Abstract

Random number generators are essential to ensuring performance in information technologies, including cryptography, stochastic simulations, and massive data processing. The quality of random numbers ultimately determines the security and privacy that can be achieved, while the speed at which they can be generated poses limits to the utilization of the available resources. In this work we propose and demonstrate a quantum entropy source for random number generation on an indium phosphide photonic integrated circuit made possible by a new design using two-laser interference and heterodyne detection. The resulting device offers high-speed operation with unprecedented security guarantees and reduced form factor. It is also compatible with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology, opening the path to its integration in computation and communication electronic cards, which is particularly relevant for the intensive migration of information processing and storage tasks from local premises to cloud data centers.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (6)

Y. Q. Nie, L. Huang, Y. Liu, F. Payne, and J. Zhang, “The generation of 68  Gbps quantum random number by measuring laser phase fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 063105 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Abellán, W. Amaya, D. Mitrani, V. Pruneri, and M. W. Mitchell, “Generation of fresh and pure random numbers for loophole-free Bell tests,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250403 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. A. Walmsley, “Quantum optics: science and technology in a new light,” Science 348, 525–530 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Khanmohammadi, R. Enne, M. Hofbauer, and H. Zimmermann, “A monolithic silicon quantum random number generator based on measurement of photon detection time,” IEEE Photon. J. 7, 1–13 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. W. Mitchell, C. Abellán, and W. Amaya, “Strong experimental guarantees in ultrafast quantum random number generation,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 012314 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Martin, B. Sanguinetti, C. C. W. Lim, R. Houlmann, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum random number generation for 1.25  GHz quantum key distribution systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 2855–2859 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

B. Sanguinetti, A. Martin, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum random number generation on a mobile phone,” Phys. Rev. X 4, 031056 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Abellán, W. Amaya, M. Jofre, M. Curty, A. Acn, J. Capmany, V. Pruneri, and M. W. Mitchell, “Ultra-fast quantum randomness generation by accelerated phase diffusion in a pulsed laser diode,” Opt. Express 22, 1645–1654 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. L. Yuan, M. Lucamarini, J. F. Dynes, B. Fröhlich, A. Plews, and A. J. Shields, “Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 261112 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mascagni, Y. Qiu, and L. Y. Hin, “High performance computing in quantitative finance: a review from the pseudo-random number generator perspective,” Monte Carlo Methods Appl. 20, 101–120 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. Tillmann, B. Dakić, R. Heilmann, S. Nolte, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Experimental boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7, 540–544 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T. H. Click, A. Liu, and G. A. Kaminski, “Quality of random number generators significantly affects results of Monte Carlo simulations for organic and biological systems,” J. Comput. Chem. 32, 513–524 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Jofre, M. Curty, F. Steinlechner, G. Anzolin, J. P. Torres, M. W. Mitchell, and V. Pruneri, “True random numbers from amplified quantum vacuum,” Opt. Express 19, 20665–20672 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. Gabriel, C. Wittmann, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states,” Nat. Photonics 4, 711–715 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Qi, Y. M. Chi, H. K. Lo, and L. Qian, “High-speed quantum random number generation by measuring phase noise of a single-mode laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 312–314 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

J. Matthews, A. Politi, A. Stefanov, and J. L. O’Brien, “Manipulation of multiphoton entanglement in waveguide quantum circuits,” Nat. Photonics 3, 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Torcini, S. Barland, G. Giacomelli, and F. Marin, “Low-frequency fluctuations in vertical cavity lasers: experiments versus Lang-Kobayashi dynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063801 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H. Erzgräber, D. Lenstra, B. Krauskopf, E. Wille, M. Peil, I. Fischer, and W. Elsäßer, “Mutually delay-coupled semiconductor lasers: mode bifurcation scenarios,” Opt. Commun. 255, 286–296 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Yanchuk, K. R. Schneider, and L. Recke, “Dynamics of two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers: instantaneous coupling limit,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 056221 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovic, “Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709–1711 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Brin and L. Page, “The anatomy of a large-scale hypertextual web search engine,” Comput. Networks ISDN Syst. 30, 107–117 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. G. Rarity, P. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, “Quantum random-number generation and key sharing,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2435–2444 (1994).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

D. G. Aronson, G. B. Ermentrout, and N. Kopell, “Amplitude response of coupled oscillators,” Physica D 41, 403–449 (1990).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

D. G. Aronson, E. J. Doedel, and H. G. Othmer, “An analytical and numerical study of the bifurcations in a system of linearly-coupled oscillators,” Physica D 25, 20–104 (1987).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

R. Lang and K. Kobayashi, “External optical feedback effects on semiconductor injection laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 347–355 (1980).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. Adler, “A study of locking phenomena in oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 61, 1380–1385 (1973).
[Crossref]

1951 (1)

J. von Neumann, “Various techniques used in connection with random digits,” Natl. Bur. Stand. Appl. Math Ser. 12, 16–38 (1951).

