Abstract

Using the two-step ablation process with femtosecond (fs) laser pulses, a homogeneous nanograting with a uniform period was formed on the stainless steel. The surface color was evaluated with a photograph taken as functions of an incident angle of white light and an observation angle. We have found that the color has more variation and brightness than that of the surface with a non-uniform periodic nanostructure produced with the single-beam fs laser pulses. The results show that the nanograting can spatially disperse well the incident light into individual wavelength owing to the diffraction with high efficiency. Calculation using the grating equation reproduced the characteristic change of the colors observed as functions of these angles.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

The reflection and transmission of light at a solid surface can be controlled by a periodic structure formed on the surface with a period size less than the wavelength of the incident light. Changing these optical properties in a visible region, the surface is colorizing, the so-called structural coloration [1]. Since this color is not due to the optical absorption by the bonding structure of molecules, the discoloration does not occur by the destruction of the molecular structure, which is induced by, for example, an irradiation of ultraviolet light. This significant advantage has attracted much interest in the method to produce a surface nanostructure inducing vivid and bright coloration, suggesting potential applications such as color marking and painting of an automotive body [2].

So far, several methods have been proposed to produce the nanostructures on solid surfaces [316]. Using the chemical oxidation [3,4] or the deposition of colloidal nanoparticles [5,6], the periodic structure with a uniform size can be formed homogeneously in a large area. The surface is colorizing homogeneously, where the color depends on the thickness of the oxidation layer or the size of nanoparticles. To draw figures and/or characters with different colors, the periodic structure is formed by using electron-beam lithography and etching process [7], or ablation with focused ion beam [8]. However, these methods for the color marking need much time to produce the nanostructure on the surface in a large area, leading to the large costs.

Laser pulses can also produce the structure in air to be able to apply the color marking [916]. Recently, high power laser systems with a high repetition rate and high-speed beam scanning systems have been developed and commercially available. This situation has been expected to reduce the process time and costs. However, it is difficult for the laser pulses to form the nanostructure to make vivid and bright colors, because the spatial resolution is usually limited to the order of the laser wavelength by the diffraction limit of light. To avoid this theoretical restriction, it has been reported the metal nanoparticle formation for plasmonic absorption [9], the oxide film formation for optical interference [10], and the periodic nanostructure (PNS) formation for optical diffraction [1116]. In these processes, the PNS formed with femtosecond (fs) laser pulses has been observed on various kinds of materials such as dielectrics [1723], semiconductors [2427], and metals [2832], which size is much below than the laser wavelength. This surface phenomena, therefore, has been focused on the application to the laser color marking. However, because the PNS has a non-uniform period size, the surface has poor diffraction efficiency and scatters the incident light strongly, resulting in the dull and dark coloration.

Miyaji and Miyazaki have proposed the dominant physical mechanism of the PNS formation on solid surfaces irradiated with the fs laser pulses [22,23,26,33,34], and developed new methods to fabricate the homogeneous PNS with a uniform period, the so-called nanograting [32,35]. While tight-focused fs laser pulses can form the homogeneous PNS having few grooves in the focal spot of few µm in diameter by using a microscope objective lens [36,37], our methods can offer an unique advantage that the nanograting can be formed in the whole area of few 100 µm in diameter with a low-numerical-aperture lens. This paper reports the vivid and bright coloration of the stainless steel (SUS) surface with the nanograting formed by the fs laser ablation. In the experiment, we evaluated the surface color with a photograph taken as functions of an incident angle of white light and an observation angle. Calculation using a simple model of diffraction reproduced well the characteristic changes of the colors observed as functions of these angles. The experimental and theoretical results clearly show that the nanograting can spatially disperse well the incident light into individual wavelength owing to the diffraction with high efficiency, leading to the vivid and bright coloration.

2. Experimental

2.1 Nanograting formation with femtosecond laser pulses

As a target, we used a polished SUS 304 plate of 10-mm square and 2-mm thickness. The root-mean-square value of the surface roughness was measured to be ∼ 2 nm with a scanning probe microscope (SPM). The target was held on an automatically xy translation stage. In the preliminary experiment, we measured the single-shot ablation threshold as 600 ± 10 mJ/cm2 for the SUS target.

The nanograting was formed on the SUS surface by using the two-step ablation process with the fs laser pulses [35]. We used linearly-polarized, 800-nm, 100-fs laser pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser system operated at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The optical setup for the ablation process was almost the same as that in the previous experiment [35]. Briefly, the fs laser output was split into two beams (1 and 2) with a half mirror, and the focused beams were superimposed at the target surface. The horizontally-polarized beam 1 and 2 were normally and obliquely incident on the target, respectively. The incident angle θ of beam 2 was set to be θ = 59° to make an interference pattern with the fringe period Λ = λ/sinθ = 933 nm. In the optical line of the beam 2, we set a retroreflector on an x stage to align the delay time between the beam 1 and 2. The beam 1 (beam 2) was focused with a 250-mm (200-mm) focal-length lens to the focal spot of 120 µm (75 µm) in diameter at the 1/e2 intensity. To form the distinct fringe pattern, the peak fluences F(1) and F(2) of beams 1 and 2 were independently controlled with a pair of half-wave plate and polarizer, the center of the focal spots of beam 1 and 2 was superimposed, and the delay time was optimized. In the first step, the beam 1 and 2 were focused on the target to overlap in space and time, and the fringe pattern was formed on the surface through ablation. Irradiating the beam 1 and 2, the stage was moved in a 1 mm × 1 mm area at a constant velocity v1. In the second step, the only beam 1 was irradiated on the surface with the fringe pattern. The stage was moved at a constant velocity v2 to form the nanograting in the 1 mm × 1 mm area on the SUS surface.

We observed morphological change of the target surface as functions of F(1), F(2), and v1 in the first step, and F(1) and v2 in the second step, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the SPM. The spatial-frequency distribution of the structured surface was evaluated with the two-dimensional Fourier transform of the SEM image. The period d was determined from the distribution in the direction parallel to the polarization direction.

2.2 Evaluation of surface color

The color of the target surface was evaluated with a photograph taken with a digital camera. Figure 1(a) shows a schematic illustration of the optical configuration for the color reading procedure. We use a light-emitted diode (LED) as a white light source. The light diffused by a paper set in front of the LED is illuminated uniformly on the whole of the target surface located 250 mm away from the LED at an incident angle (or so-called illumination angle) of α = 0–45°. The photograph of the target surface is taken by means of the camera (Canon, PowerShot SX60HS) located 250 mm away from the target at an angle (or so-called observation angle) of β = 15–75°. To avoid the incidence of the reflected light at the target surface into the camera directly, we observe the surface in the same direction as the LED. The groove direction of the structured SUS target is set perpendicular to the incident (zx) plane of the light, and the camera is set in the zx plane. The spectrum of the light from the LED was measured with a spectrometer. As shown in Fig. 1(b), the light has a broad spectrum in a visible region of λ = 420–700 nm. To evaluate the color of the target surface, the white balance and the exposure of the camera were adjusted with a following procedure. Firstly, illuminating with the light from the LED, we took the photograph of a white card in the color card 158a of the practical color coordinate system determined by Japan Color Research Institute. The white balance of the camera was adjusted so that the red (R), green (G), and blue (B) values in the acquired image data had the same value. Next, we set the exposure, the shutter speed, and the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) sensitivity to be F8, 0.3, and 100, respectively, so as not to saturate the RGB values in the image data of the structured surface observed at all of α and β.

