Abstract

A tunable surface-emitting dual-wavelength laser emitted from the blended organic gain layer based on a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) transmission grating feedback structure was reported. The organic blended gain layer was formed from Poly (2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) and Poly (2-methoxy-5-(3′, 7’-dimethyloctyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene) (MDMO-PPV) with a weight ratio of 2:1. The dual-wavelength laser located at 629.9 nm and 640 nm was obtained in a single beam. The optical characteristics of these two organic semiconducting materials and the dual-wavelength laser performance under an electric field are investigated and illustrated. This simple tunable dual-wavelength laser shows the potential to extend the development of organic lasers.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Dual-wavelength lasers (DWLs) have drawn much scientific attention due to their potential for various applications including Raman spectroscopy, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), two-wavelength interferometry, THz frequency generators and others [1–4]. Researchers have proposed a series of methods to achieve DWLs in the past decades and in general their studies can be divided into two aspects: inorganic and organic DWLs [5–7]. For achieving inorganic DWLs, they put attention to Nd-doped crystals or inorganic semiconducting materials and created various device frames to establish a discrete feedback path for each laser wavelength. They mainly focus on designing a V-shaped cavity or two detached F-P feedback cavities, while both of these two structures are requesting by many other fittings, such as Brewster window, FP etalon, grating, filter and optically coated mirrors [6, 8–10]. These additional optical elements would inevitably induce optical instability and a bulky configuration for DWLs device.

On the other hand, thanks to the appearance of organic semiconducting materials, these materials combine the photoelectric properties of semiconductors with the advantages of simple process, good flexibility and low cost [11]. They also exhibit strong absorption, large Stokes shift and wide fluorescence bands, which are very suitable for fabricating organic DWLs [12, 13]. Moreover, a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (HPDLC) grating structure fabricated by holographic polymerization technique and composed of alternating LC-rich and polymer-rich lamellae has been developed [14, 15]. The HPDLC grating acts as laser feedback cavity and provides low threshold and single mode emission for the long gain path and effective wavelength selectivity [16, 17]. Organic DWLs with a holographic grating feedback structure have been reported [18, 19]. The DWL was emitted from the laser dye 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) through seventh and eighth-order Bragg diffraction or the DWL was generated from two laser media like DCM and Poly (2-methoxy-5-(2’-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) through second-order Bragg diffraction. Furthermore, these organic semiconducting DWLs don’t need to add other additional elements, so they retain a compact configuration which shows the potential to be integrated in all optical devices. These two DWLs have not shown tunable lasing behaviors with external force like electric field.

In this paper, we present a tunable dual-wavelength surface-emitting laser from the blended organic active layer based on an external holographic feedback layer. The two organic semiconducting materials adopted here for the first time are MEH-PPV and Poly (2-methoxy-5-(3′, 7’-dimethyloctyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene) (MDMO-PPV). A dual-wavelength emission at 629.9 nm and 640 nm was obtained from MEH-PPV and MDMO-PPV respectively but in a single laser beam. In this work, the DWL was generated from the same organic gain layer and showed tunable laser behaviors under electric field.

2. Experiments

The organic semiconducting MEH-PPV (Mw~105) and MDMO-PPV (Mw~105) were obtained from Xi’an P-OLED Material Corporation and used as received. The chemical structures of these two organic semiconducting materials and the schematic configuration of our organic dual-wavelength laser are shown in Fig. 1. The organic gain films were spin-coated from MEH-PPV, MDMO-PPV or MEH-PPV:MDMO-PPV with the weight ratio of 2:1 solution in chlorobenzene (CB) with the same concentration of 0.8 wt%, and the film thickness was fixed at 80 nm by the spin-coating rate and confirmed by the Dektak profilometer. Then an empty cell was fabricated by combining the organic gain film coated indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate with the other polyimide (PI) film coated ITO glass substrate and the cell gap was controlled at 6 um by Mylar spacers. The PI film was rubbed unidirectionally to control LC molecules aligned along the groove direction of HPDLC grating (z axis). The HPDLC grating is formed on the top of the organic gain film between two 30 nm ITO coated glass substrates.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Chemical structures of (a) MEH-PPV and (b) MDMO-PPV and (c) the schematic structure of organic dual-wavelength laser in this work.

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The HPDLC structure was made from a prepolymer mixture composed of LC TEB30A (no = 1.522, ne = 1.692, Slichem, 28 wt%), difunctional acrylate monomer phthalicdiglycoldiacrylate (PDDA, Sigma-Aldrich, 60 wt%), photo-initiator Rose Bengal (RB, Sigma-Aldrich, 0.5 wt%), coinitiator N-phenylglycine (NPG, Sigma-Aldrich, 1.5 wt%), N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP, Sigma-Aldrich, 10 wt%). The uniform mixture was injected into the empty cell and exposed to the interference patterns generated by two coherent s-polarized laser beams from a 532 nm Nd:YAG laser [20, 21]. The light intensity of each recording beam was 8 mW/cm2 and the exposure time was 5 minutes. The writing and diffraction efficiency measuring setup are illustrated in Fig. 2. The HPDLC grating period (Λ) can be controlled according to

Λ=λ5322sin(θ2)
by changing the intersection angle (θ) between the two coherent lasing beams. The HPDLC grating period was 405.5 nm for all the samples in order to obtain light feedback through the second-order Bragg diffraction for organic gain layer.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 Fabricating and diffraction efficiency measuring setup for HPDLC grating structure.

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To determine the LC molecules orientation and ensure all the samples have similar morphologies, the diffraction efficiency (η) of each sample was measured by a He–Ne laser (circular polarization, 632.8 nm) at the incident Bragg angle onto the sample and the first order diffracted beam was measured by the Detector 2. Both the Detector 1 and the Detector 2 are the Model JG2 laser power meters, which were made in Peking University. The diffraction efficiency is defined as the incident light intensity (Iin) divided by the first order diffracted light intensity (Iχ), here χ is the s or p polarization state obtained by rotating the polarizer in the light path. The diffraction efficiency value of each sample is shown in Table 1. Moreover, we notice that s-polarized and p-polarized light parallel to z axis and x axis, respectively.

