Abstract

Yb/Er co-doped silica glass is the critical core material in the fabrication for Yb/Er co-doped optical fiber. In this paper, we demonstrate the novel laser sintering technology for making the Yb/Er co-doped silica glass rod, and analyze its physical and optical properties. The experimental results show that the fabricated silica glass is amorphous, and Yb3+/Er3+ ions uniformly distribute in the glass matrix. The material presents very good emission property around 1535 nm, and the calculation result of the gain cross section also indicates the good gain property at the emission band. Moreover, the Judd-Ofelt analysis results show that the material has very attractive spectroscopic parameters. These results can be used as good reference for the fabrication of Yb/Er co-doped optical fibers used for high-power fiber lasers in the future.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

The Yb/Er co-doped fibers have many advantages as the gain medium for high power fiber lasers and amplifiers used for eye-safe-based applications and C band optical communication systems [1, 2]. The double cladding large mode area photonic crystal fibers (LMA-PCFs) are believed to be the most attractive selection to overcome the existed issues of nonlinear effect and end face damage in high power fiber laser system [3–5]. Presently, rare-earth doped LMA-PCFs are fabricated mainly based on the Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD) technology [6, 7]. However, due to its well-known limitations [8, 9] of low doping concentration, geometry and homogeneity, it is difficult to further enlarge the core size of optical fiber using MCVD. A means of addressing these issues is by utilizing the Non-CVD methods, such as SOL-GEL [10, 11]. But there still exist the unsolved items [9] of organics contamination, hydroxyl content limitations, valence change of Yb3+ or long processing cycle, which would dramatically affect the background attenuation, laser efficiency and photodarking in high power fiber lasers. As is known, laser manufacturing technology has been wildly used in many areas [12, 13]. The method utilized in this paper is called laser sintering technology (LST) based on CO2 lasers. Due to the strong absorbance of silica glasses to the high energy of CO2 laser operated at the wavelength of 10.6 μm, CO2 laser can be the ideal heat source for melting rare-earth-doped silica glasses. Large size doped silica rod can be easily obtained based on such technology. Compared with the preparation of Yb-doped silica glass [14], the total doping concentration of the Yb/Er co-doped silica glasses are usually at a much higher level, and it also bring out more serious bubble problem and the accurate controlling of the concentration ratio between Yb and Er. Due to the advantages of the LST, these technical issues can be well solved through the flexible controlling of temperature gradient and thermal field. Meanwhile, benefit from the easy realization of pure oxidizing atmosphere during the preparation process, the LST can also effectively restrain the formation of Yb2+, which can well ensure the effective concentration of Yb3+ and guarantee the energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+. Moreover, as the characteristic of non-contact manufacturing procedure, there would exist less contamination of precursory materials.

In this paper, we prepared the Yb/Er co-doped silica glasses utilizing the LST. The properties of material structure, components homogeneity, optical spectrum and other relevant characteristics were measured and analyzed. The Judd-Ofelt analysis was performed, and the relevant spectroscopic parameters were calculated and discussed. The results well indicated the potential applications of the LST for the preparation of multi-rare-earth co-doped gain mediums used for high power fiber lasers. To our knowledge, the research on the properties of the Yb/Er co-doped silica glass prepared by such method has not yet been reported.

2. Experiment procedure

2.1 Fabrication procedure of Yb/Er co-doped silica glass

The mixed powder of SiO2, Yb2O3, Er2O3 and Al2O3 was prepared according to the weight percentage (wt%) of 2.53Yb2O3 - 0.61Er2O3 - 2.46Al2O3 - 94.40SiO2. Then, the mixed powder was sintered to Yb/Er co-doped silica glass by the CO2 laser, and the laser sintering setup is shown in Fig. 1(a). When CO2 lasers radiate on the surface of the pure silica base rod, most laser energy would be absorbed and the heat will transfer in the internal of the silica glass through the processes of phonons and photons thermal conduction. During the process, the surface temperature can reach higher than 2000°C in a very short period of time, and form a temperature gradient along the vertical direction. There would exist a high temperature melting zone as shown. The co-doped powder was delivered to the melting zone using the coaxial powder feeding device by the carrier gas of O2. With the rotation and falling down of the base rod, the melted liquid glass would move bellow the melting zone and the final Yb/Er co-doped silica glass is obtained. The prepared silica glass was cut and roughly polished as shown in Fig. 1(b), the size is of 7.20 mm × 6.18 mm × 52.4 mm.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the laser sintering procedure (a) and the prepared Yb-Er co-doped silica glass (b).

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2.2 Characteristics measurement

The material structure was analyzed using the x-ray diffraction (XRD, D8 Advance, Bruker). The scanning 2θ range is from 10 to 90 degree with a step of 0.1. The concentration proportion was measured using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES, SPECTRO BLUE SOP). The components homogeneity was analyzed using the Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS, JSM-6701F). The absorption properties in ultraviolet and visible band were measured using the light source operated from 250 nm to 2500 nm. The infrared absorption properties were measured using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer (Nicolet 6700). The emission property was measured via the excitation of the diode laser operated at 976 nm. MAYA2000 Pro spectrograph operated from 200 nm to 1100 nm and the NIRQuest256 spectrograph operated from 900 nm to 2500 nm were employed to record the spectrum. The setup of the absorption and emission properties measurements are shown in Fig. 2. The reference sample as shown in Fig. 2(a) is pure silica glass which is used to deduct the end face scattering and background scattering. The 45° dichroitic mirror (DM) in Fig. 2(b) is of high transmission from 800 nm to 1000 nm and high reflection from 1000 nm to 1800 nm, which is used to separate the pump laser from the fluorescence light. The sample used for the spectrum measurements was cut and polished to the thickness of 2.78 mm. All the measurements are carried out under room temperature (25°C).

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Experiments setup for the absorption (a) and emission (b) measurements.

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3. Experiment results and discussion

3.1 Material structure

Figure 3 is the XRD pattern of the prepared Yb/Er co-doped silica glass. The broadness of the diffraction peak shows the amorphous property. The result well indicates the glassy phase structure of the prepared material and no crystalline phase was formed during the preparation procedure.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 X-ray detection pattern of Yb-Er co-doped silica glass.

