Abstract

Development of low-loss photonic components in the ultraviolet (UV) band will open new prospects for classical and quantum optics. Compared with other integrated platforms, aluminum nitride (AlN) is particularly attractive as it features an enormous bandgap of 6.2  eV and intrinsic χ(2) and χ(3) susceptibilities. In this work, we demonstrate a record quality factor of 2.1×105 (optical loss 8  dB/cm) at 390 nm based on single-crystalline AlN microrings. The low-loss AlN waveguide represents a significant milestone toward UV photonic integrated circuits as it features full compatibility for future incorporation of AlGaN-based UV emitters and receivers. On-chip UV spectroscopy, nonlinear optics, and quantum information processing can also be envisioned.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (5)

M. Nissen, B. Doherty, J. Hamperl, J. Kobelke, K. Weber, T. Henkel, and M. A. Schmidt, Sensors 18, 478 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. B. Surya, X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, Opt. Lett. 43, 2696 (2018).
[Crossref]

T.-J. Lu, M. Fanto, H. Choi, P. Thomas, J. Steidle, S. Mouradian, W. Kong, D. Zhu, H. Moon, K. Berggren, J. Kim, M. Soltani, S. Preble, and E. Dirk, Opt. Express 26, 11147 (2018).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

2017 (5)

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. W. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, Optica 4, 893 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, C. Sun, B. Xiong, L. Wang, J. Wang, Y. Han, Z. Hao, H. Li, Y. Luo, J. Yan, T. W. Wei, Y. Zhang, and J. Wang, Opt. Express 25, 587 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, Light: Sci. Appl. 6, e16249 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Rütz, K.-H. Luo, H. Suche, and C. Silberhorn, Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 024021 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Tabataba-Vakili, I. Roland, T.-M. Tran, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, S. Rennesson, J.-Y. Duboz, F. Semond, B. Gayral, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 131103 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, H. Jung, and H. X. Tang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 123902 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, Optica 3, 1126 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

S. B. Papp, K. Beha, P. Del’Haye, F. Quinlan, H. Lee, K. J. Vahala, and S. A. Diddams, Optica 1, 10 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Rickman, Nat. Photonics 8, 579 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. T. Spencer, J. F. Bauters, M. J. Heck, and J. E. Bowers, Optica 1, 153 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Stegmaier, J. Ebert, J. Meckbach, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, and W. Pernice, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

M. Bürger, G. Callsen, T. Kure, A. Hoffmann, A. Pawlis, D. Reuter, and D. As, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021107 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. D. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. P. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Science 340, 1202 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Monroe and J. Kim, Science 339, 1164 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, New J. Phys. 14, 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. Rashid, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sergent, M. Arita, S. Kako, K. Tanabe, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101106 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

R. Krischek, W. Wieczorek, A. Ozawa, N. Kiesel, P. Michelberger, T. Udem, and H. Weinfurter, Nat. Photonics 4, 170 (2010).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

W. Henschel, Y. Georgiev, and H. Kurz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018 (2003).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626 (1991).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

H. Yamashita, K. Fukui, S. Misawa, and S. Yoshida, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 896 (1979).
[Crossref]

Akimov, A.

J. D. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. P. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Science 340, 1202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, Y.

S. Sergent, M. Arita, S. Kako, K. Tanabe, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arita, M.

S. Sergent, M. Arita, S. Kako, K. Tanabe, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101106 (2012).
[Crossref]

As, D.

M. Bürger, G. Callsen, T. Kure, A. Hoffmann, A. Pawlis, D. Reuter, and D. As, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bauters, J. F.

Beha, K.

Berggren, K.

Boucaud, P.

F. Tabataba-Vakili, I. Roland, T.-M. Tran, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, S. Rennesson, J.-Y. Duboz, F. Semond, B. Gayral, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 131103 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. Rashid, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mexis, S. Sergent, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, T. Bretagnon, B. Gil, F. Semond, M. Leroux, D. Néel, S. David, X. Chécoury, and P. Boucaud, Opt. Lett. 36, 2203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Bretagnon, T.

Brimont, C.

F. Tabataba-Vakili, I. Roland, T.-M. Tran, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, S. Rennesson, J.-Y. Duboz, F. Semond, B. Gayral, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 131103 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. Rashid, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mexis, S. Sergent, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, T. Bretagnon, B. Gil, F. Semond, M. Leroux, D. Néel, S. David, X. Chécoury, and P. Boucaud, Opt. Lett. 36, 2203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bürger, M.