 

Fig. 1. (a) Schematic drawing of color reading procedure of the SUS surface with the periodic structure, where α, β, and d is the incident angle of the light, the observation angle of the camera, and the period of the structure, respectively. (b) The spectrum of the light from the light-emitted diode (LED). The color bar in (b) represents the visible spectrum.

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To evaluate the color brightness given human intuitively, or relative sense to light and dark, we used the HSV (hue, saturation, value) color space, which can be transformed from standard RGB color space [38]. The brightness V of the color can be expressed numerically as V (%) = Max (R, G, B) / 255 × 100, where the RGB values (each 0 to 255) were obtained from the image data of the structured surface, and Max (R, G, B) denotes a maximum among the R, G, and B values.

3. Results and discussion

3.1 Surface morphology of the SUS surface irradiated with fs laser pulses

In the preliminary experiment, we fabricated the PNS on the SUS surface to compare with the coloration of the SUS surface with the nanograting formed by the two-step ablation. The single fs laser pulses (beam 1) were irradiated onto the surface at the fluence F for the scanning speed v. Figure 2(a) shows the SEM and SPM images of the PNS formed on the SUS surface at F = 600 mJ/cm2 for v = 40 µm/s, together with the spatial-frequency distribution transformed from the SEM image in the direction parallel to the polarization direction. The scanning direction was vertical. It clearly shows that line-like nanostructures extending in the direction perpendicular to the polarization direction are formed on the target and have a broad spatial-frequency distribution, corresponding to non-uniform periods in a range of d = 280–700 nm, which represents the peaks at d = 345 nm and d = 656 nm.

 

Fig. 2. SEM (upper) and SPM (middle) images of SUS surface irradiated with fs laser pulses, together with the spatial-frequency spectrum of the SEM image (bottom). (a) PNS at F = 600 mJ/cm2 for v = 40 µm/s, (b) interference pattern at F(1) = 400 mJ/cm2, F(2) = 300 mJ/cm2, and θ = 59° for v1 = 400 µm/s, and (c) nanograting at F(1) = 350 mJ/cm2 for v2 = 17 µm/s. The number at each peak in the spectrum denotes the period d in nm of the structure. The scanning direction is vertical on the images.

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Using the two-step ablation process, the nanograting was formed on the SUS surface. In the first step, we produced the interference pattern on the surface irradiated with the fs pulses (beam 1 and 2) at F(1) = 400 mJ/cm2 and F(2) = 300 mJ/cm2 for v1 = 400 µm/s, as shown in Fig. 2(b). The fringe pattern represents the depth of ∼ 60 nm and the frequency peak at Λ = 937 nm with the peaks of its harmonic components. In the second step, the interference pattern was downsized with the single fs pulses (beam 1) at F(1) = 350 mJ/cm2 for v2 = 17 µm/s. The scanning direction in the two-step process was vertical. As shown in Fig. 2(c), the surface structure is a homogeneous nanograting with a uniform period of d = 467 nm ∼ Λ/2, which is also seen with the isolated peak in the spectrum.

3.2 Color of the SUS surface irradiated with fs laser pulses

We took the photographs of the SUS surfaces with the PNS and the nanograting as functions of the illumination angle α and the observation angle β every 5°. The results are shown in Fig. 3. The blank area represents no observation, because the camera could not be set owing to interfere with the LED. The colors of the SUS with the PNS include blue, green, brown, and purple, as seen in Fig. 3(a). On the other hand, those with the nanograting include purple, blue, yellow, green, and red, which have more variation than those with the PNS, as seen in Fig. 3(b). In addition, we confirmed that these colors did not change five months later. To discuss the origin of the coloration, we consider the optical diffraction at the periodically structured surface. The incident angle α of light and the diffraction angle, here the observation angle β, should satisfy the grating equation described as

$${d}({\sin\alpha + \sin\beta } )\ = {\textrm {m}}{\lambda _{\textrm {D}}}$$
where d is a period of the structure, m is an integer, and λD is the wavelength of the diffracted light [39]. In Fig. 3, three lines are drawn as those satisfy A = sin α + sin β = 1.05 (dotted), 1.20 (dashed), and 1.35 (solid). The colors of the SUS with the nanograting appear to be blue at A = 1.05, green at A = 1.20, and red at A = 1.35, while those with the PNS appear to be brown at A = 1.05 and 1.20, and blue at A = 1.35. These results show that the same color is observed at α and β satisfying constant A, leading to a conclusion that the coloration is attributed to the diffraction of the incident light at the surface.

 

Fig. 3. Photograph of the SUS surface with (a) PNS and (b) nanograting taken at α and β. The dotted, dashed, and solid lines denote A = sin α + sin β = 1.05, 1.20, and 1.35, respectively. The size of the color pallet is 1-mm square. The blank area denotes no observation.

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To see the color difference between the SUS surfaces with the PNS and the nanograting, we calculated λD for these periodic structures. The results are shown in Table 1, where we set m = 1 in Eq. (1). Since the PNS has a broad frequency spectrum at peaks of d = 345, 656 nm, the incident light with λD = 362, 689 nm and λD = 414, 787 nm are strongly diffracted at A = 1.05 and 1.20, respectively. In a visible region, the intense red and weak green, and blue, components diffracted at the surface are mixed to look brown. Because λD shifts to be larger in larger A, the mixture color looks to change from light brown to dark brown. At A = 1.35, λD is 467, 886 nm, resulting in the coloration in blue. For the nanograting with a uniform period of d = 467 nm, λD at A = 1.05, 1.20, and 1.35 are 490, 560, and 630 nm, respectively. These wavelengths of the diffracted light at the structured surface are in good agreement with the colors shown in Fig. 3. The results show that the first-order diffracted light at the surface should strongly determine the surface color, and that the homogeneous nanograting with a uniform period can clearly separate the incident light into individual wavelength to look vivid colors.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Wavelength λD in nm (color) of the first-order diffracted light at the SUS surface with the PNS and the nanograting as functions of A and d.

Finally, to evaluate the brightness V of the color of the SUS surface, we calculated V from the acquired image data of the surface. The result is shown in Fig. 4. Comparing Fig. 4(a) with Fig. 3(a), the surface with the PNS has the high brightness of V > 80% in brown and green. As seen in Fig. 3(b) and 4(b), the surface with the nanograting has the high brightness of V > 80% in the colors continuously distributing from purple to red, and the area of V > 80% is larger than that with the PNS. These results indicate that the nanograting has higher diffraction efficiency in the visible region than the PNS.

