walmsley, M. C. Weber, H. Weinfurter, J. Wrachtrup, and R. J. Young, “Quantum memories,” Eur. Phys. J. D 58, 1–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

Obreshkov, B.

S. Lagomarsino, S. Sciortino, B. Obreshkov, T. Apostolova, C. Corsi, M. Bellini, E. Berdermann, and C. J. Schmidt, “Photoionization of monocrystalline CVD diamond irradiated with ultrashort intense laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 085128 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ohno, K.

C. A. McLellan, B. A. Myers, S. Kraemer, K. Ohno, D. D. Awschalom, and A. C. Bleszynski Jayich, “Patterned formation of highly coherent nitrogen-vacancy centers using a focused electron irradiation technique,” Nano Lett. 16, 2450–2454 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. J. Mamin, M. Kim, M. H. Sherwood, C. T. Rettner, K. Ohno, D. D. Awschalom, and D. Rugar, “Nanoscale nuclear magnetic resonance with a nitrogen-vacancy spin sensor,” Science 339, 557–560 (2013).
[Crossref]

Orrit, M.

B. Lounis and M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 1129–1179 (2005).
[Crossref]

Osellame, R.

J. P. Hadden, V. Bharadwaj, B. Sotillo, S. Rampini, R. Osellame, J. D. Witmer, H. Jayakumar, T. T. Fernandez, A. Chiappini, C. Armellini, M. Ferrari, R. Ramponi, P. E. Barclay, and S. M. Eaton, “Integrated waveguides and deterministically positioned nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond created by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 43, 3586–3589 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Sotillo, V. Bharadwaj, J. P. Hadden, M. Sakakura, A. Chiappini, T. T. Fernandez, S. Longhi, O. Jedrkiewicz, Y. Shimotsuma, L. Criante, R. Osellame, G. Galzerano, M. Ferrari, K. Miura, R. Ramponi, P. E. Barclay, and S. M. Eaton, “Diamond photonics platform enabled by femtosecond laser writing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35566 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pfaff, W.

W. Pfaff, B. J. Hensen, H. Bernien, S. B. Van Dam, M. S. Blok, T. H. Taminiau, M. J. Tiggelman, R. N. Schouten, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, and R. Hanson, “Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits,” Science 345, 532–535 (2014).
[Crossref]

Polzik, E. S.

C. Simon, M. Afzelius, J. Appel, A. Boyer de la Giroday, S. J. Dewhurst, N. Gisin, C. Y. Hu, F. Jelezko, S. Kröll, J. H. Müller, J. Nunn, E. S. Polzik, J. G. Rarity, H. De Riedmatten, W. Rosenfeld, A. J. Shields, N. Sköld, R. M. Stevenson, R. Thew, I. A. Walmsley, M. C. Weber, H. Weinfurter, J. Wrachtrup, and R. J. Young, “Quantum memories,” Eur. Phys. J. D 58, 1–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

Popa, I.

J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, G. Tamanyan, D. N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, and J. Wrachtrup, “Implantation of labelled single nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond using 15N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 023113 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Meijer, B. Burchard, M. Domhan, C. Wittmann, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, F. Jelezko, and J. Wrachtrup, “Generation of single colour centers by focussed nitrogen implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261909 (2005).
[Crossref]

F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, A. Gruber, and J. Wrachtrup, “Observation of coherent oscillation of a single nuclear spin and realization of a two-qubit conditional quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 130501 (2004).
[Crossref]

Prawer, S.

J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, G. Tamanyan, D. N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, and J. Wrachtrup, “Implantation of labelled single nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond using 15N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 023113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pruneri, V.

B. Hensen, H. Bernien, A. E. Dréau, A. Reiserer, N. Kalb, M. S. Blok, J. Ruitenberg, R. F. L. Vermeulen, R. N. Schouten, C. Abellán, W. Amaya, V. Pruneri, M. W. Mitchell, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, D. Elkouss, S. Wehner, T. H. Taminiau, and R. Hanson, “Loophole-free Bell inequality violation using electron spins separated by 1.3 kilometres,” Nature 526, 682–686 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rabeau, J.

J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, G. Tamanyan, D. N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, and J. Wrachtrup, “Implantation of labelled single nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond using 15N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 023113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rampini, S.

Ramponi, R.

