Abstract

Active terahertz (THz) waveform synthesis is desirable for a broad range of applications including high speed wireless communications at Tb/s speeds and coherent manipulation of quantum systems driven by engineered light fields. In this work, we demonstrate an all-optical, fully reconfigurable platform for direct and arbitrary temporal shaping of broadband THz light pulses. The technique is based on an array of line photoexcitations of charge carriers within an otherwise homogeneous semiconductor embedded within a parallel plate waveguide. The spatially periodic charge distributions locally modulate the THz dielectric function, mapping each photoexcited line in the array directly to a reflected single-cycle THz pulse. By tuning the spatial distribution of the line excitations, arbitrarily shaped THz pulse sequences can be created from a single THz input pulse with relatively little intrinsic loss. We demonstrate synthesis of multi-cycle THz waveforms, 8-bit digital pulse sequences, and THz frequency combs with control over amplitude, central frequency, and linewidth.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

A. Paulsen and A. Nahata, “K-space design of terahertz plasmonic filters,” Optica 2, 214–220 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Schinke, P. C. Peest, J. Schmidt, R. Brendel, K. Bothe, M. R. Vogt, I. Kröger, S. Winter, A. Schirmacher, S. Lim, H. T. Nguyen, and D. MacDonald, “Uncertainty analysis for the coefficient of band-to-band absorption of crystalline silicon,” AIP Adv. 5, 067168 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345, 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. C. Strikwerda, M. Zalkovskij, D. L. Lorenzen, A. Krabbe, A. V. Lavrinenko, and P. U. Jepsen, “Metamaterial composite bandpass filter with an ultra-broadband rejection bandwidth of up to 240 terahertz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 191103 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Born, M. Scheller, M. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Cavity enhanced terahertz modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 103508 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Gingras, M. Georgin, and D. G. Cooke, “Optically induced mode coupling and interference in a terahertz parallel plate waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 39, 1807–1810 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, X. Ropagnol, H. Hafez, H. Razavipour, M. Bolduc, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, and D. G. Cooke, “Effect of extreme pump pulse reshaping on intense terahertz emission in lithium niobate at multi-mJ pump energies,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4333–4336 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

N. Born, M. Reuter, M. Koch, and M. Scheller, “High-Q terahertz bandpass filters based on coherently interfering metasurface reflections,” Opt. Lett. 38, 908–910 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Nagatsuma, S. Horiguchi, Y. Minamikata, Y. Yoshimizu, S. Hisatake, S. Kuwano, N. Yoshimoto, J. Terada, and H. Takahashi, “Terahertz wireless communications based on photonics technologies,” Opt. Express 21, 23736–23747 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7, 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Sato, T. Higuchi, N. Kanda, K. Konishi, K. Yoshioka, T. Suzuki, K. Misawa, and M. Kuwata-Gonokami, “Terahertz polarization pulse shaping with arbitrary field control,” Nat. Photonics 7, 724–731 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

S. F. Busch, S. Schumann, C. Jansen, M. Scheller, M. Koch, and B. M. Fischer, “Optically gated tunable terahertz filters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 261109 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Fleischer, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Commensurate two-quantum coherences induced by time-delayed THz fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 123603 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. A. Fülöp, L. Pálfalvi, S. Klingebiel, G. Almási, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Generation of sub-mJ terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Opt. Lett. 37, 557–559 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, A. Sell, G. Klatt, A. Pashkin, S. Mährlein, T. Dekorsy, M. Wolf, M. Fiebig, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves,” Nat. Photonics 5, 31–34 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

T. Kampfrath, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, A. Melloni, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast adiabatic manipulation of slow light in a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043837 (2010.
[Crossref]

S.-H. Kim, E. S. Lee, Y. Bin Ji, and T.-I. Jeon, “Improvement of THz coupling using a tapered parallel-plate waveguide,” Opt. Express 18, 1289–1295 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

D. G. Cooke and P. U. Jepsen, “Dynamic optically induced planar terahertz quasioptics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241118 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Han and A. Lakhtakia, “Semiconductor split-ring resonators for thermally tunable terahertz metamaterials,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 554–557 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (4)

L. Fekete, F. Kadlec, P. Kužel, and H. Němec, “Ultrafast opto-terahertz photonic crystal modulator,” Opt. Lett. 32, 680–682 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. Gómez Rivas, L. Kuipers, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 235305 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Li, “Terahertz modulator using photonic crystals,” Opt. Commun. 269, 98–101 (2007).
[Crossref]

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10  μJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171121 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

L. Shiveshwari and P. Mahto, “Photonic band gap effect in one-dimensional plasma dielectric photonic crystals,” Solid State Commun. 138, 160–164 (2006).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

2003 (3)