M. Bürger, G. Callsen, T. Kure, A. Hoffmann, A. Pawlis, D. Reuter, and D. As, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Callsen, G.

M. Bürger, G. Callsen, T. Kure, A. Hoffmann, A. Pawlis, D. Reuter, and D. As, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Checoury, X.

F. Tabataba-Vakili, I. Roland, T.-M. Tran, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, S. Rennesson, J.-Y. Duboz, F. Semond, B. Gayral, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 131103 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. Rashid, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chécoury, X.

Cheng, R.

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, Light: Sci. Appl. 6, e16249 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

David, S.

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. Rashid, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mexis, S. Sergent, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, T. Bretagnon, B. Gil, F. Semond, M. Leroux, D. Néel, S. David, X. Chécoury, and P. Boucaud, Opt. Lett. 36, 2203 (2011).
[Crossref]

de Leon, N. P.

J. D. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. P. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Science 340, 1202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Del’Haye, P.

Deri, R. J.

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626 (1991).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

Dirk, E.

Doherty, B.

M. Nissen, B. Doherty, J. Hamperl, J. Kobelke, K. Weber, T. Henkel, and M. A. Schmidt, Sensors 18, 478 (2018).
[Crossref]

Duboz, J.-Y.

F. Tabataba-Vakili, I. Roland, T.-M. Tran, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, S. Rennesson, J.-Y. Duboz, F. Semond, B. Gayral, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 131103 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. Rashid, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ebert, J.

M. Stegmaier, J. Ebert, J. Meckbach, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, and W. Pernice, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

El Kurdi, M.

F. Tabataba-Vakili, I. Roland, T.-M. Tran, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, S. Rennesson, J.-Y. Duboz, F. Semond, B. Gayral, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 131103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fanto, M.

Feist, J.

J. D. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. P. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Science 340, 1202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fong, K. Y.

C. Xiong, W. H. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, and H. X. Tang, New J. Phys. 14, 095014 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fukui, K.

H. Yamashita, K. Fukui, S. Misawa, and S. Yoshida, J. Appl. Phys. 50, 896 (1979).
[Crossref]

Gayral, B.

F. Tabataba-Vakili, I. Roland, T.-M. Tran, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, S. Rennesson, J.-Y. Duboz, F. Semond, B. Gayral, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 131103 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. Rashid, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

Georgiev, Y.

W. Henschel, Y. Georgiev, and H. Kurz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gil, B.

Guillet, T.

F. Tabataba-Vakili, I. Roland, T.-M. Tran, X. Checoury, M. El Kurdi, S. Sauvage, C. Brimont, T. Guillet, S. Rennesson, J.-Y. Duboz, F. Semond, B. Gayral, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 111, 131103 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Sam-Giao, D. Néel, S. Sergent, B. Gayral, M. Rashid, F. Semond, J.-Y. Duboz, M. Mexis, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, S. David, X. Checoury, and P. Boucaud, Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 191104 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mexis, S. Sergent, T. Guillet, C. Brimont, T. Bretagnon, B. Gil, F. Semond, M. Leroux, D. Néel, S. David, X. Chécoury, and P. Boucaud, Opt. Lett. 36, 2203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gullans, M.

J. D. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. P. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Science 340, 1202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, C.

Guo, X.

J. B. Surya, X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, Opt. Lett. 43, 2696 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, Light: Sci. Appl. 6, e16249 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, H. Jung, and H. X. Tang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 123902 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, and H. X. Tang, Optica 3, 1126 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hamperl, J.

M. Nissen, B. Doherty, J. Hamperl, J. Kobelke, K. Weber, T. Henkel, and M. A. Schmidt, Sensors 18, 478 (2018).
[Crossref]

Han, Y.

Hao, Z.

Heck, M. J.

Henkel, T.

M. Nissen, B. Doherty, J. Hamperl, J. Kobelke, K. Weber, T. Henkel, and M. A. Schmidt, Sensors 18, 478 (2018).
[Crossref]

Henschel, W.

W. Henschel, Y. Georgiev, and H. Kurz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, A.

M. Bürger, G. Callsen, T. Kure, A. Hoffmann, A. Pawlis, D. Reuter, and D. As, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ilin, K.

M. Stegmaier, J. Ebert, J. Meckbach, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, and W. Pernice, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Iwamoto, S.

S. Sergent, M. Arita, S. Kako, K. Tanabe, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, K.

Jung, H.

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, C. Schuck, H. Jung, R. Cheng, and H. X. Tang, Light: Sci. Appl. 6, e16249 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Guo, C.-L. Zou, H. Jung, and H. X. Tang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 123902 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kako, S.