 

Fig. 4. Brightness V of the color of the SUS surface with (a) the PNS and (b) the nanograting plotted as functions of α and β. The blank area denotes no observation.

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4. Conclusion

We have investigated the coloration of the SUS surface having the nanograting structure formed by the two-step ablation process with fs laser pulses. The results demonstrate that the surface has more color variation and brightness than that with a periodic nanostructure produced with the single-beam fs laser pulses, leading to a conclusion that the nanograting can spatially disperse well the incident light into individual wavelength owing to diffraction with high efficiency. Calculation using the diffraction equation reproduced the characteristic change of the color observed as functions of these angles.

Funding

Casio Science Promotion Foundation (2016); Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)KAKENHI 18H01894.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank J. Yamada for the preliminary experiment.

References

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3. T. E. Evans, “Film formation on stainless steel in a solution containing chromic and sulphuric acids,” Corros. Sci. 17(2), 105–124 (1977). [CrossRef]  

4. L. S. Andrade, S. C. Xavier, R. C. Rocha-Filho, N. Bocchi, and S. R. Biaggio, “Electropolishing of AISI-304 tainless steel using an oxidizing solution originally used for electrochemical coloration,” Electrochim. Acta 50(13), 2623–2627 (2005). [CrossRef]  

5. Y. Takeoka, S. Yoshioka, A. Takano, S. Arai, K. Nueangnoraj, H. Nishihara, M. Teshima, Y. Ohtsuka, and T. Seki, “Production of Colored Pigments with Amorphous Arrays of Black and White Colloidal Particles,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52(28), 7261–7265 (2013). [CrossRef]  

6. K. Katagiri, Y. Tanaka, K. Uemura, K. Inumaru, T. Seki, and Y. Takeoka, “Structural color coating films composed of an amorphous array of colloidal particles via electrophoretic deposition,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(3), e355 (2017). [CrossRef]  

7. A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 24(6), 3248 (2006). [CrossRef]  

8. K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant Blue Observation from a Morpho-Butterfly-Scale Quasi-Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005). [CrossRef]  

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10. Y. Lu, X. Shi, Z. Huang, T. Li, M. Zhang, J. Czajkowski, T. Fabritius, M. Huttula, and W. Cao, “Nanosecond laser coloration on stainless steel surface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7092 (2017). [CrossRef]  

11. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008). [CrossRef]  

12. B. Dusser, Z. Sagan, H. Soder, N. Faure, J. P. Colombier, M. Jourlin, and E. Audouard, “Controlled nanostructures formation by ultra fast laser pulses for color marking,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2913–2924 (2010). [CrossRef]  

13. J. Yao, C. Zhang, H. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Wu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Selective appearance of several laser-induced periodic surface structure patterns on a metal surface using structural colors produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7625–7632 (2012). [CrossRef]  

14. P. Fan, M. Zhong, L. Li, P. Schmitz, C. Lin, J. Long, and H. Zhang, “Sequential color change on copper surfaces via micro/nano structure modification induced by a picosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(8), 083518 (2013). [CrossRef]  

15. G. Li, J. Li, Y. Hu, C. Zhang, X. Li, J. Chu, and W. Huang, “Femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surface with different wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1189–1196 (2015). [CrossRef]  

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36. R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006). [CrossRef]  

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39. See, e.g., B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, 1991), Chap. 2.4.

References

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  1. S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshitaka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Kondo and M. Ishii, “Application of Structural Color Technology for Automotive Paint,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0617 (2005).
  3. T. E. Evans, “Film formation on stainless steel in a solution containing chromic and sulphuric acids,” Corros. Sci. 17(2), 105–124 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  4. L. S. Andrade, S. C. Xavier, R. C. Rocha-Filho, N. Bocchi, and S. R. Biaggio, “Electropolishing of AISI-304 tainless steel using an oxidizing solution originally used for electrochemical coloration,” Electrochim. Acta 50(13), 2623–2627 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Takeoka, S. Yoshioka, A. Takano, S. Arai, K. Nueangnoraj, H. Nishihara, M. Teshima, Y. Ohtsuka, and T. Seki, “Production of Colored Pigments with Amorphous Arrays of Black and White Colloidal Particles,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52(28), 7261–7265 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Katagiri, Y. Tanaka, K. Uemura, K. Inumaru, T. Seki, and Y. Takeoka, “Structural color coating films composed of an amorphous array of colloidal particles via electrophoretic deposition,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(3), e355 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 24(6), 3248 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant Blue Observation from a Morpho-Butterfly-Scale Quasi-Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  9. J.-M. Guay, A. C. Lesina, G. Côté, M. Charron, D. Poitras, L. Ramunno, P. Berini, and A. Weck, “Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 16095 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Lu, X. Shi, Z. Huang, T. Li, M. Zhang, J. Czajkowski, T. Fabritius, M. Huttula, and W. Cao, “Nanosecond laser coloration on stainless steel surface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7092 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. Dusser, Z. Sagan, H. Soder, N. Faure, J. P. Colombier, M. Jourlin, and E. Audouard, “Controlled nanostructures formation by ultra fast laser pulses for color marking,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2913–2924 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Yao, C. Zhang, H. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Wu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Selective appearance of several laser-induced periodic surface structure patterns on a metal surface using structural colors produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7625–7632 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. Fan, M. Zhong, L. Li, P. Schmitz, C. Lin, J. Long, and H. Zhang, “Sequential color change on copper surfaces via micro/nano structure modification induced by a picosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(8), 083518 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. G. Li, J. Li, Y. Hu, C. Zhang, X. Li, J. Chu, and W. Huang, “Femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surface with different wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1189–1196 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Li, J. Qian, F. Bai, Z. Wang, C. Wang, W. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Q. Zhao, “Azimuthal angle- and scanning pitch-dependent colorization of metals by ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 122(4), 282 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, “Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 71(6), 657–665 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 891–895 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  19. N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76(6), 983–985 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  20. Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Ultrafast dynamics of periodic nanostructure formation on diamondlike carbon films irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191902 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  22. G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Nanoscale ablation on patterned diamondlike carbon film with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123102 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Origin of periodicity in nanostructuring on thin film surfaces ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16265–16271 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  25. G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, “Femtosecond laser interaction with silicon under water confinement,” Thin Solid Films 467(1-2), 334–341 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  26. G. Miyaji, K. Miyazaki, K. Zhang, T. Yoshifuji, and J. Fujita, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic nanostructure formation on crystalline silicon surface immersed in water,” Opt. Express 20(14), 14848–14856 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. Q. Z. Zhao, S. Malzer, and L. J. Wang, “Formation of subwavelength periodic structures on tungsten induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1932–1934 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. L. Qi, K. Nishii, and Y. Namba, “Regular subwavelength surface structures induced by femtosecond laser pulses on stainless steel,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1846–1848 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  30. E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, S. I. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond Laser Writing of Subwave One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Nanostructures on a Titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  31. N. Yasumaru, E. Sentoku, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on nitrided stainless steel,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 264, 611–615 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  32. K. Miyazaki, G. Miyaji, and T. Inoue, “Nanograting formation on metals in air with interfering femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 071103 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  33. N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Glassy carbon layer formed in diamond-like carbon films with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 425–427 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  34. G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Role of multiple shots of femtosecond laser pulses in periodic surface nanoablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071910 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  35. K. Miyazaki and G. Miyaji, “Nanograting formation through surface plasmon fields induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153108 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  36. R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  37. I. Gnilitskyi, T. J.-Y. Derrien, Y. Levy, N. M. Bulgakova, T. Mocek, and L. Orazi, “High-speed manufacturing of highly regular femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures: physical origin of regularity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8485 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  38. A. R. Smith, “Color Gamut Transform Pairs,” Comput. Gr. 12(3), 12–19 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  39. See, e.g., B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, 1991), Chap. 2.4.

