Abstract

An Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. Polarized spectral properties of the crystal were investigated, including the polarized absorption and fluorescence spectra and the fluorescence decay. The fluorescence quantum efficiency of the upper laser level 4I13/2 of Er3+ ions and efficiency of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions were obtained. End-pumped by a diode laser at 970 nm in a hemispherical cavity, 1.4 W quasi-cw laser around 1.55 μm with slope efficiency of 15% and absorbed pump threshold of 4.53 W was achieved in a 1.27-mm-thick c-cut Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Er3+ laser around 1.55 μm has many applications, such as range finding, optical communication, remote sensing, and medical treatment [15]. Yb3+ ions with large absorption cross-section around 980 nm, i.e. the emission wavelength of InGaAs diode laser, are generally co-doped as a sensitizer to improve the performance of the 1.55 μm laser via the efficient energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions [14].

At present, Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped borate crystals, such as YAl3(BO3)4, YCa4O(BO3)3, and Sr3Lu2(BO3)4 [24], have been demonstrated as a kind of the most efficient gain media for the 1.55 μm laser. However, for absorbing pump light around 980 nm efficiently and realizing high efficient 1.55 μm laser operation, high Yb3+ doping concentration is necessary for the above crystals [24]. Comparing with the Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped crystals, crystal defects related with the ion-substitution may be reduced when the Yb3+ is a matrix constitutive ion in a crystal. Generally, only low Er3+ doping concentration is needed in the Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped borate crystals for realizing high efficient 1.55 μm laser operation. On the other hand, the radius of Er3+ ion (0.89 Å) is close to that of Yb3+ ion (0.87 Å) [6]. Therefore, the Er3+ doped YbAl3(BO3)4 and Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 crystals have been studied in our group [7, 8]. Although the thermal properties on the input and output faces of a c-cut plate are isotropic for the uniaxial YbAl3(BO3)4 crystal, which can only be obtained by the flux method with a long growing period. The biaxial Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 crystal can be obtained by the short-period and low-cost Czochralski method, but the strong anisotropy makes them easy cracked during laser operation. Therefore, finding new uniaxial borate laser crystals with Yb3+ as a matrix constitutive ion, which can be grown by the Czochralski method, is still necessary.

The Yb3+ doped Sr3Y(BO3)3 (SYB) crystal, which belongs to trigonal system with the space group R3¯ has been demonstrated as excellent crystal for solid-laser [9, 10]. However, the peak absorption cross-section of Yb3+ in the SYB crystal is relatively small (about 0.95 × 10−20 cm2 at 975 nm for σ polarization) [10]. Therefore, 1.55 μm laser operation of Er3+ and Yb3+ co-doped SYB crystal has not been reported till now. In addition to the SYB crystal, there is another member of this borate family, Sr3Yb(BO3)3 [11], which has high Yb3+ concentration to make up for the small absorption cross-section but has not been investigated as laser crystal. In this paper, the polarized spectral properties and quasi-cw laser operation of an Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal are reported.

2. Spectral properties

An Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal was grown by the Czochralski method with a seed crystal along the c-axis, which is cut from an Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal grown by spontaneous nucleation. The Er3+ and Yb3+ concentrations in the grown crystal, cut around the samples for spectral and laser experiments, were determined to be 0.384 wt.% and 26.95 wt.%, respectively, by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES, Ultima2, Jobin-Yvon). Therefore, the Er3+ concentration in the crystal in atomic percent can be calculated to be 1.45 at.% (7.04 × 1019 cm−3) by Er/(Er + Yb). Then the segregation coefficient of the Er3+ in the crystal was calculated to be 1.07 after the initial 1.35 at.% Er3+concentration in the melt was taken into account. The value is similar to those of Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 (1.02) and Yb:Y3Al5O12 (1.1) crystals [8, 12]. In fact, for realizing high efficient 1.55 μm laser, only low Er3+ concentration is needed in the crystal for avoiding the negative effect of re-absorption of Er3+. Therefore, about 1.45 at.% Er3+ concentration was selected in the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal according to the current literature reports [15].