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3.2 Concentration proportion and components distribution

The measured concentration proportion of the prepared Yb/Er co-doped silica glass is shown in Table 1. The measured proportion is a little different from the original components of mixed powder. This can be attributed to the volatilization of the precursory doped powder, which is resulted from high laser power density. And we didn’t detect the impurity elements in the prepared material.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Measured proportion of the prepared Yb/Er co-doped silica glass

The components enrichment and the concentration fluctuation can be analyzed through the area scanning and line scanning of the EDS, respectively. The area scanning results are as shown in Fig. 4. The scanned points dispersedly distribute in the whole scanning area and the brightness of the points also show very small difference, which indicate the elements of Er, Yb and Al are uniformly doped in the silica matrix. Moreover, as shown in Fig. 5, the components present very small fluctuation along the scanning line. The experimental results also well indicate the uniform distribution of Yb, Er and Al in the silica matrix.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Area scanning results of erbium (left), ytterbium (middle) and aluminum (right).

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 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Line scanning results of erbium, ytterbium and aluminium.

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3.3 FT-IR spectrum

Figure 6 is the measured FT-IR spectrum. The hydroxyl content can be monitored by the absorption peak at 3670 cm−1 and calculated according Ref [15]. The hydroxyl content of the prepared Yb-Er co-doped silica glass is approximately 19.0 ppm. It is a lower value compared with the material prepared by the non-CVD method of Nanoporous glass sintering technology [16]. But it is still a little relative higher value, because no special treatment was undertaken to control the moisture of environment and eliminate the moisture in the protection gas of O2. The existed H2O resulted in the produce of hydroxyl. The dehydroxylation works are still being carried out. We believe the hydroxyl content can be reduced to a very low level, due to the well absorption of hydroxyl radical for the laser energy at 10.6 μm.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Measured FT-IR spectrum.

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3.4 Absorption and fluorescence

The measured absorption spectrum is shown in Fig. 7. The prepared material shows very typical absorption characteristic of Yb3+ and Er3+, the corresponding stark levels are marked in the figure. The main absorption peak is located at 976 nm of Yb3+, which can effectively ensure the well absorption of the pumping power. Moreover, there is no obvious absorption band of Yb2+ observed in the visible wavelength range from 300 to 800 nm.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Measured absorption spectrum.

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The normalized emission spectrum is shown in Fig. 8. When the material was pumped by the diode laser operated at 976 nm, the main emission peak located around 1530 nm is observed, the main emission band is from 1475 nm to 1700 nm, and the emission of Yb3+ around 1026 nm is very weak. The results indicate obvious energy transition from 2F5/2-Yb3+ level to 4I11/2-Er3+ level.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Normalized emission spectrum.

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3.5. Spectroscopic parameters discussion

The measured absorption spectrum is analyzed through the Judd-Ofelt theory [17]. The refractive index and the density of the samples used for analysis are of 1.601 and 2.39 g/cm3 respectively. The absorption bands corresponding to the transitions from the ground state 4I15/2 to the excited states 4G9/2, 4G11/2, 2H9/2, 4F5/2, 4F7/2, 2H11/2, 4S3/2, 4F9/2 and 4I9/2 are selected to do the least-squares fitting. The absorption band of 4I11/2 level is not included due to the intense absorption of Yb3+ at the same band. And because of the contribution of magnetic dipole transition of 4I13/2, this absorption band is also excluded. The measured (Sexp) and calculated (Scal) line strengths are shown in Table 2. The fitted J-O intensity parameters Ωk (k = 2, 4, 6) are then used to calculate the line strengths corresponding to the transitions from the upper states. These values are used to calculate the radiative transition probability, branching ratios and radiative lifetime. The most interested upper states are 4I13/2 and 4I11/2 which are of close relationship with the 1530 nm laser under 976 nm excitation. Here, both the contributions of electric dipole transition (Sed) and magnetic dipole transition (Smd) are considered for the transitions of 4I13/24I15/2 and 4I11/24I15/2. The results are shown in Table 3.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Measured and calculated line strengths and J-O intensity parameters of Er3+

Tables Icon

Table 3. The calculated spontaneous transition probability (AJJ’), total spontaneous transition probability (ΣAJJ’), branching ratios (β) and radiative lifetimes (τ) for the excited states 4I13/2 and 4I11/2

The local structure and bonding in the vicinity of rare earth ions are usually characterized by the three J-O intensity parameters Ωk. Larger values of Ω2 and Ω46 are expected. It can be observed that the Ω2 of our material is of 8.36 × 10−20. This is a relative larger value compared with the other works [18, 19]. Here, Ω2 is is an environment sensitive parameter, and larger value indicates a higher covalency of the chemical bond between the rare earth and oxygen ions and lower symmetry [20]. This means that the asymmetry and covalent environment of Er-O bond in our material is much stronger. Moreover, Ω6 is the vibronic dependent parameter that is related to the rigidity and the viscosity of the host. Smaller value indicates the higher rigidity of the host matrix. The spectroscopic quality of the materials can be characterized by the value of Ω46 [20]. As shown in Table 2, this value is of 2.15 for our material which indicates a good matrix for 1530 nm emission. Additionally, as listed in Table 3, the prepared material presents very good lifetime of 8.39 ms at 1530 nm corresponding to the transition from 4I13/2 to 4I15/2. From the attractive spectroscopic parameters above, we can reasonably come to a conclusion that the prepared Yb/Er co-doped silica glass possesses potential applications for the gain medium operated at 1530 nm.

3.6 Gain properties

The gain properties can be qualitatively characterized through the wavelength dependence of net gain as a function of population inversion for the upper state. The gain cross section can be calculated by the equation

σgain(λ)=N[βσemi(λ)(1β)σabs(λ)]

where N is the ion density, β is the ratio of population inversion, σemi and σabs are the emission and absorption cross section, respectively, and the two values can be respectively calculated through the McCumber formula and Beer-Lambert equation based on the measured absorption spectrum. The calculated results of the gain coefficient versus wavelength at different population inversion ratio corresponding to Er3+: 4I13/24I15/2 is shown in Fig. 9. It can be observed that when β reaches the value of 0.2~0.4, positive gain can be obtained. Moreover, with increase of β, gain band extends to longer wavelength. When β = 1, the widest gain band can reach a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 68 nm approximately from 1475 nm to 1620 nm, which can provide a wide selection of the output lasing wavelength in this range.