2017 (4)

K. Katagiri, Y. Tanaka, K. Uemura, K. Inumaru, T. Seki, and Y. Takeoka, “Structural color coating films composed of an amorphous array of colloidal particles via electrophoretic deposition,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(3), e355 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-M. Guay, A. C. Lesina, G. Côté, M. Charron, D. Poitras, L. Ramunno, P. Berini, and A. Weck, “Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 16095 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Lu, X. Shi, Z. Huang, T. Li, M. Zhang, J. Czajkowski, T. Fabritius, M. Huttula, and W. Cao, “Nanosecond laser coloration on stainless steel surface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7092 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Gnilitskyi, T. J.-Y. Derrien, Y. Levy, N. M. Bulgakova, T. Mocek, and L. Orazi, “High-speed manufacturing of highly regular femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures: physical origin of regularity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8485 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

Y. Li, J. Qian, F. Bai, Z. Wang, C. Wang, W. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Q. Zhao, “Azimuthal angle- and scanning pitch-dependent colorization of metals by ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 122(4), 282 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

G. Li, J. Li, Y. Hu, C. Zhang, X. Li, J. Chu, and W. Huang, “Femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surface with different wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1189–1196 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Miyazaki, G. Miyaji, and T. Inoue, “Nanograting formation on metals in air with interfering femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 071103 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Role of multiple shots of femtosecond laser pulses in periodic surface nanoablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071910 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Miyazaki and G. Miyaji, “Nanograting formation through surface plasmon fields induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153108 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Fan, M. Zhong, L. Li, P. Schmitz, C. Lin, J. Long, and H. Zhang, “Sequential color change on copper surfaces via micro/nano structure modification induced by a picosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(8), 083518 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Takeoka, S. Yoshioka, A. Takano, S. Arai, K. Nueangnoraj, H. Nishihara, M. Teshima, Y. Ohtsuka, and T. Seki, “Production of Colored Pigments with Amorphous Arrays of Black and White Colloidal Particles,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52(28), 7261–7265 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Yasumaru, E. Sentoku, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on nitrided stainless steel,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 264, 611–615 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. Yao, C. Zhang, H. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Wu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Selective appearance of several laser-induced periodic surface structure patterns on a metal surface using structural colors produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7625–7632 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji, K. Miyazaki, K. Zhang, T. Yoshifuji, and J. Fujita, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic nanostructure formation on crystalline silicon surface immersed in water,” Opt. Express 20(14), 14848–14856 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

L. Qi, K. Nishii, and Y. Namba, “Regular subwavelength surface structures induced by femtosecond laser pulses on stainless steel,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1846–1848 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, S. I. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond Laser Writing of Subwave One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Nanostructures on a Titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Origin of periodicity in nanostructuring on thin film surfaces ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16265–16271 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshitaka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Q. Z. Zhao, S. Malzer, and L. J. Wang, “Formation of subwavelength periodic structures on tungsten induced by ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1932–1934 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Nanoscale ablation on patterned diamondlike carbon film with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Ultrafast dynamics of periodic nanostructure formation on diamondlike carbon films irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191902 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 24(6), 3248 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant Blue Observation from a Morpho-Butterfly-Scale Quasi-Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. S. Andrade, S. C. Xavier, R. C. Rocha-Filho, N. Bocchi, and S. R. Biaggio, “Electropolishing of AISI-304 tainless steel using an oxidizing solution originally used for electrochemical coloration,” Electrochim. Acta 50(13), 2623–2627 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Glassy carbon layer formed in diamond-like carbon films with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 425–427 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, “Femtosecond laser interaction with silicon under water confinement,” Thin Solid Films 467(1-2), 334–341 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76(6), 983–985 (2003).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 891–895 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, “Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 71(6), 657–665 (2000).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

A. R. Smith, “Color Gamut Transform Pairs,” Comput. Gr. 12(3), 12–19 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

T. E. Evans, “Film formation on stainless steel in a solution containing chromic and sulphuric acids,” Corros. Sci. 17(2), 105–124 (1977).
[Crossref]

Andrade, L. S.

L. S. Andrade, S. C. Xavier, R. C. Rocha-Filho, N. Bocchi, and S. R. Biaggio, “Electropolishing of AISI-304 tainless steel using an oxidizing solution originally used for electrochemical coloration,” Electrochim. Acta 50(13), 2623–2627 (2005).
[Crossref]

Arai, S.

Y. Takeoka, S. Yoshioka, A. Takano, S. Arai, K. Nueangnoraj, H. Nishihara, M. Teshima, Y. Ohtsuka, and T. Seki, “Production of Colored Pigments with Amorphous Arrays of Black and White Colloidal Particles,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52(28), 7261–7265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Audouard, E.

Bai, F.

Y. Li, J. Qian, F. Bai, Z. Wang, C. Wang, W. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Q. Zhao, “Azimuthal angle- and scanning pitch-dependent colorization of metals by ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 122(4), 282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berini, P.

J.-M. Guay, A. C. Lesina, G. Côté, M. Charron, D. Poitras, L. Ramunno, P. Berini, and A. Weck, “Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 16095 (2017).
[Crossref]

Biaggio, S. R.

L. S. Andrade, S. C. Xavier, R. C. Rocha-Filho, N. Bocchi, and S. R. Biaggio, “Electropolishing of AISI-304 tainless steel using an oxidizing solution originally used for electrochemical coloration,” Electrochim. Acta 50(13), 2623–2627 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bocchi, N.

L. S. Andrade, S. C. Xavier, R. C. Rocha-Filho, N. Bocchi, and S. R. Biaggio, “Electropolishing of AISI-304 tainless steel using an oxidizing solution originally used for electrochemical coloration,” Electrochim. Acta 50(13), 2623–2627 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, “Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 71(6), 657–665 (2000).
[Crossref]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bulgakova, N. M.

I. Gnilitskyi, T. J.-Y. Derrien, Y. Levy, N. M. Bulgakova, T. Mocek, and L. Orazi, “High-speed manufacturing of highly regular femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures: physical origin of regularity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

Y. Lu, X. Shi, Z. Huang, T. Li, M. Zhang, J. Czajkowski, T. Fabritius, M. Huttula, and W. Cao, “Nanosecond laser coloration on stainless steel surface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7092 (2017).
[Crossref]

Charron, M.