Tables Icon

Table 1. The gain films and diffraction efficiencies of different samples in the experiment.

In order to ascertain the scope of dual-wavelength laser, the absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of organic gain film was measured by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-3101; Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan) and fluorescence spectrophotometer (Hitachi F-7000; Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), respectively. The schematic optical setup for the absorption and PL spectra measurements are shown in Fig. 3. The light source in Fig. 3(a) and (b) are the tungsten lamp and the xenon lamp, respectively, and the detectors are the photomultiplier tube.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Schematic experimental setup for (a) the absorption and (b) PL spectra measurements.

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Meanwhile, a Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser operating at 532 nm (repetition rate: 2 Hz and pulse duration: 8.6 ns) was used as the optical pumping source in our experiment. A cylindrical lens and an adjustable slit were used to shape the pump beam into the dimension of 4 mm × 0.1 mm and focused onto the sample with the incident angle of 45° correspond to the normal of the substrate. The emitted dual-wavelength laser was collected along the normal of the sample by an optical fiber spectrometer and the pump laser energy was measured by an energy meter (NIM-E1000; China). A square-wave signal generator with the voltage frequency of 1 KHz was used to control the LC orientation. The schematic setup of the lasing experiment is shown in Fig. 4.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Optical setup for pumping the organic DWL sample and collecting the output emission.

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3. Results and discussion

3.1 Optical properties of organic gain films

The optical properties of organic gain films are demonstrated in Fig. 5. The absorption spectra between these three gain films share the similar shape and located close to each other and this phenomenon is the same to their PL spectra. The absorption and PL peaks of MEH-PPV film, MEH-PPV:MDMO-PPV blended film and MDMO-PPV film located at 498 nm and 593.2 nm, 499 nm and 596 nm, 502 nm and 599.8 nm, respectively. The energy-band gaps of MEH-PPV and MDMO-PPV molecules are 2.2ev and their energy levels are almost consistent with each other [22, 23]. Different from other reports on blended materials, they mainly aimed to take advantage of energy transfer between the guest and the host for improving the energy transfer efficiency or quantum yield [24–26]. While in this work, the emission band of MEH-PPV separates well from the absorption spectra of MDMO-PPV suggests that Förster energy transfer can’t be obtained from the blended organic gain film. Moreover, these two organic materials also exhibit other analogous optical properties, such as anisotropic refractive indices of thin film, exciton diffusion lengths and fluorescence lifetime [27–31]. These significant properties implied that dual-wavelength laser can probably be formed from the blended organic gain film as Förster energy transfer doesn’t exist in the blended system. Besides, the overlap between the absorption and the PL spectral from 525 nm to 600 nm indicates that dual-wavelength laser can only be achieved above 600 nm due to self-absorption effect.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Normalized intensity for absorption and PL spectra of MEH-PPV film, MEH-PPV:MDMO-PPV blended film and MDMO-PPV film.

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3.2 Dual-wavelength laser performance

3.2.1 Laser emission

When the samples were optical pumped above the lasing threshold, dual-wavelength lasers were excited and emitted from the normal direction of glass substrate in a single beam. The spectra of dual-wavelength laser from blended sample b was measured at 0.8 uJ/pulse and shown in Fig. 6(a). The two lasers were separated surpass 10 nm from each other and located at 629.9 nm and 640 nm with the spectral widths (full width at half maximum, FWHM) of 0.3 nm and 0.6 nm. For distinguishing the two organic semiconducting lasers, the sample a and sample c with the same parameters were fabricated. The lasing spectra of sample a located at 629.5 nm and sample c located at 640.1 nm was collected at 2.2 uJ/pulse and illustrated in Fig. 6(b).These results implied that the laser located at 629.9 nm was generated from MEH-PPV and the other laser was induced from MDMO-PPV. The physical mechanism of organic semiconducting laser has been reported early and each of dual-wavelength lasers is according with waveguide theory [15, 19, 32]. Therefore we believe that the two organic materials exhibit distinct anisotropic refractive indices values in blended organic film, thus the dual-wavelength laser can be formed without Förster energy transfer between them. The dual-wavelength laser follows the Bragg equation:

mλ=2neffΛ
here, Λ is the grating period, neff is the effective refractive index of the laser mode and m is the Bragg order, which was selected as 2 in this work [33]. According to Eq. (2), the neff of the two lasers emitted from MEH-PPV and MDMO-PPV were 1.553 and 1.578, respectively. The results are reasonable because the refractive indexes (TE mode) are 1.78 for MEH-PPV and 1.86 for MDMO-PPV [27, 28].

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Spectra of (a) dual-wavelength laser of sample b measured at 0.8 uJ/pulse and (b) lasers of sample a emitted from MEH-PPV and sample c emitted from MDMO-PPV measured at 2.2 uJ/pulse.

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3.2.2 Laser threshold

As an important factor of laser action, the dual-wavelength laser threshold behavior was investigated. Figure 7 shows the dependence of lasing intensity on the pump energy of sample b. The solid squares are the experimental values and the colored lines are the fitting curves. An abrupt increase in the slope of curves was obtained when pumped above the lasing threshold and the output energy intensity increased linearly with the increase of the pump energy. The intersection between the two linear lines and the pump energy axis provide laser thresholds. The output laser energy thresholds are 0.28 uJ/pulse for the 640 nm MDMO-PPV laser and 0.38 uJ/pulse for the 629.9 nm MEH-PPV laser. While considering that partial pump energy was reflected and transmitted from the sample, the actual thresholds of the two lasers were lower than measured values. In addition, laser performance of MDMO-PPV was better than MEH-PPV in the DWL, even though the 629.9 nm output laser intensity was higher than 640 nm laser when pumped above 0.52 uJ/pulse, because the organic gain film was formed from the MEH-PPV: MDMO-PPV with the weight ratio of 2:1. And this result is according with the output lasing intensity shown in Fig. 6.

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Lasing output energy intensity as a function of pump energy of sample b.