Room temperature (RT) polarized absorption spectra recorded with a spectrophotometer (Lambda 900, Perkin-Elmer) in a range from 280−1700 nm are shown in Fig. 1. It can be found that the crystal has weak anisotropy in spectra. Except the band around 976 nm, consisted with the 2F7/22F5/2 transition of Yb3+ ions and the 4I15/24I11/2 transition of Er3+ ions, the other bands are related to the transitions originated from the 4I15/2 ground level to different excited levels of Er3+ ions. For the absorption band around 976 nm, the peak absorption wavelength and full width at half the maximum (FWHM) are 976 nm and 7 nm, respectively, for both σ and π polarizations. The peak absorption cross-sections of the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal are 0.69 × 10−20 and 0.86 × 10−20 cm2 for σ and π polarizations, respectively.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 RT polarized absorption spectra of the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal from 280 to 1700 nm.

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Using BaSO4 as a standard reference, a RT diffuse reflection spectrum of an undoped Sr3Yb(BO3)3 polycrystalline powder, which was obtained by solid-state synthesis, was measured by a spectrophotometer (Lambda 950, Perkin-Elmer) in a range from 830 to1100 nm and is shown in Fig. 2. It can be found from Figs. 1 and 2 that the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal and Sr3Yb(BO3)3 polycrystalline powder have similar absorption bands from 850 to 1050 nm, which demonstrate that the absorption band around 976 nm of the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal is mainly caused by the Yb3+ ions.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 RT diffuse reflection spectrum of the Sr3Yb(BO3)3 polycrystalline powder from 830 to 1100 nm.

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The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory [13, 14] is an effective method for estimating spectral parameters of rare earth ions in crystals and glasses. Since the application of the J-O theory has been reported widely [1517], only the calculation results about upper laser level 4I13/2 are presented for brevity. The calculated spontaneous emission probabilities A for the 4I13/24I15/2 transition are 105.62 s−1 and 146.58 s−1 for σ and π polarizations, respectively, and then the radiative lifetime of the 4I13/2 level can be calculated to be 8.38 ms. It is worth noting that the magnetic dipole probabilities for the 4I13/24I15/2 transition are 48.46 s−1 and 50.44 s−1 for σ and π polarizations, respectively, which implies that the contribution of the magnetic dipole for the 4I13/24I15/2 transition is important.

RT polarized fluorescence spectra from 1400 to 1700 nm under excitation at 976 nm were recorded using a spectrometer (FLS920, Edinburgh). Polarized emission cross-sections spectra, which were calculated from the recorded fluorescence spectra by the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg (FL) method [18], are shown in Fig. 3. The peak emission cross-sections are 0.57 × 10−20 cm2 at 1539 nm and 0.67 × 10−20 cm2 at 1535 nm for σ and π polarizations, respectively.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 RT polarized emission cross-sections of the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal from 1400 to 1700 nm.

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From the absorption and emission cross-sections, denoted as σabs and σem, respectively, a gain cross-section curve can be calculated by σg(λ)=βσem(λ)(1β)σabs(λ) [19, 20], where β is the ratio of the number of Er3+ ions in the upper laser level 4I13/2 to the total number of Er3+ ions. Considering that a c-cut Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal was used in the following laser experiment, only the curves for σ polarization with different values of β are shown in Fig. 4. It can be found that the gain curve is flat with FWHM of 46 nm and the possible wavelength for free running laser is between 1540 nm and 1549 nm when β = 0.5.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Gain curves of the 4I13/24I15/2 transition of Er3+ ions in the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal for σ polarization with different β.