J.-M. Guay, A. C. Lesina, G. Côté, M. Charron, D. Poitras, L. Ramunno, P. Berini, and A. Weck, “Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 16095 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chu, J.

G. Li, J. Li, Y. Hu, C. Zhang, X. Li, J. Chu, and W. Huang, “Femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surface with different wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1189–1196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Colombier, J. P.

Costache, F.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 891–895 (2002).
[Crossref]

Côté, G.

J.-M. Guay, A. C. Lesina, G. Côté, M. Charron, D. Poitras, L. Ramunno, P. Berini, and A. Weck, “Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 16095 (2017).
[Crossref]

Czajkowski, J.

Y. Lu, X. Shi, Z. Huang, T. Li, M. Zhang, J. Czajkowski, T. Fabritius, M. Huttula, and W. Cao, “Nanosecond laser coloration on stainless steel surface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7092 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q.

J. Yao, C. Zhang, H. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Wu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Selective appearance of several laser-induced periodic surface structure patterns on a metal surface using structural colors produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7625–7632 (2012).
[Crossref]

Daminelli, G.

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, “Femtosecond laser interaction with silicon under water confinement,” Thin Solid Films 467(1-2), 334–341 (2004).
[Crossref]

Derrien, T. J.-Y.

I. Gnilitskyi, T. J.-Y. Derrien, Y. Levy, N. M. Bulgakova, T. Mocek, and L. Orazi, “High-speed manufacturing of highly regular femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures: physical origin of regularity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dusser, B.

Emel’yanov, V. I.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, S. I. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond Laser Writing of Subwave One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Nanostructures on a Titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Evans, T. E.

T. E. Evans, “Film formation on stainless steel in a solution containing chromic and sulphuric acids,” Corros. Sci. 17(2), 105–124 (1977).
[Crossref]

Fabritius, T.

Y. Lu, X. Shi, Z. Huang, T. Li, M. Zhang, J. Czajkowski, T. Fabritius, M. Huttula, and W. Cao, “Nanosecond laser coloration on stainless steel surface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7092 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fan, P.

P. Fan, M. Zhong, L. Li, P. Schmitz, C. Lin, J. Long, and H. Zhang, “Sequential color change on copper surfaces via micro/nano structure modification induced by a picosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(8), 083518 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, W.

Y. Li, J. Qian, F. Bai, Z. Wang, C. Wang, W. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Q. Zhao, “Azimuthal angle- and scanning pitch-dependent colorization of metals by ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 122(4), 282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fang, R.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

Faure, N.

Fujita, J.

Gnilitskyi, I.

I. Gnilitskyi, T. J.-Y. Derrien, Y. Levy, N. M. Bulgakova, T. Mocek, and L. Orazi, “High-speed manufacturing of highly regular femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures: physical origin of regularity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Golosov, E. V.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, S. I. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond Laser Writing of Subwave One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Nanostructures on a Titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gopal, A. V.

J. Yao, C. Zhang, H. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Wu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Selective appearance of several laser-induced periodic surface structure patterns on a metal surface using structural colors produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7625–7632 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gottmann, J.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guay, J.-M.

J.-M. Guay, A. C. Lesina, G. Côté, M. Charron, D. Poitras, L. Ramunno, P. Berini, and A. Weck, “Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 16095 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Haruyama, Y.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant Blue Observation from a Morpho-Butterfly-Scale Quasi-Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
[Crossref]

Haugen, H. K.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

Henyk, M.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 891–895 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hirai, Y.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 24(6), 3248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Höhm, S.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

Horn, A.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hoshino, T.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant Blue Observation from a Morpho-Butterfly-Scale Quasi-Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

G. Li, J. Li, Y. Hu, C. Zhang, X. Li, J. Chu, and W. Huang, “Femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surface with different wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1189–1196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

G. Li, J. Li, Y. Hu, C. Zhang, X. Li, J. Chu, and W. Huang, “Femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surface with different wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1189–1196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, Z.

Y. Lu, X. Shi, Z. Huang, T. Li, M. Zhang, J. Czajkowski, T. Fabritius, M. Huttula, and W. Cao, “Nanosecond laser coloration on stainless steel surface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7092 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huttula, M.

Y. Lu, X. Shi, Z. Huang, T. Li, M. Zhang, J. Czajkowski, T. Fabritius, M. Huttula, and W. Cao, “Nanosecond laser coloration on stainless steel surface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7092 (2017).
[Crossref]

Inoue, T.

K. Miyazaki, G. Miyaji, and T. Inoue, “Nanograting formation on metals in air with interfering femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 071103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Inumaru, K.

K. Katagiri, Y. Tanaka, K. Uemura, K. Inumaru, T. Seki, and Y. Takeoka, “Structural color coating films composed of an amorphous array of colloidal particles via electrophoretic deposition,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(3), e355 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ionin, A. A.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, S. I. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond Laser Writing of Subwave One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Nanostructures on a Titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ishii, M.

A. Kondo and M. Ishii, “Application of Structural Color Technology for Automotive Paint,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0617 (2005).

Ishikawa, Y.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 24(6), 3248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jourlin, M.

Kanda, K.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant Blue Observation from a Morpho-Butterfly-Scale Quasi-Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
[Crossref]

Katagiri, K.

K. Katagiri, Y. Tanaka, K. Uemura, K. Inumaru, T. Seki, and Y. Takeoka, “Structural color coating films composed of an amorphous array of colloidal particles via electrophoretic deposition,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(3), e355 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kautek, W.

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, “Femtosecond laser interaction with silicon under water confinement,” Thin Solid Films 467(1-2), 334–341 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, “Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 71(6), 657–665 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kinoshita, S.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshitaka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kiuchi, J.

N. Yasumaru, E. Sentoku, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on nitrided stainless steel,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 264, 611–615 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Glassy carbon layer formed in diamond-like carbon films with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 425–427 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76(6), 983–985 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kolobov, Yu. R.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, S. I. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond Laser Writing of Subwave One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Nanostructures on a Titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kondo, A.

A. Kondo and M. Ishii, “Application of Structural Color Technology for Automotive Paint,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0617 (2005).

Kreutz, E. W.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006).
[Crossref]

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, “Femtosecond laser interaction with silicon under water confinement,” Thin Solid Films 467(1-2), 334–341 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kudryashov, S. I.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, S. I. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond Laser Writing of Subwave One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Nanostructures on a Titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuwahara, Y.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 24(6), 3248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lan, S.

J. Yao, C. Zhang, H. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Wu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Selective appearance of several laser-induced periodic surface structure patterns on a metal surface using structural colors produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7625–7632 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lesina, A. C.

J.-M. Guay, A. C. Lesina, G. Côté, M. Charron, D. Poitras, L. Ramunno, P. Berini, and A. Weck, “Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 16095 (2017).
[Crossref]

Levy, Y.