J. P. Hadden, V. Bharadwaj, B. Sotillo, S. Rampini, R. Osellame, J. D. Witmer, H. Jayakumar, T. T. Fernandez, A. Chiappini, C. Armellini, M. Ferrari, R. Ramponi, P. E. Barclay, and S. M. Eaton, “Integrated waveguides and deterministically positioned nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond created by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 43, 3586–3589 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Sotillo, V. Bharadwaj, J. P. Hadden, M. Sakakura, A. Chiappini, T. T. Fernandez, S. Longhi, O. Jedrkiewicz, Y. Shimotsuma, L. Criante, R. Osellame, G. Galzerano, M. Ferrari, K. Miura, R. Ramponi, P. E. Barclay, and S. M. Eaton, “Diamond photonics platform enabled by femtosecond laser writing,” Sci. Rep. 6, 35566 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rapp, L.

Rarity, J. G.

Y.-C. Chen, P. S. Salter, S. Knauer, L. Weng, A. C. Frangeskou, C. J. Stephen, S. N. Ishmael, P. R. Dolan, S. Johnson, B. L. Green, G. W. Morley, M. E. Newton, J. G. Rarity, M. J. Booth, and J. M. Smith, “Laser writing of coherent colour centers in diamond,” Nat. Photonics 11, 77–80 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Simon, M. Afzelius, J. Appel, A. Boyer de la Giroday, S. J. Dewhurst, N. Gisin, C. Y. Hu, F. Jelezko, S. Kröll, J. H. Müller, J. Nunn, E. S. Polzik, J. G. Rarity, H. De Riedmatten, W. Rosenfeld, A. J. Shields, N. Sköld, R. M. Stevenson, R. Thew, I. A. Walmsley, M. C. Weber, H. Weinfurter, J. Wrachtrup, and R. J. Young, “Quantum memories,” Eur. Phys. J. D 58, 1–22 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reichart, P.

J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, G. Tamanyan, D. N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, and J. Wrachtrup, “Implantation of labelled single nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond using 15N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 023113 (2006).
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F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, A. Gruber, and J. Wrachtrup, “Observation of coherent oscillation of a single nuclear spin and realization of a two-qubit conditional quantum gate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 130501 (2004).
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Y.-C. Chen, P. S. Salter, M. Niethammer, M. Widmann, F. Kaiser, R. Nagy, N. Morioka, C. Babin, J. Erlekampf, P. Berwian, M. Booth, and J. Wrachtrup, “Laser writing of scalable single colour centre in silicon carbide,” arXiv:1812.04284 (2018).

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[Crossref]

J. Rabeau, P. Reichart, G. Tamanyan, D. N. Jamieson, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, T. Gaebel, I. Popa, M. Domhan, and J. Wrachtrup, “Implantation of labelled single nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond using 15N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 023113 (2006).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1       Supplementary Information

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the laser-writing process. A single seed pulse is used to generate vacancies in the crystal, followed by a pulse train at lower energy to locally anneal the diamond.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental system for laser writing of defects inside a crystal with fluorescence feedback.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Deterministic laser writing of NV color centers in diamond. (a) Fluorescence image of a high-yield 5 × 5 array of single NV centers on a 2 μm square grid. (b)  NV color center fluorescence spectrum and fluorescence monitor band. (c) Histogram of g ( 2 ) ( 0 ) values for the array in (a); (inset) typical g ( 2 ) ( τ ) dataset corrected for background signal from the bulk crystal. (d) Example time-trace from the fluorescence monitor. The seed pulse occurs at time = 0, and the diffusion laser pulses begin at a time of about 1 s. The onset of a stable NV signal occurs after a further 4 s. For all time traces for NVs in the array, see Fig. S5 in Supplement 1.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Polarization plots of fluorescence intensity revealing the orientation of the NV centers from the 25 laser processed sites shown in Fig. 3(a).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Pulse sequence for Hahn echo measurements used to record spin coherence from the laser-processed NV centers shown in Fig. 3(a). Also shown below is data from one of the defects displaying T 2 = 171 μs .
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Positioning accuracy of single NV centers. (a) Scatter plot of the fitted positions of the NV centers in Fig. 3(a) relative to the target grid in the image plane. The dashed circle represents the deviation parameter σ for the best-fit 2D Gaussian distribution function. (b) Histogram of the fitted depths of the NV centers with a best-fit Lorentzian distribution.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Advanced control in NV center generation. (a) Fluorescence monitor trace showing creation of two NV centers at a processing site. (b) Trace showing the creation and destruction of an NV center (time = 28 to 30 s), followed by selection of the second defect created. (c) Schematic of the four orientations of NV centers relative to the (110) image plane. (d) Example polarization datasets from in-plane and out-of-plane NV centers. (e) Histograms of orientations of defects in three different arrays under different termination conditions (kc = kilo counts).

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