S. Sergent, M. Arita, S. Kako, K. Tanabe, S. Iwamoto, and Y. Arakawa, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 101106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kapon, E.

R. J. Deri and E. Kapon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 626 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kawata, S.

Y. Ozaki and S. Kawata, Far- and Deep-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy (Springer, 2015).

Kiesel, N.

R. Krischek, W. Wieczorek, A. Ozawa, N. Kiesel, P. Michelberger, T. Udem, and H. Weinfurter, Nat. Photonics 4, 170 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Kobelke, J.

M. Nissen, B. Doherty, J. Hamperl, J. Kobelke, K. Weber, T. Henkel, and M. A. Schmidt, Sensors 18, 478 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kong, W.

Krischek, R.

R. Krischek, W. Wieczorek, A. Ozawa, N. Kiesel, P. Michelberger, T. Udem, and H. Weinfurter, Nat. Photonics 4, 170 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kure, T.

M. Bürger, G. Callsen, T. Kure, A. Hoffmann, A. Pawlis, D. Reuter, and D. As, Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 021107 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kurz, H.

W. Henschel, Y. Georgiev, and H. Kurz, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 21, 2018 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

Leroux, M.

Li, D.

Li, H.

Liu, X.

Lu, T.-J.

Lukin, M. D.

J. D. Thompson, T. Tiecke, N. P. de Leon, J. Feist, A. Akimov, M. Gullans, A. S. Zibrov, V. Vuletić, and M. D. Lukin, Science 340, 1202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Luo, K.-H.

H. Rütz, K.-H. Luo, H. Suche, and C. Silberhorn, Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 024021 (2017).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

Meckbach, J.

M. Stegmaier, J. Ebert, J. Meckbach, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, and W. Pernice, Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 091108 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mexis, M.

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M. Nissen, B. Doherty, J. Hamperl, J. Kobelke, K. Weber, T. Henkel, and M. A. Schmidt, Sensors 18, 478 (2018).
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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       The relevant dispersion simulation, transmission background at the ultraviolet region, and the influence of sidewall and Rayleigh scattering losses.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Device design, fabrication, and measurement. (a) Simulated modal profiles of the AlN microrings (top cladding, SiO2) at 390 nm using the finite-element method. Height and radius of the microring are kept at 0.5 and 30 μm; the width is varied from 0.4 to 0.8 μm. (b)–(d) Colorized SEM images of fabricated devices: (b) top view of the AlN microring without a SiO2 cladding (colored purple; the other cascaded ring is not shown). (c) Zoomed-in tilted view of (b) highlighting a weakly tapered gap coupler with a center separation of 0.14 μm. (d) Cleaved waveguide facet with an 80° sidewall slope angle and a slight over-etching. (e) Schematic of the apparatus for the UV transmittance measurement.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Characterization of the AlN microring (radius, 30 μm; cross section, 0.8  μm×0.5  μm; gap, 0.14 μm) at TM and TE polarizations. The colored regions indicate piecewise scans with an optimal free-space coupling of the UV beam into the fiber port. Here we extract Qint=2QL1+T0 in an under-coupled condition (T0 being the normalized on-resonance transmission). (a) Microring transmittance showing cascaded resonances for both TM00 and TM10 modes. (b),(c) Zoomed-in views of the TM00 resonances I and II in (a). A Lorentzian fit is applied to each resonance and the large ER indicates a nearly critical coupling. (d) Transmittance with cascaded resonances of the TE00 mode. (e),(f) Zoomed-in views of the TE00 resonances I and II in (d).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparison of Q-factors at 390 nm for devices with different widths (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 μm). Qint is calculated in an under-coupled condition. (a) Measured TM00 resonance of the AlN microring (width, 0.6 μm; gap, 0.13 μm) with an extracted Qint of 175 k. (b) Measured TE00 resonance of the AlN microring (width, 0.4 μm; gap, 0.12 μm) with an extracted Qint of 83 k. (c) Qint and (d) corresponding αring versus width for both the TE00 and TM00 modes.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measured Q-factors of the AlN microrings (width, 0.8 μm) at 455 nm. (a)–(c) Resonances of the TE00 mode at a gap of 0.13, 0.14, and 0.15 μm. Here Qint=2QL1T0 is extracted in an over-coupled condition, as confirmed by the increasing ER with the gap. (d) Comparison of Qint versus wavelength (below 480 nm) for different microcavities. PhC, photonic crystal; μDisk, microdisk; μRing, microring.

Equations (1)

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αsidewallσ2Δϵλ·neffEs2E2ds,