I. Gnilitskyi, T. J.-Y. Derrien, Y. Levy, N. M. Bulgakova, T. Mocek, and L. Orazi, “High-speed manufacturing of highly regular femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures: physical origin of regularity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

G. Li, J. Li, Y. Hu, C. Zhang, X. Li, J. Chu, and W. Huang, “Femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surface with different wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1189–1196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

G. Li, J. Li, Y. Hu, C. Zhang, X. Li, J. Chu, and W. Huang, “Femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surface with different wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1189–1196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

P. Fan, M. Zhong, L. Li, P. Schmitz, C. Lin, J. Long, and H. Zhang, “Sequential color change on copper surfaces via micro/nano structure modification induced by a picosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(8), 083518 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

Y. Lu, X. Shi, Z. Huang, T. Li, M. Zhang, J. Czajkowski, T. Fabritius, M. Huttula, and W. Cao, “Nanosecond laser coloration on stainless steel surface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7092 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

G. Li, J. Li, Y. Hu, C. Zhang, X. Li, J. Chu, and W. Huang, “Femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surface with different wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1189–1196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, J. Qian, F. Bai, Z. Wang, C. Wang, W. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Q. Zhao, “Azimuthal angle- and scanning pitch-dependent colorization of metals by ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 122(4), 282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liao, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ligachev, S. I.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, S. I. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond Laser Writing of Subwave One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Nanostructures on a Titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.

P. Fan, M. Zhong, L. Li, P. Schmitz, C. Lin, J. Long, and H. Zhang, “Sequential color change on copper surfaces via micro/nano structure modification induced by a picosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(8), 083518 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

J. Yao, C. Zhang, H. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Wu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Selective appearance of several laser-induced periodic surface structure patterns on a metal surface using structural colors produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7625–7632 (2012).
[Crossref]

Long, J.

P. Fan, M. Zhong, L. Li, P. Schmitz, C. Lin, J. Long, and H. Zhang, “Sequential color change on copper surfaces via micro/nano structure modification induced by a picosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(8), 083518 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, X. Shi, Z. Huang, T. Li, M. Zhang, J. Czajkowski, T. Fabritius, M. Huttula, and W. Cao, “Nanosecond laser coloration on stainless steel surface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7092 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lysak, T. M.

J. Yao, C. Zhang, H. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Wu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Selective appearance of several laser-induced periodic surface structure patterns on a metal surface using structural colors produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7625–7632 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

Malzer, S.

Matsui, S.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant Blue Observation from a Morpho-Butterfly-Scale Quasi-Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miyaji, G.

K. Miyazaki, G. Miyaji, and T. Inoue, “Nanograting formation on metals in air with interfering femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 071103 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Miyazaki and G. Miyaji, “Nanograting formation through surface plasmon fields induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153108 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Role of multiple shots of femtosecond laser pulses in periodic surface nanoablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071910 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji, K. Miyazaki, K. Zhang, T. Yoshifuji, and J. Fujita, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic nanostructure formation on crystalline silicon surface immersed in water,” Opt. Express 20(14), 14848–14856 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Origin of periodicity in nanostructuring on thin film surfaces ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16265–16271 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Nanoscale ablation on patterned diamondlike carbon film with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Ultrafast dynamics of periodic nanostructure formation on diamondlike carbon films irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191902 (2006).
[Crossref]

Miyamura, Y.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 24(6), 3248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, J.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshitaka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, K.

K. Miyazaki, G. Miyaji, and T. Inoue, “Nanograting formation on metals in air with interfering femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 071103 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Yasumaru, E. Sentoku, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on nitrided stainless steel,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 264, 611–615 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Role of multiple shots of femtosecond laser pulses in periodic surface nanoablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071910 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Miyazaki and G. Miyaji, “Nanograting formation through surface plasmon fields induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153108 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji, K. Miyazaki, K. Zhang, T. Yoshifuji, and J. Fujita, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic nanostructure formation on crystalline silicon surface immersed in water,” Opt. Express 20(14), 14848–14856 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Origin of periodicity in nanostructuring on thin film surfaces ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16265–16271 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Nanoscale ablation on patterned diamondlike carbon film with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Ultrafast dynamics of periodic nanostructure formation on diamondlike carbon films irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191902 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Glassy carbon layer formed in diamond-like carbon films with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 425–427 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76(6), 983–985 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mocek, T.

I. Gnilitskyi, T. J.-Y. Derrien, Y. Levy, N. M. Bulgakova, T. Mocek, and L. Orazi, “High-speed manufacturing of highly regular femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures: physical origin of regularity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, M.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 24(6), 3248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Namba, Y.

Nishihara, H.

Y. Takeoka, S. Yoshioka, A. Takano, S. Arai, K. Nueangnoraj, H. Nishihara, M. Teshima, Y. Ohtsuka, and T. Seki, “Production of Colored Pigments with Amorphous Arrays of Black and White Colloidal Particles,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52(28), 7261–7265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nishii, K.

Novoselov, Yu. N.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, S. I. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond Laser Writing of Subwave One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Nanostructures on a Titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nueangnoraj, K.

Y. Takeoka, S. Yoshioka, A. Takano, S. Arai, K. Nueangnoraj, H. Nishihara, M. Teshima, Y. Ohtsuka, and T. Seki, “Production of Colored Pigments with Amorphous Arrays of Black and White Colloidal Particles,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52(28), 7261–7265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ohtsuka, Y.

Y. Takeoka, S. Yoshioka, A. Takano, S. Arai, K. Nueangnoraj, H. Nishihara, M. Teshima, Y. Ohtsuka, and T. Seki, “Production of Colored Pigments with Amorphous Arrays of Black and White Colloidal Particles,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52(28), 7261–7265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Orazi, L.

I. Gnilitskyi, T. J.-Y. Derrien, Y. Levy, N. M. Bulgakova, T. Mocek, and L. Orazi, “High-speed manufacturing of highly regular femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures: physical origin of regularity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pandelov, S. V.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 891–895 (2002).
[Crossref]

Poitras, D.

J.-M. Guay, A. C. Lesina, G. Côté, M. Charron, D. Poitras, L. Ramunno, P. Berini, and A. Weck, “Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 16095 (2017).
[Crossref]

Qi, L.

Qian, J.

Y. Li, J. Qian, F. Bai, Z. Wang, C. Wang, W. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Q. Zhao, “Azimuthal angle- and scanning pitch-dependent colorization of metals by ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 122(4), 282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ramunno, L.

J.-M. Guay, A. C. Lesina, G. Côté, M. Charron, D. Poitras, L. Ramunno, P. Berini, and A. Weck, “Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 16095 (2017).
[Crossref]

Reif, J.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 891–895 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rocha-Filho, R. C.

L. S. Andrade, S. C. Xavier, R. C. Rocha-Filho, N. Bocchi, and S. R. Biaggio, “Electropolishing of AISI-304 tainless steel using an oxidizing solution originally used for electrochemical coloration,” Electrochim. Acta 50(13), 2623–2627 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rosenfeld, A.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sagan, Z.

Saito, A.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 24(6), 3248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Saleh, B. E. A.