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RT fluorescence decay curves at wavelengths of 1040 and 1535 nm, corresponding to the transitions of 2F5/22F7/2 and 4I13/24I15/2 of Yb3+ and Er3+ ions, respectively, were recorded using the spectrometer (FLS920, Edinburgh) when a tunable mid-band OPO laser (Vibrant 355II, OPOTEK) with pulse duration of ~5 ns was used as the exciting source and the exciting wavelengths were set at 930 and 976 nm, respectively. The signals were detected with an NIR PMT (R5509, Hamamatsu). It can be found from Fig. 2 that the Yb3+ has absorption around 930 nm. However, the Er3+ has not absorption around this wavelength, which can be deduced from the absorption spectra of Er3+:Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal [21]. The Sr3Y(BO3)3 has the same structure as the Sr3Yb(BO3)3. Therefore, the excitation wavelength was selected at 930 nm, where Er3+ has no absorption, for measuring the fluorescence lifetime of Yb3+ in the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal. On the other hand, for measuring the fluorescence lifetime of 4I13/24I15/2 of Er3+, the excitation wavelength is 976 nm, where both Er3+ and Yb3+ have absorption.

To avoid the influence of re-absorption on the measured fluorescence lifetimes [22], all the decay curves were recorded from a powder sample of the crystal as reported in Ref [23]. RT fluorescence decay curves of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal are shown in Fig. 5(a). The fitted fluorescence lifetime of the upper laser level 4I13/2 of Er3+ ions in the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal is 682.0 ± 3.0 μs, which is close to the fluorescence lifetime (700 μs) of the 4I13/2 level of Er3+ ions in the Er3+/Yb3+:Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal [24]. Combining with the radiative lifetime calculated above, the fluorescence quantum efficiency of the 4I13/2 level is estimated to be 8.1%. The short fluorescence lifetime and low quantum efficiency of the upper laser level 4I13/2 are related to the high non-radiative transition probability caused by the high phonon energy (about 1400 cm−1) in the borate crystals [25]. The fitted fluorescence lifetime of the 2F5/2 level of Yb3+ ions in the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal is 9.20 ± 0.02 μs.

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 RT fluorescence decay curves of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal (a) and Yb3+ ions in Sr3Yb(BO3)3 polycrystalline powder (b).

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The efficiency of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions could be estimated by ηET=1τf/τ0, where and are the fluorescence lifetimes of Yb3+ ions in the crystal co-doped with Er3+ ions and not, respectively [3]. Therefore, the fluorescence decay curve of the 2F5/2 level of Yb3+ ions in the undoped Sr3Yb(BO3)3 polycrystalline powder, was recorded and is shown in Fig. 5(b). The fitted fluorescence lifetime is about 677.6 ± 3.0 μs. Therefore, the efficiency of energy transfer in the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal is about 98.6%.

For comparison, spectral parameters of the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3, Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4, Er:YbAl3(BO3)4, Er:Yb:YVO4, and Er:Yb:YAG crystals are listed in Table 1. The Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal, grown by the Czochralski method, has a relatively wide FWHM for the absorption band around 976 nm, which is in favor of being pumped by diode laser even the emission bandwidth and temperature-dependent wavelength shift of diode laser are considered. Furthermore, the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal has high energy transfer efficiency from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions, which is originated from the high effective phonon energy of the crystal. Strong energy transfer is a key to obtain efficient 1.55 μm laser operation. However, the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal has a smaller peak absorption cross-section at 976 nm.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Spectral parameters and laser performances of the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3, Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4, Er:YbAl3(BO3)4, Er:Yb:YVO4, and Er:Yb:YAG crystals

For absorbing 80% of the incident pump power in a single pass of the plate, the thickness of a c-cut Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal must be more than 500 μm. However, for realizing single longitudinal mode operation, the thickness of the microchip gain media is generally about less than 300 μm [7, 26]. Furthermore, it can be found from the condition for realizing single longitudinal mode operation that a crystal with broad gain bandwidth is not suitable to be used as a microchip gain medium [31]. Therefore, the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal is not suitable to be used as a microchip gain media for single longitudinal mode operation even if Yb3+ is a matrix constitutive ion in the crystal.