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 Gain coefficient versus wavelength at different population inversion ratio corresponding to Er3+: 4I13/24I15/2.

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4. Conclusions

Yb/Er co-doped silica glass was prepared through the LST. The components of Yb, Er and Al uniformly distributed in the silica matrix. The co-doped silica glass is amorphous, and has attractive spectroscopic parameters and good optical properties. These results would be used as good references for the fabrication of the core materials used for multi-rare-earth co-doped optical fibers used for high-power fiber lasers in the future.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61575066, 61377100 and 61527822); Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (2014A030313428); and Science and Technology Achievements Transformation Projects of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes (2013B090500025).

References and links

1. N. V. Kiritchenko, L. V. Kotov, M. A. Melkumov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. Y. Laptev, and A. N. Guryanov, “Effect of ytterbium co-doping on erbium clustering in silica-doped glass,” Laser Phys. 25(2), 025102 (2015). [CrossRef]  

2. Q. Wang and N. K. Dutta, “Er-Yb double-clad fiber amplifier,” Opt. Eng. 43(5), 1030–1034 (2004). [CrossRef]  

3. C. M. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, K. Wu, M. L. Hu, L. Chai, C. Y. Wang, N. L. Dai, and J. Y. Li, “Stable CW operation in a ring fiber laser based on Er-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Passive Components And Fiber-Based Devices Viii 8307, 83071T (2011). [CrossRef]  

4. A. Shirakawa, J. Ota, M. Musha, K. Nakagawa, K. Ueda, J. R. Folkenberg, and J. Broeng, “Large-mode-area erbium-ytterbium-doped photonic-crystal fiber amplifier for high-energy femtosecond pulses at 1.55 µm,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1221–1227 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. L. Wang, D. He, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Hu, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6139 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. E. H. Sekiya, P. Barua, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Fabrication of Yb-doped silica glass through the modification of MCVD process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(42–44), 4737–4742 (2008). [CrossRef]  

7. F. Goutalanda, Y. Ouerdanea, A. Boukentera, and G. Monnomb, “Visible emission processes in heavily doped ErYb silica optical fibers,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 276–278 (1998).

8. A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

9. S. K. Wang, Z. L. Li, C. L. Yu, M. Wang, S. Y. Feng, Q. L. Zhou, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Fabrication and laser behaviors of Yb3+ doped silica large mode area photonic crystal fiber prepared by sol-gel method,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1752–1755 (2013). [CrossRef]  

10. D. Mandal, H. D. Banerjee, M. L. N. Goswami, and H. N. Acharya, “Synthesis of Er3+ and Er3+: Yb3+ doped sol-gel derived silica glass and studies on their optical properties,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 27(4), 367–372 (2004). [CrossRef]  

11. U. Pedrazza, V. Romano, and W. Luthy, “Yb3+: Al3+: sol-gel silica glass fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 905–907 (2007). [CrossRef]  

12. M. Irannejad, G. Jose, A. Jha, and D. P. Steenson, “A parametric study of Er3+-ions doped Phospho-tellurite glass thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 215–219 (2010). [CrossRef]  

13. S. D. Hodgson, D. G. Waugh, A. Gillett, and J. Lawrence, “High speed CO2 laser surface modification of iron/cobalt co-doped boroaluminosilicate glass and the impact on surface roughness, gloss and wettability,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 076102 (2016). [CrossRef]  

14. W. Zhang, J. L. Wu, G. Y. Zhou, C. M. Xia, J. T. Liu, H. C. Tian, W. T. Liang, and Z. Y. Hou, “Yb-doped silica glass and photonic crystal fiber based on laser sintering technology,” Laser Phys. 26(3), 035801 (2016). [CrossRef]  

15. S. Liu, H. Li, Y. Tang, and L. Hu, “Fabrication and spectroscopic properties of Yb~3+-doped silica glasses using the sol-gel method,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(8), 42–45 (2012).

16. S. Liu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Wang, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ytterbium-doped silica photonic crystal fiber laser fabricated by the nanoporous glass sintering technique,” Laser Phys. 24(6), 065801 (2014). [CrossRef]  

17. M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, and B. H. Matsinger, “Optical intensities of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 47–53 (1973). [CrossRef]  

18. M. H. Zhu, S. F. Zhang, T. Gu, and T. Xia, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tantalum-phosphate glasses,” Light-Emitting Diode Materials and Devices 5632, 198–204 (2005). [CrossRef]  