See, e.g., B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, 1991), Chap. 2.4.

Schmidt, D.

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, “Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 71(6), 657–665 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schmitz, P.

P. Fan, M. Zhong, L. Li, P. Schmitz, C. Lin, J. Long, and H. Zhang, “Sequential color change on copper surfaces via micro/nano structure modification induced by a picosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(8), 083518 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seki, T.

K. Katagiri, Y. Tanaka, K. Uemura, K. Inumaru, T. Seki, and Y. Takeoka, “Structural color coating films composed of an amorphous array of colloidal particles via electrophoretic deposition,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(3), e355 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Takeoka, S. Yoshioka, A. Takano, S. Arai, K. Nueangnoraj, H. Nishihara, M. Teshima, Y. Ohtsuka, and T. Seki, “Production of Colored Pigments with Amorphous Arrays of Black and White Colloidal Particles,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52(28), 7261–7265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Seleznev, L. V.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, S. I. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond Laser Writing of Subwave One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Nanostructures on a Titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sentoku, E.

N. Yasumaru, E. Sentoku, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on nitrided stainless steel,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 264, 611–615 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, X.

Y. Lu, X. Shi, Z. Huang, T. Li, M. Zhang, J. Czajkowski, T. Fabritius, M. Huttula, and W. Cao, “Nanosecond laser coloration on stainless steel surface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7092 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sinitsyn, D. V.

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, S. I. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond Laser Writing of Subwave One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Nanostructures on a Titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smith, A. R.

A. R. Smith, “Color Gamut Transform Pairs,” Comput. Gr. 12(3), 12–19 (1978).
[Crossref]

Soder, H.

Sogo, K.

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 24(6), 3248 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sturm, H.

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, “Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 71(6), 657–665 (2000).
[Crossref]

Takano, A.

Y. Takeoka, S. Yoshioka, A. Takano, S. Arai, K. Nueangnoraj, H. Nishihara, M. Teshima, Y. Ohtsuka, and T. Seki, “Production of Colored Pigments with Amorphous Arrays of Black and White Colloidal Particles,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52(28), 7261–7265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takeoka, Y.

K. Katagiri, Y. Tanaka, K. Uemura, K. Inumaru, T. Seki, and Y. Takeoka, “Structural color coating films composed of an amorphous array of colloidal particles via electrophoretic deposition,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(3), e355 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Takeoka, S. Yoshioka, A. Takano, S. Arai, K. Nueangnoraj, H. Nishihara, M. Teshima, Y. Ohtsuka, and T. Seki, “Production of Colored Pigments with Amorphous Arrays of Black and White Colloidal Particles,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52(28), 7261–7265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

K. Katagiri, Y. Tanaka, K. Uemura, K. Inumaru, T. Seki, and Y. Takeoka, “Structural color coating films composed of an amorphous array of colloidal particles via electrophoretic deposition,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(3), e355 (2017).
[Crossref]

Teich, M. C.

See, e.g., B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, 1991), Chap. 2.4.

Teshima, M.

Y. Takeoka, S. Yoshioka, A. Takano, S. Arai, K. Nueangnoraj, H. Nishihara, M. Teshima, Y. Ohtsuka, and T. Seki, “Production of Colored Pigments with Amorphous Arrays of Black and White Colloidal Particles,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52(28), 7261–7265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Trofimov, V. A.

J. Yao, C. Zhang, H. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Wu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Selective appearance of several laser-induced periodic surface structure patterns on a metal surface using structural colors produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7625–7632 (2012).
[Crossref]

Uemura, K.

K. Katagiri, Y. Tanaka, K. Uemura, K. Inumaru, T. Seki, and Y. Takeoka, “Structural color coating films composed of an amorphous array of colloidal particles via electrophoretic deposition,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(3), e355 (2017).
[Crossref]

Vorobyev, A. Y.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wagner, R.

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Y. Li, J. Qian, F. Bai, Z. Wang, C. Wang, W. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Q. Zhao, “Azimuthal angle- and scanning pitch-dependent colorization of metals by ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 122(4), 282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. J.

Wang, Z.

Y. Li, J. Qian, F. Bai, Z. Wang, C. Wang, W. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Q. Zhao, “Azimuthal angle- and scanning pitch-dependent colorization of metals by ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 122(4), 282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, K.

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant Blue Observation from a Morpho-Butterfly-Scale Quasi-Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
[Crossref]

Weck, A.

J.-M. Guay, A. C. Lesina, G. Côté, M. Charron, D. Poitras, L. Ramunno, P. Berini, and A. Weck, “Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 16095 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, L.

J. Yao, C. Zhang, H. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Wu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Selective appearance of several laser-induced periodic surface structure patterns on a metal surface using structural colors produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7625–7632 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xavier, S. C.

L. S. Andrade, S. C. Xavier, R. C. Rocha-Filho, N. Bocchi, and S. R. Biaggio, “Electropolishing of AISI-304 tainless steel using an oxidizing solution originally used for electrochemical coloration,” Electrochim. Acta 50(13), 2623–2627 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, C. Zhang, H. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Wu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Selective appearance of several laser-induced periodic surface structure patterns on a metal surface using structural colors produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7625–7632 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yasumaru, N.

N. Yasumaru, E. Sentoku, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on nitrided stainless steel,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 264, 611–615 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Glassy carbon layer formed in diamond-like carbon films with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 425–427 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76(6), 983–985 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yoshifuji, T.

Yoshioka, S.

Y. Takeoka, S. Yoshioka, A. Takano, S. Arai, K. Nueangnoraj, H. Nishihara, M. Teshima, Y. Ohtsuka, and T. Seki, “Production of Colored Pigments with Amorphous Arrays of Black and White Colloidal Particles,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52(28), 7261–7265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoshitaka, S.

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshitaka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

G. Li, J. Li, Y. Hu, C. Zhang, X. Li, J. Chu, and W. Huang, “Femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surface with different wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1189–1196 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, C. Zhang, H. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Wu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Selective appearance of several laser-induced periodic surface structure patterns on a metal surface using structural colors produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7625–7632 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

P. Fan, M. Zhong, L. Li, P. Schmitz, C. Lin, J. Long, and H. Zhang, “Sequential color change on copper surfaces via micro/nano structure modification induced by a picosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(8), 083518 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

Zhang, M.

Y. Lu, X. Shi, Z. Huang, T. Li, M. Zhang, J. Czajkowski, T. Fabritius, M. Huttula, and W. Cao, “Nanosecond laser coloration on stainless steel surface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7092 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Li, J. Qian, F. Bai, Z. Wang, C. Wang, W. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Q. Zhao, “Azimuthal angle- and scanning pitch-dependent colorization of metals by ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 122(4), 282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q.

Y. Li, J. Qian, F. Bai, Z. Wang, C. Wang, W. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Q. Zhao, “Azimuthal angle- and scanning pitch-dependent colorization of metals by ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 122(4), 282 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q. Z.

Zhong, M.

