Abstract

Spatiotemporal mode-locked fiber lasers are a type of ultrafast lasers for which the longitudinal and transverse modes of the multimode fiber cavities are locked via nonlinear interaction in the cavity. Here we report the experimental realization of a spatiotemporally mode-locked fiber laser with self-similar pulse evolution. The multimode fiber oscillator generates parabolic pulses at 1030 nm with 90 mW average power, a near-Gaussian beam quality (M21.4), and 2.3 ps (192 fs externally dechirped) pulse duration. Numerical simulations confirm the experimental observations of self-similar pulse propagation. These results will enable further investigation of nonlinear dynamics in spatiotemporal mode-locked fiber lasers.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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U. Teğin and B. Ortaç, Opt. Lett. 43, 1611 (2018).
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K. Krupa, A. Tonello, B. M. Shalaby, M. Fabert, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, Nat. Photonics 11, 237 (2017).
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L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, Science 358, 94 (2017).
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D. Strickland and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 55, 447 (1985).
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Ahsan, A. S.

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K. Krupa, A. Tonello, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, D. Modotto, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. A 97, 043836 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, B. M. Shalaby, M. Fabert, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, Nat. Photonics 11, 237 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 183901 (2016).
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Clark, W.

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Correa, R. A.

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[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, B. M. Shalaby, M. Fabert, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, Nat. Photonics 11, 237 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 183901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

Dudley, J.

M. Fermann, V. Kruglov, B. Thomsen, J. Dudley, and J. Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[Crossref]

V. Kruglov, A. Peacock, J. Dudley, and J. Harvey, Opt. Lett. 25, 1753 (2000).
[Crossref]

Eftekhar, M.

Eznaveh, Z. S.

Fabert, M.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, B. M. Shalaby, M. Fabert, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, Nat. Photonics 11, 237 (2017).
[Crossref]

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M. Fermann, V. Kruglov, B. Thomsen, J. Dudley, and J. Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
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M. Hofer, M. Ober, F. Haberl, and M. Fermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 720 (1992).
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Haberl, F.

M. Hofer, M. Ober, F. Haberl, and M. Fermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 720 (1992).
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Harvey, J.

V. Kruglov, A. Peacock, J. Dudley, and J. Harvey, Opt. Lett. 25, 1753 (2000).
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M. Fermann, V. Kruglov, B. Thomsen, J. Dudley, and J. Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hideur, A.

Hofer, M.

M. Hofer, M. Ober, F. Haberl, and M. Fermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 720 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ilday, F.

K. Özgören and F. Ilday, Opt. Lett. 35, 1296 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Ilday, J. Buckley, W. Clark, and F. Wise, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213902 (2004).
[Crossref]

Isomäki, A.

Jasapara, J.

Khanolkar, A.

Kruglov, V.

V. Kruglov, A. Peacock, J. Dudley, and J. Harvey, Opt. Lett. 25, 1753 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Fermann, V. Kruglov, B. Thomsen, J. Dudley, and J. Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[Crossref]

Krupa, K.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, D. Modotto, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. A 97, 043836 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, B. M. Shalaby, M. Fabert, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, Nat. Photonics 11, 237 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 183901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lopez, J. A.

Lopez-Galmiche, G.

Ma, C.

Mafi, A.

Millot, G.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, D. Modotto, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. A 97, 043836 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, B. M. Shalaby, M. Fabert, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, Nat. Photonics 11, 237 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 183901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Modotto, D.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, D. Modotto, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. A 97, 043836 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mourou, G.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 55, 447 (1985).
[Crossref]

Nicholson, J.

Ober, M.

M. Hofer, M. Ober, F. Haberl, and M. Fermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 720 (1992).
[Crossref]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

Omenetto, F.

Ortaç, B.

Özgören, K.

Özkul, C.

Peacock, A.

Qin, H.

Renninger, W.

Renninger, W. H.

W. H. Renninger and F. W. Wise, Nat. Commun. 4, 1719 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021805 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rudolph, W.

Sanchez, F.

Shalaby, B. M.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, B. M. Shalaby, M. Fabert, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, Nat. Photonics 11, 237 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 183901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Strickland, D.