J. Ahn, A. V. Efimov, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “Terahertz waveform synthesis via optical rectification of shaped ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Express 11, 2486–2496 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Jukam and M. S. Sherwin, “Two-dimensional terahertz photonic crystals fabricated by deep reactive ion etching in Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 21–23 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3000–3002 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz wave parametric source,” J. Phys. D 35, R1–R14 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, and C. R. Stanley, “Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation,” Nature 410, 60–63 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, A. S. Pethel, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and A. S. Manka, “Transparent, metallo-dielectric, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2377–2383 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. P. Pronko, P. A. VanRompay, C. Horvath, F. Loesel, T. Juhasz, X. Liu, and G. Mourou, “Avalanche ionization and dielectric breakdown in silicon with ultrafast laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 2387–2390 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

N. A. Gershenfeld and I. L. Chuang, “Bulk spin-resonance quantum computation,” Science 275, 350–356 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Y. Liu, S.-G. Park, and A. M. Weiner, “Terahertz waveform synthesis via optical pulse shaping,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum 2, 709–719 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, and C. L. Dennis, “Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285–287 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. W. Porterfield, J. L. Hesler, R. Densing, E. R. Mueller, T. W. Crowe, and R. M. Weikle, “Resonant metal-mesh bandpass-filters for the far-infrared,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6046–6052 (1994).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

V. Grivitskas, M. Willander, and J. Vaitkus, “The role of intercarrier scattering in excited silicon,” Solid State Electron. 27, 565–572 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.

Almási, G.

Ambacher, O.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7, 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Antes, J.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7, 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aoki, H.

R. Matsunaga, N. Tsuji, H. Fujita, A. Sugioka, K. Makise, Y. Uzawa, H. Terai, Z. Wang, H. Aoki, and R. Shimano, “Light-induced collective pseudospin precession resonating with Higgs mode in a superconductor,” Science 345, 1145–1149 (2014).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, and R. D. Averitt, “Reconfigurable terahertz metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 147401 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Active terahertz metamaterial devices,” Nature 444, 597–600 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Ahn, A. V. Efimov, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, “Terahertz waveform synthesis via optical rectification of shaped ultrafast laser pulses,” Opt. Express 11, 2486–2496 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Beggs, D. M.

T. Kampfrath, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, A. Melloni, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, “Ultrafast adiabatic manipulation of slow light in a photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 043837 (2010.
[Crossref]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417, 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bin Ji, Y.

Blanchard, F.

Bloemer, M. J.

M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, A. S. Pethel, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and A. S. Manka, “Transparent, metallo-dielectric, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 2377–2383 (1998).
[Crossref]

Boes, F.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7, 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Bonn, M.

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AIP Adv. (1)

C. Schinke, P. C. Peest, J. Schmidt, R. Brendel, K. Bothe, M. R. Vogt, I. Kröger, S. Winter, A. Schirmacher, S. Lim, H. T. Nguyen, and D. MacDonald, “Uncertainty analysis for the coefficient of band-to-band absorption of crystalline silicon,” AIP Adv. 5, 067168 (2015).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       FDTD simulation results for a 32 cycle waveform

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic representation of the experimental setup. A single-cycle THz pulse (green) is coupled into a dielectric-filled parallel-plate waveguide and detected in reflection geometry. (b) An optically transparent ITO coating allows spatially defined charge carrier injection (dotted regions) using above-bandgap pulses of NIR light (light blue). The periodically repeating photoinjected metallic regions (dotted regions) partially reflect the incident THz pulse to generate a multi-cycle THz signal (red).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Typical input pulse (black) and reflected pulse replicas (red) for 20 μm wide pumped lines (w) with a lattice pitch (L) of 160 μm. Accompanying FDTD simulation results (blue) using the reference pulse shape as input. A digital sequence (111101) is created by photoexciting all lines but the fifth (inset). (b) (top) Incident electric field amplitude (black), synthesized frequency comb (red) and simulated signal (blue) for 12 photoinjected lines of 20 μm width (w) and 160 μm period (L). (b) (bottom) Spectral phase of the experimentally synthesized multi-cycle signal.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electric field time trace of the 12-line frequency combs and associated power spectrum (inset) for various lattice pitches (L) at constant pump energy (15 μJ) and line width (w=20  μm).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Power spectrum and corresponding electric field time traces (inset) for varying spatial pump widths. The horizontal lines (inset) show the equivalent spatial pump width used to tune the number of cycles.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Simulated (FDTD) reflected THz waveforms for 12 lines of 20 μm thickness with 160 μm period for indicated pump-induced plasma frequencies. (b) Reflected spectrum as a function of pump-induced plasma frequency (ERefl(ω,ωp)/ETrans(ω,0)). The white dashed line denotes the transfer matrix method solution for 25% field reflection from a single 20 μm line. (c) Reflected spectrum for fixed ωp values [from (b)].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

8-bit array of binary 1s (pulse present) and 0s (pulse absent) encoded in a THz pulse train. The pulse sequences presented here spell “McGill” in 8-bit binary ASCII characters. The 20 μm wide lines are photoinjected using a 10 μJ pump pulse with a lattice pitch of 160 μm.