1949 (1)

C. E. Shannon, “Communication theory of secrecy systems,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 28, 656–715 (1949).
[Crossref]

Abellán, C.

C. Abellán, W. Amaya, D. Mitrani, V. Pruneri, and M. W. Mitchell, “Generation of fresh and pure random numbers for loophole-free Bell tests,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250403 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. W. Mitchell, C. Abellán, and W. Amaya, “Strong experimental guarantees in ultrafast quantum random number generation,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 012314 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Abellán, W. Amaya, M. Jofre, M. Curty, A. Acn, J. Capmany, V. Pruneri, and M. W. Mitchell, “Ultra-fast quantum randomness generation by accelerated phase diffusion in a pulsed laser diode,” Opt. Express 22, 1645–1654 (2014).
[Crossref]

Achouche, M.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Acn, A.

Adler, R.

R. Adler, “A study of locking phenomena in oscillators,” Proc. IEEE 61, 1380–1385 (1973).
[Crossref]

Alduino, A.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W.-Z. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H.-F. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I.-W. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, “Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics and Photonics in Switching (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDIWI5.

Amaya, W.

C. Abellán, W. Amaya, D. Mitrani, V. Pruneri, and M. W. Mitchell, “Generation of fresh and pure random numbers for loophole-free Bell tests,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250403 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. W. Mitchell, C. Abellán, and W. Amaya, “Strong experimental guarantees in ultrafast quantum random number generation,” Phys. Rev. A 91, 012314 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Abellán, W. Amaya, M. Jofre, M. Curty, A. Acn, J. Capmany, V. Pruneri, and M. W. Mitchell, “Ultra-fast quantum randomness generation by accelerated phase diffusion in a pulsed laser diode,” Opt. Express 22, 1645–1654 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ambrosius, H.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andersen, U. L.

C. Gabriel, C. Wittmann, D. Sych, R. Dong, W. Mauerer, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states,” Nat. Photonics 4, 711–715 (2010).
[Crossref]

Andonovic, I.

A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovic, “Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709–1711 (1998).
[Crossref]

Anzolin, G.

Aronson, D. G.

D. G. Aronson, G. B. Ermentrout, and N. Kopell, “Amplitude response of coupled oscillators,” Physica D 41, 403–449 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. G. Aronson, E. J. Doedel, and H. G. Othmer, “An analytical and numerical study of the bifurcations in a system of linearly-coupled oscillators,” Physica D 25, 20–104 (1987).
[Crossref]

Au, H.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W.-Z. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H.-F. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I.-W. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, “Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics and Photonics in Switching (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDIWI5.

Augustin, L.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bakker, A.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bar, R.

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Lee, S.

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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W.-Z. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H.-F. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I.-W. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, “Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics and Photonics in Switching (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDIWI5.

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Y. Q. Nie, L. Huang, Y. Liu, F. Payne, and J. Zhang, “The generation of 68  Gbps quantum random number by measuring laser phase fluctuations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 063105 (2015).
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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W.-Z. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H.-F. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I.-W. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, “Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics and Photonics in Switching (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDIWI5.

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S. Yanchuk, K. R. Schneider, and L. Recke, “Dynamics of two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers: instantaneous coupling limit,” Phys. Rev. E 69, 056221 (2004).
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D. Frauchiger, R. Renner, and M. Troyer, “True randomness from realistic quantum devices,” Quantum Phys., arXiv:1311.4547 (2013).

Robbins, D.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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Saba, R.

A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W.-Z. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H.-F. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I.-W. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, “Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics and Photonics in Switching (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDIWI5.

Sanguinetti, B.

Santos, R.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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P. Sibson, M. Godfrey, C. Erven, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Integrated photonic devices for quantum key distribution,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper FF1A.6.

Schell, M.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovic, “Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709–1711 (1998).
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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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J. Matthews, A. Politi, A. Stefanov, and J. L. O’Brien, “Manipulation of multiphoton entanglement in waveguide quantum circuits,” Nat. Photonics 3, 346–350 (2009).
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Stopinski, S.

M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W.-Z. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H.-F. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I.-W. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, “Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics and Photonics in Switching (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDIWI5.

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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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M. J. R. Heck, J. F. Bauters, M. L. Davenport, J. K. Doylend, S. Jain, G. Kurczveil, S. Srinivasan, Y. Tang, and J. E. Bowers, “Hybrid silicon photonic integrated circuit technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 6100117 (2012).
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P. Sibson, M. Godfrey, C. Erven, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Integrated photonic devices for quantum key distribution,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper FF1A.6.

