Abstract

Developing coherent intense broadband light sources is undoubtedly one of the key elements in pushing the frontiers of optical sciences, especially those of nonlinear terahertz (THz) optics. Plasma-based THz emitters excel in many aspects thanks to their broad radiation bandwidth, high output pulse energy and immunity to high power damage. Various excitation wavelengths and gases have been explored in the search for a stronger THz wave emission from laser-induced plasmas, whereas few attempts have been made with artificially modulated exotic wavepackets. Here we demonstrate that abruptly autofocusing-beam-induced air-plasma can give a 5.3-times enhanced THz wave pulse energy compared to normal Gaussian-beam-induced plasma under the same conditions. We believe this work will inspire a new direction for controlling THz radiation from laser-induced plasma using tools such as spatial light modulators to sculpt the excitation beams, and pave the way to THz remote spectroscopy, which is considered critical for both homeland security and environmental monitoring.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (2)

S. Moradi, A. Ganjovi, F. Shojaei, and M. Saeed, Phys. Plasmas 22, 043108 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhao, L. Guo, W. Chu, B. Zeng, H. Gao, Y. Cheng, and W. Liu, Opt. Lett. 40, 3838 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

J. Dai and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 39, 777 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Gorodetsky, A. D. Koulouklidis, M. Massaouti, and S. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 89, 033838 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Scheller, M. S. Mills, M.-A. Miri, W. Cheng, J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. N. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Chremmos, Opt. Lett. 39, 4611 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

P. Panagiotopoulos, D. G. Papazoglou, A. Couairon, and S. Tzortzakis, Nat. Commun. 4, 2622 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. Blank, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, New J. Phys. 15, 075023 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 201113 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 183902 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Dolev, I. Kaminer, A. Shapira, M. Segev, and A. Arie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113903 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

2010 (4)

D. Abdollahpour, S. Suntsov, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253901 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. K. Efremidis and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 35, 4045 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. M. Manceau, M. Massaouti, and S. Tzortzakis, Opt. Lett. 35, 2424 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

J. M. Manceau, A. Averchi, F. Bonaretti, D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, A. Couairon, and S. Tzortzakis, Opt. Lett. 34, 2165 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, and J. Moloney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 123902 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 324, 229 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, A. Roberts, D. Faccio, P. D. Trapani, and J. Moloney, Opt. Express 16, 15733 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

H. G. Roskos, M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

Q. Wu and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1604 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. Falcone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abdollahpour, D.

D. Abdollahpour, S. Suntsov, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arie, A.

I. Dolev, I. Kaminer, A. Shapira, M. Segev, and A. Arie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113903 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ashida, M.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Averchi, A.

Blank, V.

V. Blank, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, New J. Phys. 15, 075023 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bonaretti, F.

Broky, J.

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Cheng, W.

M. Scheller, M. S. Mills, M.-A. Miri, W. Cheng, J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. N. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

Chin, S. L.

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chremmos, I.

I. Chremmos, Opt. Lett. 39, 4611 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Chremmos, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 36, 1980 (2011).

Christodoulides, D. N.

M. Scheller, M. S. Mills, M.-A. Miri, W. Cheng, J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. N. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Chremmos, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 36, 1980 (2011).

P. Zhang, J. Prakash, Z. Zhang, M. S. Mills, N. K. Efremidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 2883 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. G. Papazoglou, N. K. Efremidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and S. Tzortzakis, Opt. Lett. 36, 1842 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. K. Efremidis and D. N. Christodoulides, Opt. Lett. 35, 4045 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 324, 229 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, W.

Chu, X.

Cook, D. J.

Couairon, A.

P. Panagiotopoulos, D. G. Papazoglou, A. Couairon, and S. Tzortzakis, Nat. Commun. 4, 2622 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Manceau, A. Averchi, F. Bonaretti, D. Faccio, P. Di Trapani, A. Couairon, and S. Tzortzakis, Opt. Lett. 34, 2165 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

J. Dai and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Lett. 39, 777 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 183 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[Crossref]

Di Trapani, P.

