Abstract

Periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides are a powerful platform for efficient wavelength conversion. Conventional PPLN converters, however, typically require long device lengths and high pump powers due to the limited nonlinear interaction strength. Here we use a nanostructured PPLN waveguide to demonstrate an ultrahigh normalized efficiency of 2600%/Wcm2 for second-harmonic generation of 1.5 μm radiation, more than 20 times higher than that in state-of-the-art diffused waveguides. This is achieved by a combination of sub-wavelength optical confinement and high-fidelity periodic poling at a first-order poling period of 4 μm. Our highly integrated PPLN waveguides are promising for future chip-scale integration of classical and quantum photonic systems.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Jiang, H.

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L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. J. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800149 (2018).
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S. Zaske, A. Lenhard, C. A. Keßler, J. Kettler, C. Hepp, C. Arend, R. Albrecht, W. Schulz, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and C. Becher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 147404 (2012).
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S. Zaske, A. Lenhard, C. A. Keßler, J. Kettler, C. Hepp, C. Arend, R. Albrecht, W. Schulz, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and C. Becher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 147404 (2012).
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Li, M.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

C. Wang, Z. Li, M. Kim, X. Xiong, X. Ren, G. Guo, N. Yu, and M. Lončar, Nat. Commun. 8, 2098 (2017).
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Liang, H.

Lin, J.

R. Wu, J. Zhang, N. Yao, W. Fang, L. Qiao, Z. Chai, J. Lin, and Y. Cheng, Opt. Lett. 43, 4116 (2018).
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J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58, 114209 (2015).
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Lin, Y.

Lin, Z.

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D. Bouwmeester, J. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 390, 575 (1997).
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S. Zaske, A. Lenhard, C. A. Keßler, J. Kettler, C. Hepp, C. Arend, R. Albrecht, W. Schulz, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and C. Becher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 147404 (2012).
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Mizuuchi, K.

Morozova, T. M.

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L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. J. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800149 (2018).
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Pan, J.

D. Bouwmeester, J. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 390, 575 (1997).
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Papp, S. B.

L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. J. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800149 (2018).
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Parameswaran, K. R.

Pelc, J. S.

Pertsch, T.

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L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. J. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800149 (2018).
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G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 488 (2012).
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R. Wu, J. Zhang, N. Yao, W. Fang, L. Qiao, Z. Chai, J. Lin, and Y. Cheng, Opt. Lett. 43, 4116 (2018).
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J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58, 114209 (2015).
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Rabiei, P.

Rao, A.

Ren, X.

C. Wang, Z. Li, M. Kim, X. Xiong, X. Ren, G. Guo, N. Yu, and M. Lončar, Nat. Commun. 8, 2098 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, X. Xiong, N. Andrade, V. Venkataraman, X. Ren, G. Guo, and M. Lončar, Opt. Express 25, 6963 (2017).
[Crossref]

Roussev, R. V.

Route, R. K.

Saravi, S.

Schneider, K.

D. J. Wilson, K. Schneider, S. Hoenl, M. Anderson, T. J. Kippenberg, and P. Seidler, “Gallium phosphide nonlinear photonics,” arXiv:1808.03554 (2018).

Schrempel, F.

Schulz, W.

S. Zaske, A. Lenhard, C. A. Keßler, J. Kettler, C. Hepp, C. Arend, R. Albrecht, W. Schulz, M. Jetter, P. Michler, and C. Becher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 147404 (2012).
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Segato, F.

Seidler, P.

D. J. Wilson, K. Schneider, S. Hoenl, M. Anderson, T. J. Kippenberg, and P. Seidler, “Gallium phosphide nonlinear photonics,” arXiv:1808.03554 (2018).

Sergeyev, A.

Setzpfandt, F.

Shams-Ansari, A.

Shirane, M.

Shoji, I.

Sohler, W.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, Laser Photon. Rev. 6, 488 (2012).
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Spencer, D. T.

L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. J. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800149 (2018).
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Stanton, E. J.

L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. J. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800149 (2018).
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Venkataraman, V.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

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L. Chang, A. Boes, X. Guo, D. T. Spencer, M. J. Kennedy, J. D. Peters, N. Volet, J. Chiles, A. Kowligy, N. Nader, D. D. Hickstein, E. J. Stanton, S. A. Diddams, S. B. Papp, and J. E. Bowers, Laser Photon. Rev. 12, 1800149 (2018).
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J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58, 114209 (2015).
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Wang, N.

J. Lin, Y. Xu, Z. Fang, M. Wang, N. Wang, L. Qiao, W. Fang, and Y. Cheng, Sci. China Phys. Mech. Astron. 58, 114209 (2015).
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Weinfurter, H.

D. Bouwmeester, J. Pan, K. Mattle, M. Eibl, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Nature 390, 575 (1997).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) and (b) Mode profiles (Ez component) for fundamental TE modes at (a) 1550  nm and (b) 775  nm. (c) Numerically calculated poling period for quasi-phase matching (black) and theoretical conversion efficiency (blue) for a typical thin-film PPLN waveguide.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of the periodic poling process. Inset shows a false-color SEM image of the fabricated waveguide, revealing a poling period of 4.1 μm with a duty cycle of 39%±3%.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schematic of the characterization setup. (b) Measured SHG conversion efficiency versus pump wavelengths for two waveguides with the same poling period but different top widths. (c) Zoom-in view of the SHG spectral response of the 1440-nm-wide device (solid curve), together with the theoretically predicted responses. The green dotted and blue dashed curves correspond to the ideal and corrected transfer functions, respectively. Inset shows a CCD camera image of the scattered SHG light at the output waveguide facet. TLS, tunable laser source; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; FPC, fiber polarization controller; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. SHG total conversion efficiency as a function of input power in the pump-depletion region. Inset shows the input–output power relation in the low-conversion limit.

Equations (3)

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η=2ω2deff2n12n2ε0c3·A2ωAω2,
A=Re[ExHz*EzHx*]dxdz,
deff=2πA2ωi,j,kdijkEi,2ω*Ej,ωEk,ωdxdz,