Abstract

Collection of weak signals from remote locations is the primary goal and the primary hurdle of optical standoff detection schemes such as light detection and ranging and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Typically, the measured signal is enhanced using large-NA collection optics and high-gain detectors. We show that the signal in remote detection techniques can be enhanced by using a long-lived air waveguide generated by an array of femtosecond filaments. We present a proof-of-principle experiment using an air plasma spark source and a 1m air waveguide showing an increase in the collected signal of 50%. For standoff distances of 100 m, this implies that the signal-to-noise ratio can be increased by a factor 104.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. X 4, 011027 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 143601 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, S. Zahedpour, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Lett. 39, 1290 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, M. Mills, M. Miri, W. Cheng, J. Maloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

2012

2011

P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, and M. Scully, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Châteauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J.-C. Kieffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Scaffidi, J. Pender, W. Pearman, S. R. Goode, B. W. Colston, J. C. Carter, and S. M. Angel, Appl. Opt. 42, 6099 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1978

Ališauskas, S.

Andre, Y. B.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

André, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Angel, S. M.

Antonsen, T.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. P. Palastro, A. B. Fallahkair, E. W. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baltuška, A.

Biegert, J.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birnbaum, R.

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. X 4, 011027 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carter, J. C.

Cerullo, G.

Châteauneuf, M.

M. Châteauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J.-C. Kieffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-H.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. P. Palastro, A. B. Fallahkair, E. W. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.

M. Scheller, M. Mills, M. Miri, W. Cheng, J. Maloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.-H.

Chin, S. L.

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D.

M. Scheller, M. Mills, M. Miri, W. Cheng, J. Maloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Cleon, L.-M.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Colston, B. W.

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, C.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Danielius, R.

Dubois, J.

M. Châteauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J.-C. Kieffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fallahkair, A. B.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. P. Palastro, A. B. Fallahkair, E. W. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

Fleck, J.

Franco, M.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giniunas, L.

Glownia, J. H.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goode, S. R.

Gordon, D.

P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, and M. Scully, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hafizi, B.

P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, and M. Scully, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C. P.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Houard, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jhajj, N.

Kaminer, I.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Kartashov, D.

Kasparian, J.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.-C.

M. Châteauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J.-C. Kieffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kolesik, M.

M. Scheller, M. Mills, M. Miri, W. Cheng, J. Maloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Kornelis, W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lahav, O.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Lanin, A. A.

Levi, L.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Liu, J.

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malevich, P. N.

Maloney, J.

M. Scheller, M. Mills, M. Miri, W. Cheng, J. Maloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

Mejean, G.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Méjean, G.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H. M.

S. Zahedpour, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 143601 (2014).
[CrossRef]

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. X 4, 011027 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, S. Zahedpour, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Lett. 39, 1290 (2014).
[CrossRef]

N. Jhajj, Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Express 21, 28980 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Cheng, J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Express 21, 4740 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. P. Palastro, A. B. Fallahkair, E. W. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mills, M.

M. Scheller, M. Mills, M. Miri, W. Cheng, J. Maloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Miri, M.

M. Scheller, M. Mills, M. Miri, W. Cheng, J. Maloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nemirovsky, J.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Nemirovsky, R. A.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Orr, I.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

Palastro, J. P.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. P. Palastro, A. B. Fallahkair, E. W. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Payeur, S.

M. Châteauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J.-C. Kieffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pearman, W.

Peñano, J.

P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, and M. Scully, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pender, J.

Pierlot, P.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polynkin, P.

M. Scheller, M. Mills, M. Miri, W. Cheng, J. Maloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pu, Z.

Pugžlys, A.

Rodriguez, G.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rohwetter, P.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosenthal, E. W.

N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. X 4, 011027 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wahlstrand, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, S. Zahedpour, and H. M. Milchberg, Opt. Lett. 39, 1290 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. P. Palastro, A. B. Fallahkair, E. W. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
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Scaffidi, J.

Scheller, M.

M. Scheller, M. Mills, M. Miri, W. Cheng, J. Maloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
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P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, and M. Scully, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

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P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, and M. Scully, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Stelmaszczyk, K.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
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Stibenz, G.

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, Nat. Photonics 2, 605 (2008).
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S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. P. Palastro, A. B. Fallahkair, E. W. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023850 (2012).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
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P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
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J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
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J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
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Zheltikov, A. M.

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Appl. Phys. B

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 79, 673 (2004).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Houard, C. D’Amico, Y. Liu, Y. B. Andre, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, E. Salmon, P. Pierlot, and L.-M. Cleon, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171501 (2007).
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M. Châteauneuf, S. Payeur, J. Dubois, and J.-C. Kieffer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091104 (2008).
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P. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, and M. Scully, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 211102 (2011).
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J. Anal. At. Spectrom.

P. Rohwetter, J. Yu, G. Mejean, K. Stelmaszczyk, E. Salmon, J. Kasparian, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19, 437 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, and X.-C. Zhang, Nat. Photonics 4, 627 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, M. Mills, M. Miri, W. Cheng, J. Maloney, M. Kolesik, P. Polynkin, and D. Christodoulides, Nat. Photonics 8, 297 (2014).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Opt. Lett.

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A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, Phys. Rep. 441, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, J. P. Palastro, A. B. Fallahkair, E. W. Rosenthal, T. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. A 86, 023850 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, R. Birnbaum, J. K. Wahlstrand, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. X 4, 011027 (2014).
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Science

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, and L. Wöste, Science 301, 61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Levi, O. Lahav, R. A. Nemirovsky, J. Nemirovsky, I. Orr, I. Kaminer, M. Segev, and O. Cohen, “Long-lived waveguides and sound wave generation by laser filamentation,” arXiv:1307.3588 (2013).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup for demonstration of light collection and transport by the air waveguide. (a) Time evolution of the spectrally integrated emission of the spark (blue curve) and its running integral (red curve), (b) low-intensity image of the four-lobe beam focus generated by orthogonal half-pellicles (shown), and (c) low-intensity image of the eight-lobe beam focus generated by the segmented mirror (not shown).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Single-shot images of the breakdown spark light emerging from the exit of the guiding structures. (a) Single-filament-induced guide at 1.2 μs, (b) four-lobed acoustic guide at 3.2 μs, (c) eight-lobed acoustic guide at 1.4 μs, (d) four-lobed thermal guide at 250 μs, and (e) eight-lobed thermal guide at 100 μs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Source collection enhancement (blue) and peak signal enhancement (red) plotted versus filament–spark source delay for (a) single-filament acoustic guide, (b) four-lobed acoustic guide, (c) eight-lobed acoustic guide, (d) four-lobed thermal guide, and (e) eight-lobed thermal guide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Air spark spectrum collected near the source (red curve) and after transport in a 75 cm air waveguide (thermal guide from a quad-filament, blue curve). Characteristic lines are indicated on the spectrum. The red curve is raised for clarity. (Spectrometer: Ocean Optics HR2000+).

Equations (1)

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η 2 = 4 ( NA ) 2 ( a in w ) 2 ( L a out ) 2 α ,