Dogariu, A.

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dolev, I.

I. Dolev, I. Kaminer, A. Shapira, M. Segev, and A. Arie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113903 (2012).
[Crossref]

Efremidis, N. K.

Faccio, D.

Falcone, R.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. Falcone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725 (1993).
[Crossref]

Fedorov, V. Y.

D. G. Papazoglou, V. Y. Fedorov, and S. Tzortzakis, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Conjugate waves focus in a peculiar way.”

Ganjovi, A.

S. Moradi, A. Ganjovi, F. Shojaei, and M. Saeed, Phys. Plasmas 22, 043108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gao, H.

Glownia, J. H.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gordon, S.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. Falcone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725 (1993).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, A.

A. Gorodetsky, A. D. Koulouklidis, M. Massaouti, and S. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 89, 033838 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guo, L.

Hamster, H.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. Falcone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hochstrasser, R. M.

Jhajj, N.

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 201113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kaminer, I.

I. Dolev, I. Kaminer, A. Shapira, M. Segev, and A. Arie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113903 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. Y.

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 201113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 183902 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kolesik, M.

M. Scheller, M. S. Mills, M.-A. Miri, W. Cheng, J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. N. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, and J. Moloney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 123902 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 324, 229 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, A. Roberts, D. Faccio, P. D. Trapani, and J. Moloney, Opt. Express 16, 15733 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koulouklidis, A. D.

A. Gorodetsky, A. D. Koulouklidis, M. Massaouti, and S. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 89, 033838 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. D. Koulouklidis, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Abruptly autofocusing harmonic beams.”

Kreß, M.

H. G. Roskos, M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Dai, J. Liu, and X.-C. Zhang, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 183 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

Löffler, T.

H. G. Roskos, M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

Manceau, J. M.

Massaouti, M.

A. Gorodetsky, A. D. Koulouklidis, M. Massaouti, and S. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. A 89, 033838 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. M. Manceau, M. Massaouti, and S. Tzortzakis, Opt. Lett. 35, 2424 (2010).
[Crossref]

Matsubara, E.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Milchberg, H. M.

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 201113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mills, M. S.

M. Scheller, M. S. Mills, M.-A. Miri, W. Cheng, J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. N. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Zhang, J. Prakash, Z. Zhang, M. S. Mills, N. K. Efremidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and Z. Chen, Opt. Lett. 36, 2883 (2011).
[Crossref]

Miri, M.-A.

M. Scheller, M. S. Mills, M.-A. Miri, W. Cheng, J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. N. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moloney, J.

Moloney, J. V.

M. Scheller, M. S. Mills, M.-A. Miri, W. Cheng, J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. N. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 324, 229 (2009).
[Crossref]

Moradi, S.

S. Moradi, A. Ganjovi, F. Shojaei, and M. Saeed, Phys. Plasmas 22, 043108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nagai, M.

E. Matsubara, M. Nagai, and M. Ashida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Oh, T. I.

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 201113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. S. You, T. I. Oh, and K. Y. Kim, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 183902 (2012).
[Crossref]

Panagiotopoulos, P.

P. Panagiotopoulos, D. G. Papazoglou, A. Couairon, and S. Tzortzakis, Nat. Commun. 4, 2622 (2013).
[Crossref]

Papazoglou, D. G.

P. Panagiotopoulos, D. G. Papazoglou, A. Couairon, and S. Tzortzakis, Nat. Commun. 4, 2622 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. G. Papazoglou, N. K. Efremidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and S. Tzortzakis, Opt. Lett. 36, 1842 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Abdollahpour, S. Suntsov, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253901 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. D. Koulouklidis, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Abruptly autofocusing harmonic beams.”

D. G. Papazoglou, V. Y. Fedorov, and S. Tzortzakis, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Conjugate waves focus in a peculiar way.”

Polynkin, P.