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3.3 Tunability by electric field

The polarization states of the dual-wavelength laser have been detected in the experiment and both lasers were TE polarized waves [15, 19]. That is to say the dual-wavelength laser and s-polarized light share the same polarization state parallel to z axis (as shows in Fig. 1) The diffraction efficiency of s-polarized light would change when applied an external electric field, as LC molecules in LC-rich layer reorientation from z axis to the field direction along y axis. Figure 8 demonstrated the diffraction efficiency of s-polarized light as a function of the driving electric field for sample b. The diffraction efficiency of s-polarized light was monotonically decreases with the increasing of electric field until the electric field increased to 9 V/um. Eventually, the diffraction efficiency of s-polarized light decreased to 1.1% which was the same as p-polarized light. The result illustrates that the saturated electric field was 9 V/um and s or p-polarized light have the same refractive index (n0) of LC molecules.

 figure: Fig. 8

Fig. 8 Diffraction efficiency as a function of the applied electric field for sample b.

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In this work, the dual-wavelength laser tunable behaviors under electric field were investigated. It can be found that organic laser wavelength can be modulated according to the Bragg equation by changing Bragg order, the effective refractive index of the laser mode or the HPDLC grating period. In order to maintain the surface-emitting property of dual-wavelength laser the Bragg order fixed at 2, we modulate the effective refractive index of the laser mode, which was associated with the refractive index of HPDLC grating layer (ngrating), and the ngrating can be infected by the orientation of LC-rich layer under external electric field [34, 35]. The DWL wavelengths can be also changed with HPDLC grating period.

Figure 9 shows the dual-wavelength laser tunable behaviors on the dependence of electric fields and grating periods. The dual-wavelength laser could be modulated continuously, as LC molecule orientation changed with the increase of the external electric field in Fig. 9(a). The lasers from MEH-PPV and MDMO-PPV blue shift 1.3 nm and 1.6 nm respectively with the electric field increased to 9 V/um. The result was in good according with the change of diffraction efficiency of s-polarized light shown in Fig. 8. When the electric field increased to 9 V/um, the orientation of LC molecules aligned along the electric field (y axis) and s-polarized light have the refractive index (n0) of LC molecules. The decrease of the refractive index of HPDLC grating layer leads to the blue shift of lasers. The slight blue shift reveals the good stability of dual-wavelength laser and the experimental result was similar with the other report [36]. Also the lasing wavelength modulated range could be further expanded by inducing other LC molecules with larger refringence. Figure 9(b) shows lasing wavelength varying with the grating periods. The lasers from MEH-PPV and MDMO-PPV red shift 18.5 nm and 19 nm respectively with the period of HPDLC grating changed from 393.7 nm to 405.5 nm. While the larger lasing wavelength modulation could be achieved by varying grating period but the period can’t be changed continuously in a single sample, so multiple samples must be used in stack in practice.

 figure: Fig. 9

Fig. 9 Spectra of the organic dual-wavelength laser on the dependence of (a) electric fields and (b) grating periods.

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Finally, the output dual-wavelength lasing intensity and lasing thresholds on the dependence of electric field of sample b were also investigated and shown in Fig. 10. The pumping intensity kept constant at 0.9 uJ/pulse in Fig. 10(a). During the electric tuning process, the dual-wavelength lasing intensity decrease linearly from 2700 to 320 (arb.units) for laser emitted from MEH-PPV and 2037 to 190 (arb.units) for laser from MDMO-PPV. Similarly, as expected, the lasing thresholds rise linearly from 0.38 to 0.89 (uJ/pulse) and 0.28 to 0.83 (uJ/pulse) for lasers from MEH-PPV and MDMO-PPV, respectively, with the increase of electric field. These results proved that the decrease of refractive index modulation between LC-rich and polymer-rich lamellae under electric field would lead to a lower lasing intensity and a higher lasing threshold for the reduction of the amount of feedback power provided by the HPDLC structure [33]. Thus, we can control the organic dual-wavelength laser performance by electric field.

 figure: Fig. 10

Fig. 10 (a) The lasing intensity and (b) lasing thresholds on the dependence of electric field.

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4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have presented a surface-emitting dual-wavelength laser from a blended gain layer with a HPDLC grating feedback structure. The dual-wavelength laser located at 629.9 nm and 640 nm with the FWHM of 0.3 nm and 0.6 nm and lasing thresholds of 0.38 uJ/pulse and 0.28 uJ/pulse, respectively, was obtained in a single beam. We notice that Förster energy transfer can’t be existed in the blended organic gain film which ensures the formation of dual-wavelength laser.

We further investigated the dual-wavelength laser behaviors under electric field and lasing wavelength tunable behavior under grating period. The lasers from MEH-PPV and MDMO-PPV blue shift 1.3 nm and 1.6 nm with the electric field and red shift 18.5 nm and 19 nm with the grating period varied from 393.7 nm to 404.5 nm. Besides, the dual-wavelength lasing intensity decrease linearly and the lasing thresholds rise linearly with the increase of electric field, which show the possibility of electrical control of organic dual-wavelength laser. We think that this work would give insight to tunable organic DWL applications and more work to further enhance the tunable range is ongoing.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61475152, 61377032, 61378075, and 61405194).

References and links

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References

  • View by:

  1. X. Liu, S. Lebedkin, T. Mappes, S. Köber, C. Koos, M. Kappes, and U. Lemmer, “Organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser as excitation source in Raman spectroscopy using free-beam and fibre coupling,” in SPIE Photonics Europe (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2014), pp. 91370Y–91370Y–7.
  2. V. Shchukin, N. Ledentsov, T. Slight, W. Meredith, N. Gordeev, A. Nadtochy, A. Payusov, M. Maximov, S. Blokhin, and A. Blokhin, “Passive cavity surface-emitting lasers: option of temperature-insensitive lasing wavelength for uncooled dense wavelength division multiplexing systems,” in SPIE OPTO(International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), pp. 976609–976609–10.
  3. C.-L. Wang, Y.-H. Chuang, and C.-L. Pan, “Two-wavelength interferometer based on a two-color laser-diode array and the second-order correlation technique,” Opt. Lett. 20(9), 1071–1073 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. C.-L. Wang and C.-L. Pan, “Tunable multiterahertz beat signal generation from a two-wavelength laser-diode array,” Opt. Lett. 20(11), 1292–1294 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. L. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Zhuang, H. Yu, Y. Zhao, L. Guo, and X. Xu, “Dual-wavelength Nd:YAG crystal laser at 1074 and 1112 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2554–2556 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. L. Guo, R. Lan, H. Liu, H. Yu, H. Zhang, J. Wang, D. Hu, S. Zhuang, L. Chen, Y. Zhao, X. Xu, and Z. Wang, “1319 nm and 1338 nm dual-wavelength operation of LD end-pumped Nd:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9098–9106 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. X. He, X. Fang, C. Liao, D. N. Wang, and J. Sun, “A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21773–21781 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. L. Fan, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, R. Bedford, and J. T. Murray, “Linearly polarized dual-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181124 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. W. Luo, Y. Q. Yang, I. T. Mak, Y. H. Chang, K. H. Wu, and T. Kobayashi, “A widely tunable dual-wavelength CW Ti:sapphire laser with collinear output,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3305–3309 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y.-F. Chen, “cw dual-wavelength operation of a diode-end-pumped Nd: YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 475–478 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  11. R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, and M. Lögdlund, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Li, “Molecular design of photovoltaic materials for polymer solar cells: toward suitable electronic energy levels and broad absorption,” Acc. Chem. Res. 45(5), 723–733 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. B. Valeur and M. N. Berberan-Santos, Molecular Fluorescence: Principles and Applications (John Wiley & Sons, 2012).
  14. R. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, T. Bunning, and W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer‐dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  15. W. Huang, Z. Diao, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, C. Yang, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Distributed feedback polymer laser with an external feedback structure fabricated by holographic polymerization technique,” Org. Electron. 13(11), 2307–2311 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Klinkhammer, X. Liu, K. Huska, Y. Shen, S. Vanderheiden, S. Valouch, C. Vannahme, S. Bräse, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Continuously tunable solution-processed organic semiconductor DFB lasers pumped by laser diode,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6357–6364 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. L. Liu, L. Xuan, G. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Enhancement of pump efficiency for an organic distributed feedback laser based on a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal as an external light feedback layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(21), 5566–5572 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. Z. Diao, S. Deng, W. Huang, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Organic dual-wavelength distributed feedback laser empowered by dye-doped holography,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(44), 23331–23334 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. Z. Diao, L. Xuan, L. Liu, M. Xia, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “A dual-wavelength surface-emitting distributed feedback laser from a holographic grating with an organic semiconducting gain and a doped dye,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(30), 6177–6182 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Bunning, L. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, and R. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs) 1,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  21. W. Huang, Q. Liu, L. Xuan, and L. Chen, “Single-mode lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1065–1071 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. M. Alam and S. A. Jenekhe, “Polybenzobisazoles are efficient electron transport materials for improving the performance and stability of polymer light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 14(11), 4775–4780 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Soylu, “GaAs heterojunction devices with MDMO-PPV thin film,” Vacuum 106, 33–38 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. Gupta, M. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. Jarzab, M. Lu, H. T. Nicolai, P. W. Blom, and M. A. Loi, “Photoluminescence of conjugated polymer blends at the nanoscale,” Soft Matter 7(5), 1702–1707 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  26. L. Liu, W. Huang, Z. Diao, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, C. Yang, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold of distributed feedback lasers based on scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings: reduced losses through Forster transfer,” Liq. Cryst. 41(2), 145–152 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, R. M. Cordeiro, H.-H. Hörhold, and C. Bubeck, “Molecular weight dependence of chain orientation and optical constants of thin films of the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV,” Macromolecules 39(25), 8692–8698 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. Hoppe, N. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Optical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 385(1), 113–119 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. Athanasopoulos, E. Hennebicq, D. Beljonne, and A. B. Walker, “Trap limited exciton transport in conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(30), 11532–11538 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  30. W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Spectroscopic and travelling-wave lasing characterisation of Gilch-type and Horner-type MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 140(2-3), 155–170 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  31. T. Offermans, P. A. van Hal, S. C. Meskers, M. M. Koetse, and R. A. Janssen, “Exciplex dynamics in a blend of π-conjugated polymers with electron donating and accepting properties: MDMO-PPV and PCNEPV,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045213 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  32. H. Kogelnik, “Theory of dielectric waveguides,” in Integrated Optics (Springer, 1975).
  33. H. Kogelnik and C. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43(5), 2327–2335 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  34. K. Okamoto, Fundamentals of Optical Waveguides (Academic press, 2010).
  35. W. Huang, Z. Diao, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Y. Liu, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Electrically tunable distributed feedback laser emission from scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022702 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  36. Z. Diao, L. Kong, L. Xuan, and J. Ma, “Electrical control of the distributed feedback organic semiconductor laser based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Org. Electron. 27, 101–106 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

L. Liu, L. Xuan, G. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Enhancement of pump efficiency for an organic distributed feedback laser based on a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal as an external light feedback layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(21), 5566–5572 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, L. Kong, L. Xuan, and J. Ma, “Electrical control of the distributed feedback organic semiconductor laser based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Org. Electron. 27, 101–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

W. Huang, Q. Liu, L. Xuan, and L. Chen, “Single-mode lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1065–1071 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Soylu, “GaAs heterojunction devices with MDMO-PPV thin film,” Vacuum 106, 33–38 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, W. Huang, Z. Diao, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, C. Yang, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold of distributed feedback lasers based on scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings: reduced losses through Forster transfer,” Liq. Cryst. 41(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, L. Xuan, L. Liu, M. Xia, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “A dual-wavelength surface-emitting distributed feedback laser from a holographic grating with an organic semiconducting gain and a doped dye,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(30), 6177–6182 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