3. Laser experiments

A 1.27-mm-thick c-cut Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal was used as gain medium in the laser experiment. The uncoated crystal was held in an aluminum slab and an end-pumped hemispherical laser cavity was adopted. The flat input mirror has 90% transmission at 970 nm and 99.8% reflectivity around 1.55 μm. Three output couplers with the same radius curvature of 100 mm and different transmissions of 0.6%, 1.0% and 1.8% around 1.55 μm were used. The reflectivities of the three output couplers at 970 nm were higher than 98%. The cavity length was kept at about 100 mm. A 970 nm diode laser coupled by a fiber with 800 μm diameter core (FAP-980, Coherent) was used as the pump source. After passing a simple telescopic lens system, the pump beam was focused to a spot with waist diameter of about 290 μm in the crystal. The absorption coefficient of the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal at 970 nm for σ polarization is 11.73 cm−1, therefore, about 77.5% of the incident pump power can be absorbed in a single pass of the plate. The thermal conductivity of the Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal has been reported to be 1.8 W m−1 K−1 [10]. For investigating the influence of thermal effect on laser performance of the Yb3+:Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal, the authors in Ref [10] found that the crystal underwent fracture when the diode power was set to its maximum value (10 W). The result shows that the thermal properties of the Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal is not very good. Considering that the Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal has the same structure with Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal and no special device was used to control the cooling of the sample, the diode laser operated in a pulse mode for reducing the influence of the pump-induced thermal load on the laser performance and avoiding possible fracture of the sample. The pulse duration was 2 ms and the duty cycle was 2%.

Figure 6 shows the measured fundamental laser output power as a function of the absorbed pump power for the three output couplers. Because the duty cycle of the quasi-cw pulse laser was 2%, the values in the figure are the measured ones multiplied by 50. It can be found from Fig. 6 that the best laser performance is for the output coupler with 1.0% transmission. For this output coupler, the absorbed pump power threshold was 4.53 W, the slope efficiency was 15%, and up to 1.4 W output power was obtained when the absorbed pump power was 13.95 W. Laser performances of the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3, Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4, Er:YbAl3(BO3)4, Er:Yb:YVO4, and Er:Yb:YAG crystals are compared in Table 1. It can be found that the output power and slope efficiency achieved in the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal are the best. Compared with Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 and Er:YbAl3(BO3)4, crystals, the better laser performance obtained in the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal may be originated from higher optical quality of this crystal and optimized concentration ratio of Er3+ and Yb3+ in it. In fact, the biaxial Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 crystal must be glued on a 5-mm-thick pure YAG crystal for avoiding the fracture of sample during laser experiment, which was originated from the strong anisotropy of the crystal. Compared with Er:Yb:YVO4 and Er:Yb:YAG crystals, the better laser performance obtained in the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal should be originated from higher energy transfer efficiency from Yb3+ to Er3+ in this crystal. Furthermore, it is worth noting that the absorption cross-section of the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal at 976 nm is nearly three times of that at the pump wavelength of 970 nm in this work (see Fig. 1). Therefore, if a pump source around 976 nm is used, the laser performance of a thinner Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 medium may be improved. Therefore, the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal is more suitable for 1.55 μm laser when the Yb3+ is a matrix constitutive ion in a crystal.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 1.55 μm laser output power as a function of absorbed pump power at 970 nm.

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Laser emission spectra for the three couplers, recorded with a monochromator (Triax 550, Jobin-Yvon) when the absorbed pump power was 13.95 W, are shown in Fig. 7. All the laser beams are un-polarized for the c-cut Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 unaxial crystal. The laser wavelengths are around 1569, 1569, and 1547 nm when the transmissions of output coupler are 0.6%, 1.0%, and 1.8%, respectively, which are agreed with those estimated by the gain curves shown in Fig. 4. The blue shift of laser wavelength with the increment of output coupler transmission can be explained by the σ-polarized gain curve with different values of the population inversion β [32].

 figure: Fig. 7

Fig. 7 Spectra of the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 laser around 1.55 μm when the absorbed pump power is 13.95 W and output coupler transmissions are: (a) T = 0.6%, (b) T = 1.0%, (c) T = 1.8%..