P. Fan, M. Zhong, L. Li, P. Schmitz, C. Lin, J. Long, and H. Zhang, “Sequential color change on copper surfaces via micro/nano structure modification induced by a picosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(8), 083518 (2013).
[Crossref]

Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. (1)

Y. Takeoka, S. Yoshioka, A. Takano, S. Arai, K. Nueangnoraj, H. Nishihara, M. Teshima, Y. Ohtsuka, and T. Seki, “Production of Colored Pigments with Amorphous Arrays of Black and White Colloidal Particles,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 52(28), 7261–7265 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. (5)

G. Li, J. Li, Y. Hu, C. Zhang, X. Li, J. Chu, and W. Huang, “Femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surface with different wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1189–1196 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, J. Qian, F. Bai, Z. Wang, C. Wang, W. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Q. Zhao, “Azimuthal angle- and scanning pitch-dependent colorization of metals by ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 122(4), 282 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, H. Sturm, D. Schmidt, and W. Kautek, “Chemical, morphological and accumulation phenomena in ultrashort-pulse laser ablation of TiN in air,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 71(6), 657–665 (2000).
[Crossref]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76(6), 983–985 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Glassy carbon layer formed in diamond-like carbon films with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 79(3), 425–427 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Role of multiple shots of femtosecond laser pulses in periodic surface nanoablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(7), 071910 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Miyazaki, G. Miyaji, and T. Inoue, “Nanograting formation on metals in air with interfering femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(7), 071103 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(11), 1703–1705 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Ultrafast dynamics of periodic nanostructure formation on diamondlike carbon films irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191902 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Nanoscale ablation on patterned diamondlike carbon film with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123102 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (4)

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 197-198, 891–895 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, C. Zhang, H. Liu, Q. Dai, L. Wu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, V. A. Trofimov, and T. M. Lysak, “Selective appearance of several laser-induced periodic surface structure patterns on a metal surface using structural colors produced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(19), 7625–7632 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yasumaru, E. Sentoku, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on nitrided stainless steel,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 264, 611–615 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Wagner, J. Gottmann, A. Horn, and E. W. Kreutz, “Subwavelength ripple formation induced by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(24), 8576–8579 (2006).
[Crossref]

Comput. Gr. (1)

A. R. Smith, “Color Gamut Transform Pairs,” Comput. Gr. 12(3), 12–19 (1978).
[Crossref]

Corros. Sci. (1)

T. E. Evans, “Film formation on stainless steel in a solution containing chromic and sulphuric acids,” Corros. Sci. 17(2), 105–124 (1977).
[Crossref]

Electrochim. Acta (1)

L. S. Andrade, S. C. Xavier, R. C. Rocha-Filho, N. Bocchi, and S. R. Biaggio, “Electropolishing of AISI-304 tainless steel using an oxidizing solution originally used for electrochemical coloration,” Electrochim. Acta 50(13), 2623–2627 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. Miyazaki and G. Miyaji, “Nanograting formation through surface plasmon fields induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(15), 153108 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Fan, M. Zhong, L. Li, P. Schmitz, C. Lin, J. Long, and H. Zhang, “Sequential color change on copper surfaces via micro/nano structure modification induced by a picosecond laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(8), 083518 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Laser Appl. (1)

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. (1)

A. Saito, Y. Miyamura, M. Nakajima, Y. Ishikawa, K. Sogo, Y. Kuwahara, and Y. Hirai, “Reproduction of the Morpho blue by nanocasting lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B: Microelectron. Nanometer Struct.--Process., Meas., Phenom. 24(6), 3248 (2006).
[Crossref]

JETP Lett. (1)

E. V. Golosov, V. I. Emel’yanov, A. A. Ionin, Yu. R. Kolobov, S. I. Kudryashov, S. I. Ligachev, Yu. N. Novoselov, L. V. Seleznev, and D. V. Sinitsyn, “Femtosecond Laser Writing of Subwave One-Dimensional Quasiperiodic Nanostructures on a Titanium Surface,” JETP Lett. 90(2), 107–110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Watanabe, T. Hoshino, K. Kanda, Y. Haruyama, and S. Matsui, “Brilliant Blue Observation from a Morpho-Butterfly-Scale Quasi-Structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(1), L48–L50 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

J.-M. Guay, A. C. Lesina, G. Côté, M. Charron, D. Poitras, L. Ramunno, P. Berini, and A. Weck, “Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 16095 (2017).
[Crossref]

NPG Asia Mater. (1)

K. Katagiri, Y. Tanaka, K. Uemura, K. Inumaru, T. Seki, and Y. Takeoka, “Structural color coating films composed of an amorphous array of colloidal particles via electrophoretic deposition,” NPG Asia Mater. 9(3), e355 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

S. Kinoshita, S. Yoshitaka, and J. Miyazaki, “Physics of structural colors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 71(7), 076401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

Y. Lu, X. Shi, Z. Huang, T. Li, M. Zhang, J. Czajkowski, T. Fabritius, M. Huttula, and W. Cao, “Nanosecond laser coloration on stainless steel surface,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7092 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Gnilitskyi, T. J.-Y. Derrien, Y. Levy, N. M. Bulgakova, T. Mocek, and L. Orazi, “High-speed manufacturing of highly regular femtosecond laser induced periodic surface structures: physical origin of regularity,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8485 (2017).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

G. Daminelli, J. Krüger, and W. Kautek, “Femtosecond laser interaction with silicon under water confinement,” Thin Solid Films 467(1-2), 334–341 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

A. Kondo and M. Ishii, “Application of Structural Color Technology for Automotive Paint,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0617 (2005).

See, e.g., B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, 1991), Chap. 2.4.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic drawing of color reading procedure of the SUS surface with the periodic structure, where α, β, and d is the incident angle of the light, the observation angle of the camera, and the period of the structure, respectively. (b) The spectrum of the light from the light-emitted diode (LED). The color bar in (b) represents the visible spectrum.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. SEM (upper) and SPM (middle) images of SUS surface irradiated with fs laser pulses, together with the spatial-frequency spectrum of the SEM image (bottom). (a) PNS at F = 600 mJ/cm2 for v = 40 µm/s, (b) interference pattern at F(1) = 400 mJ/cm2, F(2) = 300 mJ/cm2, and θ = 59° for v1 = 400 µm/s, and (c) nanograting at F(1) = 350 mJ/cm2 for v2 = 17 µm/s. The number at each peak in the spectrum denotes the period d in nm of the structure. The scanning direction is vertical on the images.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Photograph of the SUS surface with (a) PNS and (b) nanograting taken at α and β. The dotted, dashed, and solid lines denote A = sin α + sin β = 1.05, 1.20, and 1.35, respectively. The size of the color pallet is 1-mm square. The blank area denotes no observation.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Brightness V of the color of the SUS surface with (a) the PNS and (b) the nanograting plotted as functions of α and β. The blank area denotes no observation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Wavelength λD in nm (color) of the first-order diffracted light at the SUS surface with the PNS and the nanograting as functions of A and d.

Equations (1)

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d ( sin α + sin β )   = m λ D

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