W. Huang, Z. Diao, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Y. Liu, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Electrically tunable distributed feedback laser emission from scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022702 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Z. Diao, S. Deng, W. Huang, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Organic dual-wavelength distributed feedback laser empowered by dye-doped holography,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(44), 23331–23334 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Li, “Molecular design of photovoltaic materials for polymer solar cells: toward suitable electronic energy levels and broad absorption,” Acc. Chem. Res. 45(5), 723–733 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Huang, Z. Diao, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, C. Yang, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Distributed feedback polymer laser with an external feedback structure fabricated by holographic polymerization technique,” Org. Electron. 13(11), 2307–2311 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Klinkhammer, X. Liu, K. Huska, Y. Shen, S. Vanderheiden, S. Valouch, C. Vannahme, S. Bräse, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Continuously tunable solution-processed organic semiconductor DFB lasers pumped by laser diode,” Opt. Express 20(6), 6357–6364 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

L. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Zhuang, H. Yu, Y. Zhao, L. Guo, and X. Xu, “Dual-wavelength Nd:YAG crystal laser at 1074 and 1112 nm,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2554–2556 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jarzab, M. Lu, H. T. Nicolai, P. W. Blom, and M. A. Loi, “Photoluminescence of conjugated polymer blends at the nanoscale,” Soft Matter 7(5), 1702–1707 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

C. W. Luo, Y. Q. Yang, I. T. Mak, Y. H. Chang, K. H. Wu, and T. Kobayashi, “A widely tunable dual-wavelength CW Ti:sapphire laser with collinear output,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3305–3309 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Athanasopoulos, E. Hennebicq, D. Beljonne, and A. B. Walker, “Trap limited exciton transport in conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(30), 11532–11538 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, R. Bedford, and J. T. Murray, “Linearly polarized dual-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181124 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, R. M. Cordeiro, H.-H. Hörhold, and C. Bubeck, “Molecular weight dependence of chain orientation and optical constants of thin films of the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV,” Macromolecules 39(25), 8692–8698 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

T. Offermans, P. A. van Hal, S. C. Meskers, M. M. Koetse, and R. A. Janssen, “Exciplex dynamics in a blend of π-conjugated polymers with electron donating and accepting properties: MDMO-PPV and PCNEPV,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045213 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Spectroscopic and travelling-wave lasing characterisation of Gilch-type and Horner-type MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 140(2-3), 155–170 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

H. Hoppe, N. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Optical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 385(1), 113–119 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. M. Alam and S. A. Jenekhe, “Polybenzobisazoles are efficient electron transport materials for improving the performance and stability of polymer light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 14(11), 4775–4780 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

Y.-F. Chen, “cw dual-wavelength operation of a diode-end-pumped Nd: YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 475–478 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Bunning, L. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, and R. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs) 1,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, and M. Lögdlund, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

R. Gupta, M. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

R. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, T. Bunning, and W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer‐dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43(5), 2327–2335 (1972).
[Crossref]

Adams, W.

R. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, T. Bunning, and W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer‐dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ahn, T.

K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, R. M. Cordeiro, H.-H. Hörhold, and C. Bubeck, “Molecular weight dependence of chain orientation and optical constants of thin films of the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV,” Macromolecules 39(25), 8692–8698 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alam, M. M.

M. M. Alam and S. A. Jenekhe, “Polybenzobisazoles are efficient electron transport materials for improving the performance and stability of polymer light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 14(11), 4775–4780 (2002).
[Crossref]

Athanasopoulos, S.

S. Athanasopoulos, E. Hennebicq, D. Beljonne, and A. B. Walker, “Trap limited exciton transport in conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(30), 11532–11538 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bahtiar, A.

K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, R. M. Cordeiro, H.-H. Hörhold, and C. Bubeck, “Molecular weight dependence of chain orientation and optical constants of thin films of the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV,” Macromolecules 39(25), 8692–8698 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bedford, R.

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, R. Bedford, and J. T. Murray, “Linearly polarized dual-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beljonne, D.

S. Athanasopoulos, E. Hennebicq, D. Beljonne, and A. B. Walker, “Trap limited exciton transport in conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(30), 11532–11538 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blom, P. W.

D. Jarzab, M. Lu, H. T. Nicolai, P. W. Blom, and M. A. Loi, “Photoluminescence of conjugated polymer blends at the nanoscale,” Soft Matter 7(5), 1702–1707 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, and M. Lögdlund, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bräse, S.

Bredas, J.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, and M. Lögdlund, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bubeck, C.

K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, R. M. Cordeiro, H.-H. Hörhold, and C. Bubeck, “Molecular weight dependence of chain orientation and optical constants of thin films of the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV,” Macromolecules 39(25), 8692–8698 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T.

T. Bunning, L. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, and R. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs) 1,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, T. Bunning, and W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer‐dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
[Crossref]

Burroughes, J.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, and M. Lögdlund, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cao, Z.

W. Huang, Z. Diao, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Y. Liu, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Electrically tunable distributed feedback laser emission from scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. H.

Chen, L.

Chen, Y.-F.

Y.-F. Chen, “cw dual-wavelength operation of a diode-end-pumped Nd: YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 475–478 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chuang, Y.-H.

Cordeiro, R. M.

K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, R. M. Cordeiro, H.-H. Hörhold, and C. Bubeck, “Molecular weight dependence of chain orientation and optical constants of thin films of the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV,” Macromolecules 39(25), 8692–8698 (2006).
[Crossref]

Deng, S.

Z. Diao, S. Deng, W. Huang, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Organic dual-wavelength distributed feedback laser empowered by dye-doped holography,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(44), 23331–23334 (2012).
[Crossref]

Diao, Z.

Z. Diao, L. Kong, L. Xuan, and J. Ma, “Electrical control of the distributed feedback organic semiconductor laser based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Org. Electron. 27, 101–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, L. Xuan, L. Liu, M. Xia, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “A dual-wavelength surface-emitting distributed feedback laser from a holographic grating with an organic semiconducting gain and a doped dye,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(30), 6177–6182 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, W. Huang, Z. Diao, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, C. Yang, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold of distributed feedback lasers based on scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings: reduced losses through Forster transfer,” Liq. Cryst. 41(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, Z. Diao, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Y. Liu, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Electrically tunable distributed feedback laser emission from scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, S. Deng, W. Huang, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Organic dual-wavelength distributed feedback laser empowered by dye-doped holography,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(44), 23331–23334 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, Z. Diao, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, C. Yang, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Distributed feedback polymer laser with an external feedback structure fabricated by holographic polymerization technique,” Org. Electron. 13(11), 2307–2311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dogariu, A.