19. J. H. Yang, L. Y. Zhang, L. Wen, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3020–3026 (2004). [CrossRef]  

20. C. Jørgensen and R. Reisfeld, “Judd-Ofelt parameters and chemical bonding,” J. Less Common Met. 93(1), 107–112 (1983). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. N. V. Kiritchenko, L. V. Kotov, M. A. Melkumov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. Y. Laptev, and A. N. Guryanov, “Effect of ytterbium co-doping on erbium clustering in silica-doped glass,” Laser Phys. 25(2), 025102 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  2. Q. Wang and N. K. Dutta, “Er-Yb double-clad fiber amplifier,” Opt. Eng. 43(5), 1030–1034 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. M. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, K. Wu, M. L. Hu, L. Chai, C. Y. Wang, N. L. Dai, and J. Y. Li, “Stable CW operation in a ring fiber laser based on Er-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Passive Components And Fiber-Based Devices Viii 8307, 83071T (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Shirakawa, J. Ota, M. Musha, K. Nakagawa, K. Ueda, J. R. Folkenberg, and J. Broeng, “Large-mode-area erbium-ytterbium-doped photonic-crystal fiber amplifier for high-energy femtosecond pulses at 1.55 µm,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1221–1227 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. L. Wang, D. He, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Hu, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6139 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. E. H. Sekiya, P. Barua, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Fabrication of Yb-doped silica glass through the modification of MCVD process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(42–44), 4737–4742 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Goutalanda, Y. Ouerdanea, A. Boukentera, and G. Monnomb, “Visible emission processes in heavily doped ErYb silica optical fibers,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 276–278 (1998).
  8. A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).
  9. S. K. Wang, Z. L. Li, C. L. Yu, M. Wang, S. Y. Feng, Q. L. Zhou, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Fabrication and laser behaviors of Yb3+ doped silica large mode area photonic crystal fiber prepared by sol-gel method,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1752–1755 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. Mandal, H. D. Banerjee, M. L. N. Goswami, and H. N. Acharya, “Synthesis of Er3+ and Er3+: Yb3+ doped sol-gel derived silica glass and studies on their optical properties,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 27(4), 367–372 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. U. Pedrazza, V. Romano, and W. Luthy, “Yb3+: Al3+: sol-gel silica glass fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 905–907 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Irannejad, G. Jose, A. Jha, and D. P. Steenson, “A parametric study of Er3+-ions doped Phospho-tellurite glass thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 215–219 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. D. Hodgson, D. G. Waugh, A. Gillett, and J. Lawrence, “High speed CO2 laser surface modification of iron/cobalt co-doped boroaluminosilicate glass and the impact on surface roughness, gloss and wettability,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 076102 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. Zhang, J. L. Wu, G. Y. Zhou, C. M. Xia, J. T. Liu, H. C. Tian, W. T. Liang, and Z. Y. Hou, “Yb-doped silica glass and photonic crystal fiber based on laser sintering technology,” Laser Phys. 26(3), 035801 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Liu, H. Li, Y. Tang, and L. Hu, “Fabrication and spectroscopic properties of Yb~3+-doped silica glasses using the sol-gel method,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(8), 42–45 (2012).
  16. S. Liu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Wang, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ytterbium-doped silica photonic crystal fiber laser fabricated by the nanoporous glass sintering technique,” Laser Phys. 24(6), 065801 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, and B. H. Matsinger, “Optical intensities of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 47–53 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. H. Zhu, S. F. Zhang, T. Gu, and T. Xia, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tantalum-phosphate glasses,” Light-Emitting Diode Materials and Devices 5632, 198–204 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. H. Yang, L. Y. Zhang, L. Wen, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3020–3026 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  20. C. Jørgensen and R. Reisfeld, “Judd-Ofelt parameters and chemical bonding,” J. Less Common Met. 93(1), 107–112 (1983).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

S. D. Hodgson, D. G. Waugh, A. Gillett, and J. Lawrence, “High speed CO2 laser surface modification of iron/cobalt co-doped boroaluminosilicate glass and the impact on surface roughness, gloss and wettability,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 076102 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, J. L. Wu, G. Y. Zhou, C. M. Xia, J. T. Liu, H. C. Tian, W. T. Liang, and Z. Y. Hou, “Yb-doped silica glass and photonic crystal fiber based on laser sintering technology,” Laser Phys. 26(3), 035801 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

N. V. Kiritchenko, L. V. Kotov, M. A. Melkumov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. Y. Laptev, and A. N. Guryanov, “Effect of ytterbium co-doping on erbium clustering in silica-doped glass,” Laser Phys. 25(2), 025102 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

L. Wang, D. He, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Hu, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Wang, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ytterbium-doped silica photonic crystal fiber laser fabricated by the nanoporous glass sintering technique,” Laser Phys. 24(6), 065801 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. K. Wang, Z. L. Li, C. L. Yu, M. Wang, S. Y. Feng, Q. L. Zhou, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Fabrication and laser behaviors of Yb3+ doped silica large mode area photonic crystal fiber prepared by sol-gel method,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1752–1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

S. Liu, H. Li, Y. Tang, and L. Hu, “Fabrication and spectroscopic properties of Yb~3+-doped silica glasses using the sol-gel method,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(8), 42–45 (2012).

2011 (1)

C. M. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, K. Wu, M. L. Hu, L. Chai, C. Y. Wang, N. L. Dai, and J. Y. Li, “Stable CW operation in a ring fiber laser based on Er-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Passive Components And Fiber-Based Devices Viii 8307, 83071T (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

M. Irannejad, G. Jose, A. Jha, and D. P. Steenson, “A parametric study of Er3+-ions doped Phospho-tellurite glass thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 215–219 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

E. H. Sekiya, P. Barua, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Fabrication of Yb-doped silica glass through the modification of MCVD process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(42–44), 4737–4742 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

U. Pedrazza, V. Romano, and W. Luthy, “Yb3+: Al3+: sol-gel silica glass fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 905–907 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

M. H. Zhu, S. F. Zhang, T. Gu, and T. Xia, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tantalum-phosphate glasses,” Light-Emitting Diode Materials and Devices 5632, 198–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Shirakawa, J. Ota, M. Musha, K. Nakagawa, K. Ueda, J. R. Folkenberg, and J. Broeng, “Large-mode-area erbium-ytterbium-doped photonic-crystal fiber amplifier for high-energy femtosecond pulses at 1.55 µm,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1221–1227 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

Q. Wang and N. K. Dutta, “Er-Yb double-clad fiber amplifier,” Opt. Eng. 43(5), 1030–1034 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Mandal, H. D. Banerjee, M. L. N. Goswami, and H. N. Acharya, “Synthesis of Er3+ and Er3+: Yb3+ doped sol-gel derived silica glass and studies on their optical properties,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 27(4), 367–372 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. H. Yang, L. Y. Zhang, L. Wen, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3020–3026 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

F. Goutalanda, Y. Ouerdanea, A. Boukentera, and G. Monnomb, “Visible emission processes in heavily doped ErYb silica optical fibers,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 276–278 (1998).

1983 (1)

C. Jørgensen and R. Reisfeld, “Judd-Ofelt parameters and chemical bonding,” J. Less Common Met. 93(1), 107–112 (1983).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, and B. H. Matsinger, “Optical intensities of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 47–53 (1973).
[Crossref]

Acharya, H. N.

D. Mandal, H. D. Banerjee, M. L. N. Goswami, and H. N. Acharya, “Synthesis of Er3+ and Er3+: Yb3+ doped sol-gel derived silica glass and studies on their optical properties,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 27(4), 367–372 (2004).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, H. D.