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 55, 447 (1985).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A.

Tegin, U.

U. Teğin and B. Ortaç, Sci. Rep. 8, 12470 (2018).
[Crossref]

U. Teğin and B. Ortaç, Opt. Lett. 43, 1611 (2018).
[Crossref]

U. Teğin and B. Ortaç, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 2195 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thomsen, B.

M. Fermann, V. Kruglov, B. Thomsen, J. Dudley, and J. Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tonello, A.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, D. Modotto, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. A 97, 043836 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, B. M. Shalaby, M. Fabert, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, Nat. Photonics 11, 237 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 183901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wabnitz, S.

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, D. Modotto, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. A 97, 043836 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, B. M. Shalaby, M. Fabert, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, Nat. Photonics 11, 237 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 183901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

Wise, F.

Wise, F. W.

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, Science 358, 94 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, Nat. Photonics 9, 306 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. H. Renninger and F. W. Wise, Nat. Commun. 4, 1719 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021805 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wright, L.

Wright, L. G.

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, Science 358, 94 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, Nat. Photonics 9, 306 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

Yang, C.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Hofer, M. Ober, F. Haberl, and M. Fermann, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 720 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

U. Teğin and B. Ortaç, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 29, 2195 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Commun. (1)

W. H. Renninger and F. W. Wise, Nat. Commun. 4, 1719 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, Nat. Photonics 9, 306 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, B. M. Shalaby, M. Fabert, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, S. Wabnitz, and V. Couderc, Nat. Photonics 11, 237 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Strickland and G. Mourou, Opt. Commun. 55, 447 (1985).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (9)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, V. Couderc, A. Barthélémy, G. Millot, D. Modotto, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. A 97, 043836 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. H. Renninger, A. Chong, and F. W. Wise, Phys. Rev. A 82, 021805 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. Fermann, V. Kruglov, B. Thomsen, J. Dudley, and J. Harvey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 6010 (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Krupa, A. Tonello, A. Barthélémy, V. Couderc, B. M. Shalaby, A. Bendahmane, G. Millot, and S. Wabnitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 183901 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Ilday, J. Buckley, W. Clark, and F. Wise, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213902 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

U. Teğin and B. Ortaç, Sci. Rep. 8, 12470 (2018).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

L. G. Wright, D. N. Christodoulides, and F. W. Wise, Science 358, 94 (2017).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (5)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Supplementary document
» Visualization 1       Output beam evolution of spatiotemporal amplifier similariton fiber laser
» Visualization 2       Output beam evolution of spatiotemporal amplifier similariton fiber laser
» Visualization 3       Output beam evolution of spatiotemporal dissipative soliton fiber laser
» Visualization 4       Output beam evolution of spatiotemporal dissipative soliton fiber laser

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of the spatiotemporal self-similar fiber laser: QWP, quarter-wave plate; HWP, half-wave plate; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; NBF, narrow bandpass filter; BPF, bandpass filter; LPF, longpass filter; SF, spatial filter; OC, output coupler; GIMF, graded- index multimode fiber.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Simulated pulse duration and spectral bandwidth variation over the cavity: SA, saturable absorber; BF, bandpass filter. (b) Simulated laser spectra and (c) temporal profile obtained at output 1 (solid) and output 2 (dashed). (d) Pulse shape at the end of gain fiber (solid) and theoretical fit with chirp-free parabolic pulse shape (dashed). (e) Numerically obtained beam profile at output 1.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Measured spectrum from output 1 and output 2 (inset). Measured beam profiles case from (b) output 1 and (c) output 2 for mode-locked operation. (d) Measured spatial beam profile from output 1 for continuous-wave operation case. Scale bars indicated in beam profiles are 520 μm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a)  M 2 measurement of the beam from output 1. (b) Autocorrelation trace of the chirped pulse measured from output 1 (solid) and theoretical fit with chirp-free parabolic pulse shape (dashed).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Autocorrelation trace of the compressed pulse measured from output 1 and theoretical fit with chirp-free parabolic pulse shape (dashed). (b) PICASO-retrieved dechirped pulse shape and parabolic pulse shape fit (dashed).