R. Gupta, M. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dos Santos, D.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, and M. Lögdlund, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fallahi, M.

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, R. Bedford, and J. T. Murray, “Linearly polarized dual-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fan, L.

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, R. Bedford, and J. T. Murray, “Linearly polarized dual-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fang, X.

Friend, R.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, and M. Lögdlund, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Guo, L.

Gupta, R.

R. Gupta, M. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gymer, R.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, and M. Lögdlund, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hader, J.

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, R. Bedford, and J. T. Murray, “Linearly polarized dual-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181124 (2007).
[Crossref]

He, X.

Heeger, A. J.

R. Gupta, M. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hennebicq, E.

S. Athanasopoulos, E. Hennebicq, D. Beljonne, and A. B. Walker, “Trap limited exciton transport in conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(30), 11532–11538 (2008).
[Crossref]

Holmes, A.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, and M. Lögdlund, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Holzer, W.

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Spectroscopic and travelling-wave lasing characterisation of Gilch-type and Horner-type MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 140(2-3), 155–170 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hoppe, H.

H. Hoppe, N. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Optical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 385(1), 113–119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hörhold, H.-H.

K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, R. M. Cordeiro, H.-H. Hörhold, and C. Bubeck, “Molecular weight dependence of chain orientation and optical constants of thin films of the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV,” Macromolecules 39(25), 8692–8698 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Spectroscopic and travelling-wave lasing characterisation of Gilch-type and Horner-type MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 140(2-3), 155–170 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, D.

Hu, L.

L. Liu, L. Xuan, G. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Enhancement of pump efficiency for an organic distributed feedback laser based on a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal as an external light feedback layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(21), 5566–5572 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, L. Xuan, L. Liu, M. Xia, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “A dual-wavelength surface-emitting distributed feedback laser from a holographic grating with an organic semiconducting gain and a doped dye,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(30), 6177–6182 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, W. Huang, Z. Diao, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, C. Yang, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold of distributed feedback lasers based on scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings: reduced losses through Forster transfer,” Liq. Cryst. 41(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, S. Deng, W. Huang, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Organic dual-wavelength distributed feedback laser empowered by dye-doped holography,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(44), 23331–23334 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

W. Huang, Q. Liu, L. Xuan, and L. Chen, “Single-mode lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1065–1071 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, W. Huang, Z. Diao, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, C. Yang, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold of distributed feedback lasers based on scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings: reduced losses through Forster transfer,” Liq. Cryst. 41(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, Z. Diao, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Y. Liu, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Electrically tunable distributed feedback laser emission from scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, S. Deng, W. Huang, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Organic dual-wavelength distributed feedback laser empowered by dye-doped holography,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(44), 23331–23334 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, Z. Diao, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, C. Yang, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Distributed feedback polymer laser with an external feedback structure fabricated by holographic polymerization technique,” Org. Electron. 13(11), 2307–2311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huska, K.

Janssen, R. A.

T. Offermans, P. A. van Hal, S. C. Meskers, M. M. Koetse, and R. A. Janssen, “Exciplex dynamics in a blend of π-conjugated polymers with electron donating and accepting properties: MDMO-PPV and PCNEPV,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045213 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jarzab, D.

D. Jarzab, M. Lu, H. T. Nicolai, P. W. Blom, and M. A. Loi, “Photoluminescence of conjugated polymer blends at the nanoscale,” Soft Matter 7(5), 1702–1707 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jenekhe, S. A.

M. M. Alam and S. A. Jenekhe, “Polybenzobisazoles are efficient electron transport materials for improving the performance and stability of polymer light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 14(11), 4775–4780 (2002).
[Crossref]

Klinkhammer, S.

Kobayashi, T.

Koch, S. W.

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, R. Bedford, and J. T. Murray, “Linearly polarized dual-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Koetse, M. M.

T. Offermans, P. A. van Hal, S. C. Meskers, M. M. Koetse, and R. A. Janssen, “Exciplex dynamics in a blend of π-conjugated polymers with electron donating and accepting properties: MDMO-PPV and PCNEPV,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045213 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43(5), 2327–2335 (1972).
[Crossref]

Kong, L.

Z. Diao, L. Kong, L. Xuan, and J. Ma, “Electrical control of the distributed feedback organic semiconductor laser based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Org. Electron. 27, 101–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Koynov, K.

K. Koynov, A. Bahtiar, T. Ahn, R. M. Cordeiro, H.-H. Hörhold, and C. Bubeck, “Molecular weight dependence of chain orientation and optical constants of thin films of the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV,” Macromolecules 39(25), 8692–8698 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lan, R.

Lemmer, U.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, “Molecular design of photovoltaic materials for polymer solar cells: toward suitable electronic energy levels and broad absorption,” Acc. Chem. Res. 45(5), 723–733 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, C.

Liu, H.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, L. Xuan, G. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Enhancement of pump efficiency for an organic distributed feedback laser based on a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal as an external light feedback layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(21), 5566–5572 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, L. Xuan, L. Liu, M. Xia, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “A dual-wavelength surface-emitting distributed feedback laser from a holographic grating with an organic semiconducting gain and a doped dye,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(30), 6177–6182 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, W. Huang, Z. Diao, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, C. Yang, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold of distributed feedback lasers based on scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings: reduced losses through Forster transfer,” Liq. Cryst. 41(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

L. Liu, L. Xuan, G. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Enhancement of pump efficiency for an organic distributed feedback laser based on a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal as an external light feedback layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(21), 5566–5572 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

W. Huang, Q. Liu, L. Xuan, and L. Chen, “Single-mode lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1065–1071 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

L. Liu, L. Xuan, G. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Enhancement of pump efficiency for an organic distributed feedback laser based on a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal as an external light feedback layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(21), 5566–5572 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, L. Xuan, L. Liu, M. Xia, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “A dual-wavelength surface-emitting distributed feedback laser from a holographic grating with an organic semiconducting gain and a doped dye,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(30), 6177–6182 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, W. Huang, Z. Diao, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, C. Yang, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold of distributed feedback lasers based on scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings: reduced losses through Forster transfer,” Liq. Cryst. 41(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, Z. Diao, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Y. Liu, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Electrically tunable distributed feedback laser emission from scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, S. Deng, W. Huang, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Organic dual-wavelength distributed feedback laser empowered by dye-doped holography,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(44), 23331–23334 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, Z. Diao, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, C. Yang, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Distributed feedback polymer laser with an external feedback structure fabricated by holographic polymerization technique,” Org. Electron. 13(11), 2307–2311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lögdlund, M.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, and M. Lögdlund, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Loi, M. A.