D. Mandal, H. D. Banerjee, M. L. N. Goswami, and H. N. Acharya, “Synthesis of Er3+ and Er3+: Yb3+ doped sol-gel derived silica glass and studies on their optical properties,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 27(4), 367–372 (2004).
[Crossref]

Barua, P.

E. H. Sekiya, P. Barua, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Fabrication of Yb-doped silica glass through the modification of MCVD process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(42–44), 4737–4742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boukentera, A.

F. Goutalanda, Y. Ouerdanea, A. Boukentera, and G. Monnomb, “Visible emission processes in heavily doped ErYb silica optical fibers,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 276–278 (1998).

Broeng, J.

Bubnov, M. M.

N. V. Kiritchenko, L. V. Kotov, M. A. Melkumov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. Y. Laptev, and A. N. Guryanov, “Effect of ytterbium co-doping on erbium clustering in silica-doped glass,” Laser Phys. 25(2), 025102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chai, L.

C. M. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, K. Wu, M. L. Hu, L. Chai, C. Y. Wang, N. L. Dai, and J. Y. Li, “Stable CW operation in a ring fiber laser based on Er-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Passive Components And Fiber-Based Devices Viii 8307, 83071T (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

L. Wang, D. He, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Hu, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D. P.

S. Liu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Wang, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ytterbium-doped silica photonic crystal fiber laser fabricated by the nanoporous glass sintering technique,” Laser Phys. 24(6), 065801 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. K. Wang, Z. L. Li, C. L. Yu, M. Wang, S. Y. Feng, Q. L. Zhou, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Fabrication and laser behaviors of Yb3+ doped silica large mode area photonic crystal fiber prepared by sol-gel method,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1752–1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dai, N. L.

C. M. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, K. Wu, M. L. Hu, L. Chai, C. Y. Wang, N. L. Dai, and J. Y. Li, “Stable CW operation in a ring fiber laser based on Er-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Passive Components And Fiber-Based Devices Viii 8307, 83071T (2011).
[Crossref]

Dai, S. X.

J. H. Yang, L. Y. Zhang, L. Wen, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3020–3026 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dutta, N. K.

Q. Wang and N. K. Dutta, “Er-Yb double-clad fiber amplifier,” Opt. Eng. 43(5), 1030–1034 (2004).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

L. Wang, D. He, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Hu, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Wang, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ytterbium-doped silica photonic crystal fiber laser fabricated by the nanoporous glass sintering technique,” Laser Phys. 24(6), 065801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feng, S. Y.

S. K. Wang, Z. L. Li, C. L. Yu, M. Wang, S. Y. Feng, Q. L. Zhou, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Fabrication and laser behaviors of Yb3+ doped silica large mode area photonic crystal fiber prepared by sol-gel method,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1752–1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Gillett, A.

S. D. Hodgson, D. G. Waugh, A. Gillett, and J. Lawrence, “High speed CO2 laser surface modification of iron/cobalt co-doped boroaluminosilicate glass and the impact on surface roughness, gloss and wettability,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 076102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Goswami, M. L. N.

D. Mandal, H. D. Banerjee, M. L. N. Goswami, and H. N. Acharya, “Synthesis of Er3+ and Er3+: Yb3+ doped sol-gel derived silica glass and studies on their optical properties,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 27(4), 367–372 (2004).
[Crossref]

Goutalanda, F.

F. Goutalanda, Y. Ouerdanea, A. Boukentera, and G. Monnomb, “Visible emission processes in heavily doped ErYb silica optical fibers,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 276–278 (1998).

Grimm, S.

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

Gu, T.

M. H. Zhu, S. F. Zhang, T. Gu, and T. Xia, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tantalum-phosphate glasses,” Light-Emitting Diode Materials and Devices 5632, 198–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Guryanov, A. N.

N. V. Kiritchenko, L. V. Kotov, M. A. Melkumov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. Y. Laptev, and A. N. Guryanov, “Effect of ytterbium co-doping on erbium clustering in silica-doped glass,” Laser Phys. 25(2), 025102 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, D.

L. Wang, D. He, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Hu, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hodgson, S. D.

S. D. Hodgson, D. G. Waugh, A. Gillett, and J. Lawrence, “High speed CO2 laser surface modification of iron/cobalt co-doped boroaluminosilicate glass and the impact on surface roughness, gloss and wettability,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 076102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hou, Z. Y.

W. Zhang, J. L. Wu, G. Y. Zhou, C. M. Xia, J. T. Liu, H. C. Tian, W. T. Liang, and Z. Y. Hou, “Yb-doped silica glass and photonic crystal fiber based on laser sintering technology,” Laser Phys. 26(3), 035801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

L. Wang, D. He, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Hu, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, H. Li, Y. Tang, and L. Hu, “Fabrication and spectroscopic properties of Yb~3+-doped silica glasses using the sol-gel method,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(8), 42–45 (2012).

Hu, L. L.

S. Liu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Wang, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ytterbium-doped silica photonic crystal fiber laser fabricated by the nanoporous glass sintering technique,” Laser Phys. 24(6), 065801 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. K. Wang, Z. L. Li, C. L. Yu, M. Wang, S. Y. Feng, Q. L. Zhou, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Fabrication and laser behaviors of Yb3+ doped silica large mode area photonic crystal fiber prepared by sol-gel method,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1752–1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. H. Yang, L. Y. Zhang, L. Wen, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3020–3026 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, M. L.

C. M. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, K. Wu, M. L. Hu, L. Chai, C. Y. Wang, N. L. Dai, and J. Y. Li, “Stable CW operation in a ring fiber laser based on Er-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Passive Components And Fiber-Based Devices Viii 8307, 83071T (2011).
[Crossref]

Ikushima, A. J.

E. H. Sekiya, P. Barua, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Fabrication of Yb-doped silica glass through the modification of MCVD process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(42–44), 4737–4742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Irannejad, M.

M. Irannejad, G. Jose, A. Jha, and D. P. Steenson, “A parametric study of Er3+-ions doped Phospho-tellurite glass thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 215–219 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jha, A.

M. Irannejad, G. Jose, A. Jha, and D. P. Steenson, “A parametric study of Er3+-ions doped Phospho-tellurite glass thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 215–219 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Z. H.