M. Scheller, M. S. Mills, M.-A. Miri, W. Cheng, J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. N. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, and J. Moloney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 123902 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 324, 229 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, A. Roberts, D. Faccio, P. D. Trapani, and J. Moloney, Opt. Express 16, 15733 (2008).
[Crossref]

Prakash, J.

Roberts, A.

Rodriguez, G.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rosenthal, E. W.

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, and K. Y. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 201113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roskos, H. G.

V. Blank, M. D. Thomson, and H. G. Roskos, New J. Phys. 15, 075023 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. G. Roskos, M. D. Thomson, M. Kreß, and T. Löffler, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 349 (2007).
[Crossref]

Saeed, M.

S. Moradi, A. Ganjovi, F. Shojaei, and M. Saeed, Phys. Plasmas 22, 043108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Scheller, M.

M. Scheller, M. S. Mills, M.-A. Miri, W. Cheng, J. V. Moloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. N. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[Crossref]

Segev, M.

I. Dolev, I. Kaminer, A. Shapira, M. Segev, and A. Arie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113903 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shapira, A.

I. Dolev, I. Kaminer, A. Shapira, M. Segev, and A. Arie, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 113903 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shojaei, F.

S. Moradi, A. Ganjovi, F. Shojaei, and M. Saeed, Phys. Plasmas 22, 043108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Siviloglou, G. A.

P. Polynkin, M. Kolesik, J. V. Moloney, G. A. Siviloglou, and D. N. Christodoulides, Science 324, 229 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. A. Siviloglou, J. Broky, A. Dogariu, and D. N. Christodoulides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213901 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, A.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. Falcone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2725 (1993).
[Crossref]

Suntsov, S.

D. Abdollahpour, S. Suntsov, D. G. Papazoglou, and S. Tzortzakis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253901 (2010).
[Crossref]

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thomson, M. D.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental setup: SLM, spatial light modulator; OD, opaque disk, onto a transparent glass slide; L, lens; PM, parabolic mirror; M, mirror. Inset, top right: schematic comparison between the radial intensity distribution of the AAF and the Gaussian beam. Inset, top left: zoom-in on the beam area before and after the glass slide. Case 1 uses the Gaussian beam; the glass slide is shifted so the OD is removed from the beam path. Case 2 uses the AAF beam; the OD is moved back into the center of the beam to block the unwanted part. (b) Fluorescence false color images of AAF beam plasmas (top 5) with pulse energy from 0.25 to 0.65 mJ, and Gaussian beam plasma (bottom) with pulse energy 0.65 mJ. The Gaussian plasma image intensity has been reduced 25 times to reach similar visibility of the AAF beam plasmas.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Typical THz waveform generated from the AAF-beam-induced plasma pumped with a pulse energy of 0.65 mJ. (b) The corresponding spectrum. (c) THz emission peak amplitude versus the β -BBO distance from the focus: blue dots, experimental data; blue solid curve, FWM model fitting result; black dashed curve, nonlinear fitting envelope taking into account the SH generation efficiency change as the β -BBO is moving toward the focus. The insets show two sample THz waveforms having opposite polarities.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Emitted THz wave peak amplitude as a function of total pump pulse energy (800 and 400 nm). Red dots, experimental data from the AAF beam; red dashed line, fitting of the AAF data with the FWM model; black squares, data from Gaussian beam under the same initial conditions as a comparison. The error bars show the measurement standard deviation of each point.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Fluorescence image comparison between an AAF beam plasma and a Gaussian plasma (intensity reduced by 20 times), both generated with pump pulse energy of 0.5 mJ. (b) Measured THz waveforms and (c) their corresponding normalized spectra generated by the two plasmas in (a). Normalized simulations of THz radiation spectra (d) without and (e) with the 3-mm-thick ZnTe detection bandwidth limitation; the inset in (d) is the enlarged version of the blue area (0–4 THz). Red solid curves, emission from AAF plasma; black dashed curves, emission from Gaussian plasma.

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