D. Jarzab, M. Lu, H. T. Nicolai, P. W. Blom, and M. A. Loi, “Photoluminescence of conjugated polymer blends at the nanoscale,” Soft Matter 7(5), 1702–1707 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

D. Jarzab, M. Lu, H. T. Nicolai, P. W. Blom, and M. A. Loi, “Photoluminescence of conjugated polymer blends at the nanoscale,” Soft Matter 7(5), 1702–1707 (2011).
[Crossref]

Luo, C. W.

Ma, J.

L. Liu, L. Xuan, G. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Enhancement of pump efficiency for an organic distributed feedback laser based on a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal as an external light feedback layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(21), 5566–5572 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, L. Kong, L. Xuan, and J. Ma, “Electrical control of the distributed feedback organic semiconductor laser based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Org. Electron. 27, 101–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, L. Xuan, L. Liu, M. Xia, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “A dual-wavelength surface-emitting distributed feedback laser from a holographic grating with an organic semiconducting gain and a doped dye,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(30), 6177–6182 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, Z. Diao, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Y. Liu, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Electrically tunable distributed feedback laser emission from scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, S. Deng, W. Huang, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Organic dual-wavelength distributed feedback laser empowered by dye-doped holography,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(44), 23331–23334 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, Z. Diao, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, C. Yang, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Distributed feedback polymer laser with an external feedback structure fabricated by holographic polymerization technique,” Org. Electron. 13(11), 2307–2311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mak, I. T.

Mappes, T.

Marks, R.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, and M. Lögdlund, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

McGehee, M. D.

R. Gupta, M. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[Crossref]

Meissner, D.

H. Hoppe, N. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Optical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 385(1), 113–119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Meskers, S. C.

T. Offermans, P. A. van Hal, S. C. Meskers, M. M. Koetse, and R. A. Janssen, “Exciplex dynamics in a blend of π-conjugated polymers with electron donating and accepting properties: MDMO-PPV and PCNEPV,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045213 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moloney, J. V.

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, R. Bedford, and J. T. Murray, “Linearly polarized dual-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mu, Q.

L. Liu, W. Huang, Z. Diao, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, C. Yang, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold of distributed feedback lasers based on scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings: reduced losses through Forster transfer,” Liq. Cryst. 41(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

Murray, J. T.

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, R. Bedford, and J. T. Murray, “Linearly polarized dual-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Natarajan, L.

T. Bunning, L. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, and R. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs) 1,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, T. Bunning, and W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer‐dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nicolai, H. T.

D. Jarzab, M. Lu, H. T. Nicolai, P. W. Blom, and M. A. Loi, “Photoluminescence of conjugated polymer blends at the nanoscale,” Soft Matter 7(5), 1702–1707 (2011).
[Crossref]

Offermans, T.

T. Offermans, P. A. van Hal, S. C. Meskers, M. M. Koetse, and R. A. Janssen, “Exciplex dynamics in a blend of π-conjugated polymers with electron donating and accepting properties: MDMO-PPV and PCNEPV,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045213 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pan, C.-L.

Park, J. Y.

R. Gupta, M. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[Crossref]

Peng, Z.

L. Liu, W. Huang, Z. Diao, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, C. Yang, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold of distributed feedback lasers based on scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings: reduced losses through Forster transfer,” Liq. Cryst. 41(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, Z. Diao, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, C. Yang, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Distributed feedback polymer laser with an external feedback structure fabricated by holographic polymerization technique,” Org. Electron. 13(11), 2307–2311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Penzkofer, A.

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Spectroscopic and travelling-wave lasing characterisation of Gilch-type and Horner-type MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 140(2-3), 155–170 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sariciftci, N.

H. Hoppe, N. Sariciftci, and D. Meissner, “Optical constants of conjugated polymer/fullerene based bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 385(1), 113–119 (2002).
[Crossref]

Shank, C.

H. Kogelnik and C. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43(5), 2327–2335 (1972).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.

Soylu, M.

M. Soylu, “GaAs heterojunction devices with MDMO-PPV thin film,” Vacuum 106, 33–38 (2014).
[Crossref]

Srdanov, V.

R. Gupta, M. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stevenson, M.

R. Gupta, M. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stolz, W.

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, R. Bedford, and J. T. Murray, “Linearly polarized dual-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

Sutherland, R.

T. Bunning, L. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, and R. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs) 1,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, T. Bunning, and W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer‐dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
[Crossref]

Taliani, C.

R. Friend, R. Gymer, A. Holmes, J. Burroughes, R. Marks, C. Taliani, D. Bradley, D. Dos Santos, J. Bredas, and M. Lögdlund, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature 397(6715), 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tillmann, H.

W. Holzer, A. Penzkofer, H. Tillmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Spectroscopic and travelling-wave lasing characterisation of Gilch-type and Horner-type MEH-PPV,” Synth. Met. 140(2-3), 155–170 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tondiglia, V.

T. Bunning, L. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, and R. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs) 1,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, T. Bunning, and W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer‐dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
[Crossref]

Valouch, S.

van Hal, P. A.

T. Offermans, P. A. van Hal, S. C. Meskers, M. M. Koetse, and R. A. Janssen, “Exciplex dynamics in a blend of π-conjugated polymers with electron donating and accepting properties: MDMO-PPV and PCNEPV,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045213 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vanderheiden, S.