J. H. Yang, L. Y. Zhang, L. Wen, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3020–3026 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jørgensen, C.

C. Jørgensen and R. Reisfeld, “Judd-Ofelt parameters and chemical bonding,” J. Less Common Met. 93(1), 107–112 (1983).
[Crossref]

Jose, G.

M. Irannejad, G. Jose, A. Jha, and D. P. Steenson, “A parametric study of Er3+-ions doped Phospho-tellurite glass thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 215–219 (2010).
[Crossref]

Just, F.

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

Kirchhof, J.

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

Kiritchenko, N. V.

N. V. Kiritchenko, L. V. Kotov, M. A. Melkumov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. Y. Laptev, and A. N. Guryanov, “Effect of ytterbium co-doping on erbium clustering in silica-doped glass,” Laser Phys. 25(2), 025102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kohler, G.

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

Kotov, L. V.

N. V. Kiritchenko, L. V. Kotov, M. A. Melkumov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. Y. Laptev, and A. N. Guryanov, “Effect of ytterbium co-doping on erbium clustering in silica-doped glass,” Laser Phys. 25(2), 025102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Krause, V.

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

Langner, A.

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

Laptev, A. Y.

N. V. Kiritchenko, L. V. Kotov, M. A. Melkumov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. Y. Laptev, and A. N. Guryanov, “Effect of ytterbium co-doping on erbium clustering in silica-doped glass,” Laser Phys. 25(2), 025102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lawrence, J.

S. D. Hodgson, D. G. Waugh, A. Gillett, and J. Lawrence, “High speed CO2 laser surface modification of iron/cobalt co-doped boroaluminosilicate glass and the impact on surface roughness, gloss and wettability,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 076102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Leich, M.

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

Li, H.

S. Liu, H. Li, Y. Tang, and L. Hu, “Fabrication and spectroscopic properties of Yb~3+-doped silica glasses using the sol-gel method,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(8), 42–45 (2012).

Li, J. Y.

C. M. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, K. Wu, M. L. Hu, L. Chai, C. Y. Wang, N. L. Dai, and J. Y. Li, “Stable CW operation in a ring fiber laser based on Er-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Passive Components And Fiber-Based Devices Viii 8307, 83071T (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, Z. L.

S. K. Wang, Z. L. Li, C. L. Yu, M. Wang, S. Y. Feng, Q. L. Zhou, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Fabrication and laser behaviors of Yb3+ doped silica large mode area photonic crystal fiber prepared by sol-gel method,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1752–1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liang, W. T.

W. Zhang, J. L. Wu, G. Y. Zhou, C. M. Xia, J. T. Liu, H. C. Tian, W. T. Liang, and Z. Y. Hou, “Yb-doped silica glass and photonic crystal fiber based on laser sintering technology,” Laser Phys. 26(3), 035801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Likhachev, M. E.

N. V. Kiritchenko, L. V. Kotov, M. A. Melkumov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. Y. Laptev, and A. N. Guryanov, “Effect of ytterbium co-doping on erbium clustering in silica-doped glass,” Laser Phys. 25(2), 025102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. T.

W. Zhang, J. L. Wu, G. Y. Zhou, C. M. Xia, J. T. Liu, H. C. Tian, W. T. Liang, and Z. Y. Hou, “Yb-doped silica glass and photonic crystal fiber based on laser sintering technology,” Laser Phys. 26(3), 035801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

S. Liu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Wang, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ytterbium-doped silica photonic crystal fiber laser fabricated by the nanoporous glass sintering technique,” Laser Phys. 24(6), 065801 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, H. Li, Y. Tang, and L. Hu, “Fabrication and spectroscopic properties of Yb~3+-doped silica glasses using the sol-gel method,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(8), 42–45 (2012).

Luthy, W.

U. Pedrazza, V. Romano, and W. Luthy, “Yb3+: Al3+: sol-gel silica glass fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 905–907 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mandal, D.

D. Mandal, H. D. Banerjee, M. L. N. Goswami, and H. N. Acharya, “Synthesis of Er3+ and Er3+: Yb3+ doped sol-gel derived silica glass and studies on their optical properties,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 27(4), 367–372 (2004).
[Crossref]

Matsinger, B. H.

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, and B. H. Matsinger, “Optical intensities of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 47–53 (1973).
[Crossref]

Mehl, O.

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

Melkumov, M. A.

N. V. Kiritchenko, L. V. Kotov, M. A. Melkumov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. Y. Laptev, and A. N. Guryanov, “Effect of ytterbium co-doping on erbium clustering in silica-doped glass,” Laser Phys. 25(2), 025102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Monnomb, G.

F. Goutalanda, Y. Ouerdanea, A. Boukentera, and G. Monnomb, “Visible emission processes in heavily doped ErYb silica optical fibers,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 276–278 (1998).

Musha, M.

Nakagawa, K.

Ota, J.

Ouerdanea, Y.

F. Goutalanda, Y. Ouerdanea, A. Boukentera, and G. Monnomb, “Visible emission processes in heavily doped ErYb silica optical fibers,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 276–278 (1998).

Ouyang, C. M.

C. M. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, K. Wu, M. L. Hu, L. Chai, C. Y. Wang, N. L. Dai, and J. Y. Li, “Stable CW operation in a ring fiber laser based on Er-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Passive Components And Fiber-Based Devices Viii 8307, 83071T (2011).
[Crossref]

Pedrazza, U.

U. Pedrazza, V. Romano, and W. Luthy, “Yb3+: Al3+: sol-gel silica glass fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 905–907 (2007).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

L. Wang, D. He, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Hu, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rehmann, G.

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

Reichel, V.

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

Reisfeld, R.

C. Jørgensen and R. Reisfeld, “Judd-Ofelt parameters and chemical bonding,” J. Less Common Met. 93(1), 107–112 (1983).
[Crossref]

Romano, V.

U. Pedrazza, V. Romano, and W. Luthy, “Yb3+: Al3+: sol-gel silica glass fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 905–907 (2007).
[Crossref]

Saito, K.

E. H. Sekiya, P. Barua, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Fabrication of Yb-doped silica glass through the modification of MCVD process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(42–44), 4737–4742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schotz, G.

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

Sekiya, E. H.