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J. G. Rarity, P. Owens, and P. R. Tapster, “Quantum random-number generation and key sharing,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 2435–2444 (1994).
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P. Sibson, M. Godfrey, C. Erven, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Integrated photonic devices for quantum key distribution,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper FF1A.6.

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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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P. Sibson, M. Godfrey, C. Erven, S. Miki, T. Yamashita, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, H. Terai, M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, R. H. Hadfield, J. O’Brien, and M. G. Thompson, “Integrated photonic devices for quantum key distribution,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper FF1A.6.

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M. Tillmann, B. Dakić, R. Heilmann, S. Nolte, A. Szameit, and P. Walther, “Experimental boson sampling,” Nat. Photonics 7, 540–544 (2013).
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A. Zadok, H. Shalom, M. Tur, W. D. Cornwell, and I. Andonovic, “Spectral shift and broadening of DFB lasers under direct modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1709–1711 (1998).
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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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M. Smit, X. Leijtens, H. Ambrosius, E. Bente, J. van der Tol, B. Smalbrugge, T. de Vries, E.-J. Geluk, J. Bolk, R. van Veldhoven, L. Augustin, P. Thijs, D. D’Agostino, H. Rabbani, K. Lawniczuk, S. Stopinski, S. Tahvili, A. Corradi, E. Kleijn, D. Dzibrou, M. Felicetti, E. Bitincka, V. Moskalenko, J. Zhao, R. Santos, G. Gilardi, W. Yao, K. Williams, P. Stabile, P. Kuindersma, J. Pello, S. Bhat, Y. Jiao, D. Heiss, G. Roelkens, M. Wale, P. Firth, F. Soares, N. Grote, M. Schell, H. Debregeas, M. Achouche, J.-L. Gentner, A. Bakker, T. Korthorst, D. Gallagher, A. Dabbs, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, D. Melati, A. Wonfor, R. Penty, R. Broeke, B. Musk, and D. Robbins, “An introduction to InP-based generic integration technology,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29, 083001 (2014).
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Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1: PDF (1275 KB)      Supplementary material

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the QRNG-PIC based on two-laser interference. The two DFB lasers are biased with a current driver, one of them operating in CW, while the other one is periodically GS using an external RF generator. The temperature of the entire chip is controlled through a Peltier element, while that of the area including one of the lasers is locally changed by a stable current source. The outputs from the two lasers are combined and interfered in a 2×2 MMI coupler and two 40 GHz photodiodes are placed at the output of the coupler. The detected signal is sent to a fast oscilloscope. (b) Principle of operation: optical pulses from a GS laser interfere with a CW laser, generating an interference modulation whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two lasers’ frequencies. The random phase of the GS laser pulse produces a random phase of the interference oscillation that can be properly sampled into a random amplitude. In this way, after digitization, one can extract one sample per GS pulse. (c) Microscope image of the PIC on a 1 Euro cent background. Two QRNG-PICs are printed on each chip.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Beat-note frequency at the output of the MMI measured by sweeping one of the integrated lasers, while keeping the other one constant in the low-loss QRNG-PIC. The beat-note frequency can be continuously tuned by current control for large detuning frequencies, whereas for small detuning frequencies phase- (frequency-) locking may occur (gray square), leading eventually to disappearance of the oscillation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temporal dynamics of the beating between the two lasers forming the high-loss QRNG-PIC and comparison with numerical results. (a)–(d) Experimental data with different temperature settings (currents). Chirp due to thermal effects and attenuation of beating amplitude due to the bandwidth limit of the detection electronics are evident. (e)–(h) Numerical results with initial detuning frequencies set to fit the experimental observations in (a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Statistics on the output of the QES-PIC. (a) Histograms on six sets of 200,000 samples each taken during 14 h, confirming stable operation of the QES-PIC device. (b) Autocorrelation function for 107 random samples taken with a 20 GHz scope and 50 GSa/s. Magenta (green) circles correspond to positive (negative) correlation coefficients.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Value of the Chirp Rate β0 has been Chosen to Qualitatively Fit the Experimental Results and is Consistent with the Data Reported in Ref. [22]a

Equations (6)

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iT(t)=iS(t)+2iP(t)cos(0tdξΩC(ξ)+Δφ),
E˙1=γ(1+iα)N1E1+κexp(iψ)E2(tτd)+R1ξ1(t),
E˙2=γ(1+iα)N2E2+κexp(iψ)E1(tτd)+i[Ω+β(t)]E2+R2ξ2(t),
τN˙1=P1N1(1+2N1)|E1|2,
τN˙2=P2N2(1+2N2)|E2|2.
P2(t)=P¯2{12+32exp[(t/Δτ)2M]},

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