Vannahme, C.

Walker, A. B.

S. Athanasopoulos, E. Hennebicq, D. Beljonne, and A. B. Walker, “Trap limited exciton transport in conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(30), 11532–11538 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.-L.

Wang, D. N.

Wang, H.

R. Gupta, M. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, Z.

Wu, K. H.

Xia, M.

Z. Diao, L. Xuan, L. Liu, M. Xia, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “A dual-wavelength surface-emitting distributed feedback laser from a holographic grating with an organic semiconducting gain and a doped dye,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(30), 6177–6182 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

Xuan, L.

L. Liu, L. Xuan, G. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Enhancement of pump efficiency for an organic distributed feedback laser based on a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal as an external light feedback layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(21), 5566–5572 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, L. Kong, L. Xuan, and J. Ma, “Electrical control of the distributed feedback organic semiconductor laser based on holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Org. Electron. 27, 101–106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, L. Xuan, L. Liu, M. Xia, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “A dual-wavelength surface-emitting distributed feedback laser from a holographic grating with an organic semiconducting gain and a doped dye,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(30), 6177–6182 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, Q. Liu, L. Xuan, and L. Chen, “Single-mode lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1065–1071 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, W. Huang, Z. Diao, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, C. Yang, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold of distributed feedback lasers based on scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings: reduced losses through Forster transfer,” Liq. Cryst. 41(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, Z. Diao, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Y. Liu, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Electrically tunable distributed feedback laser emission from scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Diao, S. Deng, W. Huang, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Organic dual-wavelength distributed feedback laser empowered by dye-doped holography,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(44), 23331–23334 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, Z. Diao, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, C. Yang, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Distributed feedback polymer laser with an external feedback structure fabricated by holographic polymerization technique,” Org. Electron. 13(11), 2307–2311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

L. Liu, W. Huang, Z. Diao, Z. Peng, Q. Mu, Y. Liu, C. Yang, L. Hu, and L. Xuan, “Low threshold of distributed feedback lasers based on scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal gratings: reduced losses through Forster transfer,” Liq. Cryst. 41(2), 145–152 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Huang, Z. Diao, Y. Liu, Z. Peng, C. Yang, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Distributed feedback polymer laser with an external feedback structure fabricated by holographic polymerization technique,” Org. Electron. 13(11), 2307–2311 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. Q.

Yao, L.

W. Huang, Z. Diao, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Y. Liu, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Electrically tunable distributed feedback laser emission from scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

Zakharian, A. R.

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, R. Bedford, and J. T. Murray, “Linearly polarized dual-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

L. Liu, L. Xuan, G. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Enhancement of pump efficiency for an organic distributed feedback laser based on a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal as an external light feedback layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(21), 5566–5572 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Zhao, Y.

Zhuang, S.

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

Y. Li, “Molecular design of photovoltaic materials for polymer solar cells: toward suitable electronic energy levels and broad absorption,” Acc. Chem. Res. 45(5), 723–733 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

T. Bunning, L. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, and R. Sutherland, “Holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs) 1,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30(1), 83–115 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

W. Huang, Q. Liu, L. Xuan, and L. Chen, “Single-mode lasing from dye-doped holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal transmission gratings,” Appl. Phys. B 117(4), 1065–1071 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Chen, “cw dual-wavelength operation of a diode-end-pumped Nd: YVO4 laser,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 475–478 (2000).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

W. Huang, Z. Diao, L. Yao, Z. Cao, Y. Liu, J. Ma, and L. Xuan, “Electrically tunable distributed feedback laser emission from scaffolding morphologic holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(2), 022702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, L. Natarajan, T. Bunning, and W. Adams, “Electrically switchable volume gratings in polymer‐dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(9), 1074–1076 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Fan, M. Fallahi, J. Hader, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, R. Bedford, and J. T. Murray, “Linearly polarized dual-wavelength vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181124 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Gupta, M. Stevenson, A. Dogariu, M. D. McGehee, J. Y. Park, V. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, and H. Wang, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission in blends of conjugated polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(24), 3492–3494 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

M. M. Alam and S. A. Jenekhe, “Polybenzobisazoles are efficient electron transport materials for improving the performance and stability of polymer light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Mater. 14(11), 4775–4780 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43(5), 2327–2335 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Z. Diao, S. Deng, W. Huang, L. Xuan, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Organic dual-wavelength distributed feedback laser empowered by dye-doped holography,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(44), 23331–23334 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (2)

Z. Diao, L. Xuan, L. Liu, M. Xia, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “A dual-wavelength surface-emitting distributed feedback laser from a holographic grating with an organic semiconducting gain and a doped dye,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(30), 6177–6182 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, L. Xuan, G. Zhang, M. Liu, L. Hu, Y. Liu, and J. Ma, “Enhancement of pump efficiency for an organic distributed feedback laser based on a holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal as an external light feedback layer,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(21), 5566–5572 (2015).
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J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Chemical structures of (a) MEH-PPV and (b) MDMO-PPV and (c) the schematic structure of organic dual-wavelength laser in this work.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fabricating and diffraction efficiency measuring setup for HPDLC grating structure.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic experimental setup for (a) the absorption and (b) PL spectra measurements.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical setup for pumping the organic DWL sample and collecting the output emission.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Normalized intensity for absorption and PL spectra of MEH-PPV film, MEH-PPV:MDMO-PPV blended film and MDMO-PPV film.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Spectra of (a) dual-wavelength laser of sample b measured at 0.8 uJ/pulse and (b) lasers of sample a emitted from MEH-PPV and sample c emitted from MDMO-PPV measured at 2.2 uJ/pulse.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Lasing output energy intensity as a function of pump energy of sample b.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Diffraction efficiency as a function of the applied electric field for sample b.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Spectra of the organic dual-wavelength laser on the dependence of (a) electric fields and (b) grating periods.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) The lasing intensity and (b) lasing thresholds on the dependence of electric field.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 The gain films and diffraction efficiencies of different samples in the experiment.

Equations (2)

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Λ= λ 532 2sin( θ 2 )
mλ=2 n eff Λ

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