E. H. Sekiya, P. Barua, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Fabrication of Yb-doped silica glass through the modification of MCVD process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(42–44), 4737–4742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shirakawa, A.

Shum, P. P.

C. M. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, K. Wu, M. L. Hu, L. Chai, C. Y. Wang, N. L. Dai, and J. Y. Li, “Stable CW operation in a ring fiber laser based on Er-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Passive Components And Fiber-Based Devices Viii 8307, 83071T (2011).
[Crossref]

Steenson, D. P.

M. Irannejad, G. Jose, A. Jha, and D. P. Steenson, “A parametric study of Er3+-ions doped Phospho-tellurite glass thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 215–219 (2010).
[Crossref]

Strauch, O.

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

Such, M.

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

Tang, Y.

S. Liu, H. Li, Y. Tang, and L. Hu, “Fabrication and spectroscopic properties of Yb~3+-doped silica glasses using the sol-gel method,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(8), 42–45 (2012).

Tian, H. C.

W. Zhang, J. L. Wu, G. Y. Zhou, C. M. Xia, J. T. Liu, H. C. Tian, W. T. Liang, and Z. Y. Hou, “Yb-doped silica glass and photonic crystal fiber based on laser sintering technology,” Laser Phys. 26(3), 035801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ueda, K.

Varitimos, T. E.

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, and B. H. Matsinger, “Optical intensities of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 47–53 (1973).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

C. M. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, K. Wu, M. L. Hu, L. Chai, C. Y. Wang, N. L. Dai, and J. Y. Li, “Stable CW operation in a ring fiber laser based on Er-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Passive Components And Fiber-Based Devices Viii 8307, 83071T (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, D. He, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Hu, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Wang, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ytterbium-doped silica photonic crystal fiber laser fabricated by the nanoporous glass sintering technique,” Laser Phys. 24(6), 065801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

S. Liu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Wang, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ytterbium-doped silica photonic crystal fiber laser fabricated by the nanoporous glass sintering technique,” Laser Phys. 24(6), 065801 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. K. Wang, Z. L. Li, C. L. Yu, M. Wang, S. Y. Feng, Q. L. Zhou, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Fabrication and laser behaviors of Yb3+ doped silica large mode area photonic crystal fiber prepared by sol-gel method,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1752–1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang and N. K. Dutta, “Er-Yb double-clad fiber amplifier,” Opt. Eng. 43(5), 1030–1034 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. K.

S. K. Wang, Z. L. Li, C. L. Yu, M. Wang, S. Y. Feng, Q. L. Zhou, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Fabrication and laser behaviors of Yb3+ doped silica large mode area photonic crystal fiber prepared by sol-gel method,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1752–1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Waugh, D. G.

S. D. Hodgson, D. G. Waugh, A. Gillett, and J. Lawrence, “High speed CO2 laser surface modification of iron/cobalt co-doped boroaluminosilicate glass and the impact on surface roughness, gloss and wettability,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 076102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, and B. H. Matsinger, “Optical intensities of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 47–53 (1973).
[Crossref]

Wedel, B.

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

Wen, L.

J. H. Yang, L. Y. Zhang, L. Wen, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3020–3026 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. L.

W. Zhang, J. L. Wu, G. Y. Zhou, C. M. Xia, J. T. Liu, H. C. Tian, W. T. Liang, and Z. Y. Hou, “Yb-doped silica glass and photonic crystal fiber based on laser sintering technology,” Laser Phys. 26(3), 035801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, K.

C. M. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, K. Wu, M. L. Hu, L. Chai, C. Y. Wang, N. L. Dai, and J. Y. Li, “Stable CW operation in a ring fiber laser based on Er-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Passive Components And Fiber-Based Devices Viii 8307, 83071T (2011).
[Crossref]

Xia, C. M.

W. Zhang, J. L. Wu, G. Y. Zhou, C. M. Xia, J. T. Liu, H. C. Tian, W. T. Liang, and Z. Y. Hou, “Yb-doped silica glass and photonic crystal fiber based on laser sintering technology,” Laser Phys. 26(3), 035801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xia, T.

M. H. Zhu, S. F. Zhang, T. Gu, and T. Xia, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tantalum-phosphate glasses,” Light-Emitting Diode Materials and Devices 5632, 198–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. H.

J. H. Yang, L. Y. Zhang, L. Wen, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3020–3026 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yashkov, M. V.

N. V. Kiritchenko, L. V. Kotov, M. A. Melkumov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. Y. Laptev, and A. N. Guryanov, “Effect of ytterbium co-doping on erbium clustering in silica-doped glass,” Laser Phys. 25(2), 025102 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

L. Wang, D. He, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Hu, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Wang, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ytterbium-doped silica photonic crystal fiber laser fabricated by the nanoporous glass sintering technique,” Laser Phys. 24(6), 065801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. L.

S. K. Wang, Z. L. Li, C. L. Yu, M. Wang, S. Y. Feng, Q. L. Zhou, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Fabrication and laser behaviors of Yb3+ doped silica large mode area photonic crystal fiber prepared by sol-gel method,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1752–1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. Y.

J. H. Yang, L. Y. Zhang, L. Wen, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3020–3026 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. F.

M. H. Zhu, S. F. Zhang, T. Gu, and T. Xia, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tantalum-phosphate glasses,” Light-Emitting Diode Materials and Devices 5632, 198–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, J. L. Wu, G. Y. Zhou, C. M. Xia, J. T. Liu, H. C. Tian, W. T. Liang, and Z. Y. Hou, “Yb-doped silica glass and photonic crystal fiber based on laser sintering technology,” Laser Phys. 26(3), 035801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G. Y.

W. Zhang, J. L. Wu, G. Y. Zhou, C. M. Xia, J. T. Liu, H. C. Tian, W. T. Liang, and Z. Y. Hou, “Yb-doped silica glass and photonic crystal fiber based on laser sintering technology,” Laser Phys. 26(3), 035801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

S. Liu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Wang, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ytterbium-doped silica photonic crystal fiber laser fabricated by the nanoporous glass sintering technique,” Laser Phys. 24(6), 065801 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q. L.

S. K. Wang, Z. L. Li, C. L. Yu, M. Wang, S. Y. Feng, Q. L. Zhou, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Fabrication and laser behaviors of Yb3+ doped silica large mode area photonic crystal fiber prepared by sol-gel method,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1752–1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, M. H.

M. H. Zhu, S. F. Zhang, T. Gu, and T. Xia, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tantalum-phosphate glasses,” Light-Emitting Diode Materials and Devices 5632, 198–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bull. Mater. Sci. (1)

D. Mandal, H. D. Banerjee, M. L. N. Goswami, and H. N. Acharya, “Synthesis of Er3+ and Er3+: Yb3+ doped sol-gel derived silica glass and studies on their optical properties,” Bull. Mater. Sci. 27(4), 367–372 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

S. Liu, H. Li, Y. Tang, and L. Hu, “Fabrication and spectroscopic properties of Yb~3+-doped silica glasses using the sol-gel method,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(8), 42–45 (2012).

Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications (1)

A. Langner, M. Such, G. Schotz, V. Reichel, S. Grimm, F. Just, M. Leich, J. Kirchhof, B. Wedel, G. Kohler, O. Strauch, O. Mehl, V. Krause, and G. Rehmann, “Development, manufacturing and lasing behavior of Yb-doped ultra large mode area fibers based on Yb-doped fused bulk silica,” Fiber Lasers Vii: Technology, Systems, And Applications 7580, 75802X (2010).

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

F. Goutalanda, Y. Ouerdanea, A. Boukentera, and G. Monnomb, “Visible emission processes in heavily doped ErYb silica optical fibers,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 276–278 (1998).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. H. Yang, L. Y. Zhang, L. Wen, S. X. Dai, L. L. Hu, and Z. H. Jiang, “Optical transitions and upconversion luminescence of Er3+/Yb3+-codoped halide modified tellurite glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(6), 3020–3026 (2004).
[Crossref]

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C. Jørgensen and R. Reisfeld, “Judd-Ofelt parameters and chemical bonding,” J. Less Common Met. 93(1), 107–112 (1983).
[Crossref]

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E. H. Sekiya, P. Barua, K. Saito, and A. J. Ikushima, “Fabrication of Yb-doped silica glass through the modification of MCVD process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(42–44), 4737–4742 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. (3)

N. V. Kiritchenko, L. V. Kotov, M. A. Melkumov, M. E. Likhachev, M. M. Bubnov, M. V. Yashkov, A. Y. Laptev, and A. N. Guryanov, “Effect of ytterbium co-doping on erbium clustering in silica-doped glass,” Laser Phys. 25(2), 025102 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, M. Wang, Q. Zhou, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Wang, L. L. Hu, and D. P. Chen, “Ytterbium-doped silica photonic crystal fiber laser fabricated by the nanoporous glass sintering technique,” Laser Phys. 24(6), 065801 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, J. L. Wu, G. Y. Zhou, C. M. Xia, J. T. Liu, H. C. Tian, W. T. Liang, and Z. Y. Hou, “Yb-doped silica glass and photonic crystal fiber based on laser sintering technology,” Laser Phys. 26(3), 035801 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

S. D. Hodgson, D. G. Waugh, A. Gillett, and J. Lawrence, “High speed CO2 laser surface modification of iron/cobalt co-doped boroaluminosilicate glass and the impact on surface roughness, gloss and wettability,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(7), 076102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Light-Emitting Diode Materials and Devices (1)

M. H. Zhu, S. F. Zhang, T. Gu, and T. Xia, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped tantalum-phosphate glasses,” Light-Emitting Diode Materials and Devices 5632, 198–204 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Q. Wang and N. K. Dutta, “Er-Yb double-clad fiber amplifier,” Opt. Eng. 43(5), 1030–1034 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (3)

S. K. Wang, Z. L. Li, C. L. Yu, M. Wang, S. Y. Feng, Q. L. Zhou, D. P. Chen, and L. L. Hu, “Fabrication and laser behaviors of Yb3+ doped silica large mode area photonic crystal fiber prepared by sol-gel method,” Opt. Mater. 35(9), 1752–1755 (2013).
[Crossref]

U. Pedrazza, V. Romano, and W. Luthy, “Yb3+: Al3+: sol-gel silica glass fiber laser,” Opt. Mater. 29(7), 905–907 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Irannejad, G. Jose, A. Jha, and D. P. Steenson, “A parametric study of Er3+-ions doped Phospho-tellurite glass thin films by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Mater. 33(2), 215–219 (2010).
[Crossref]

Passive Components And Fiber-Based Devices Viii (1)

C. M. Ouyang, P. P. Shum, K. Wu, M. L. Hu, L. Chai, C. Y. Wang, N. L. Dai, and J. Y. Li, “Stable CW operation in a ring fiber laser based on Er-doped photonic crystal fiber,” Passive Components And Fiber-Based Devices Viii 8307, 83071T (2011).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. J. Weber, T. E. Varitimos, and B. H. Matsinger, “Optical intensities of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 47–53 (1973).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

L. Wang, D. He, S. Feng, C. Yu, L. Hu, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Yb/Er co-doped phosphate all-solid single-mode photonic crystal fiber,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6139 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of the laser sintering procedure (a) and the prepared Yb-Er co-doped silica glass (b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experiments setup for the absorption (a) and emission (b) measurements.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 X-ray detection pattern of Yb-Er co-doped silica glass.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Area scanning results of erbium (left), ytterbium (middle) and aluminum (right).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Line scanning results of erbium, ytterbium and aluminium.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured FT-IR spectrum.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured absorption spectrum.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Normalized emission spectrum.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Gain coefficient versus wavelength at different population inversion ratio corresponding to Er3+: 4I13/24I15/2.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Measured proportion of the prepared Yb/Er co-doped silica glass

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured and calculated line strengths and J-O intensity parameters of Er3+

Tables Icon

Table 3 The calculated spontaneous transition probability (AJJ’), total spontaneous transition probability (ΣAJJ’), branching ratios (β) and radiative lifetimes (τ) for the excited states 4I13/2 and 4I11/2

Equations (1)

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σ g a i n ( λ ) = N [ βσ e m i ( λ ) ( 1 β ) σ a b s ( λ ) ]

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