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4. Conclusion

Polarized spectral properties of a 1.45 at.% Er3+ doped Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal, grown by the Czochralski method, were investigated. The fluorescence quantum efficiency of the 4I13/2 level of Er3+ ions is about 8.1% and the efficiency of the energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ ions is about 98.6% in the crystal.

End-pumped by a diode laser at 970 nm in a hemispherical cavity, 1.4 W quasi-cw laser around 1.55 μm with slope efficiency of 15% and absorbed pump power threshold of 4.53 W was achieved in a 1.27-mm-thick c-cut crystal. Compared with those of Er:Yb:YVO4, Er:Yb:YAG, Er:YbAl3(BO3)4 and Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 crystals, a better laser performance was achieved in the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal. Furthermore, compared with the Er:YbAl3(BO3)4 and Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 crystals, the uniaxial Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal have both advantages of isotropy on the c-cut plate and simple growing process. Therefore, the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal may be a potential gain medium for the 1.55 μm laser.

Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant 91122033), the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant KJCX2-EW-H03-01), and the Chinese National Engineering Research Center for Optoelectronic Crystalline Materials.

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References

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  1. N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “2.0 W diode-pumped Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser at 1.5-1.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241111 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. D. Jiang, and J. Y. Wang, “Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Spectral and laser properties of Er:Yb:Sr3Lu2(BO3)4 crystal at 1.5–1.6 μm,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(11), 1885–1892 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. Y. Li, J. Feng, P. Li, K. Zhang, Y. Chen, Y. Lin, and Y. Huang, “400 mW low noise continuous-wave single-frequency Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser at 1.55 μm,” Opt. Express 21(5), 6082–6090 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Q. Jia, “Crystal radii and effective ionic radii of the rare earth ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 95(1), 184–187 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Chen, Y. Lin, Y. Zou, J. Huang, X. Gong, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Diode-pumped 1.5-1.6 μm laser operation in Er³⁺ doped YbAl₃(BO₃)₄ microchip,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13969–13974 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  8. F. L. Lin, J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties and 1.5–1.6 μm laser operation of Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2314–2319 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. Druon, S. Chénais, P. Raybaut, F. Balembois, P. Georges, R. Gaumé, G. Aka, B. Viana, S. Mohr, and D. Kopf, “Diode-pumped Yb:Sr3Y(BO3)3 femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 27(3), 197–199 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. S. Chénais, F. Druon, F. Balembois, P. Georges, R. Gaumé, P. H. Haumesser, B. Viana, G. P. Aka, and D. Vivien, “Spectroscopy and efficient laser action from diode pumping of a new broadly tunable crystal:Yb3+:Sr3Y(BO3)3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(5), 1083–1091 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. N. Khamaganova, “Synthesis of indium alkali-earth double borates M3In(BO3)3,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 51(1), 32–34 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. J. Zhao, J. L. Si, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, H. Z. Song, and Y. Z. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. R. Judd, “Optical Absorption Intensities of Rare-Earth Ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of Crystal Spectra of Rare-Earth Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+-doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Sasikala, L. R. Moorthy, K. Pavani, and T. Chengaiah, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Ce3+ co-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 542(25), 271–275 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Ding, G. Zhao, Y. Nakai, and T. Tsuboi, “Spectroscopic investigation of Er3+-doped (Gd0.7Y0.3)2SiO5 single crystal for potential application in 1.5 μm laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(27), 7488–7492 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and Emission Cross Section of Er3+ doped Silica Fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1004–1010 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. X. Zhang, J. G. Yin, S. Y. Zhang, R. Zhang, L. H. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, J. Q. Xu, and Y. Huang, “Crystal growth, spectroscopic characterization, and laser operation of Tm/Mg:LiTaO3 crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(2), 255–265 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. Wang, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, Z. Y. You, J. L. Xu, and C. Y. Tu, “Mid-infrared emission in Dy:YAlO3 crystal,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(6), 1104–1111 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. D. Zhao and G. F. Wang, “Growth and spectroscopic characterizaiton of Er3+:Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 424–428 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. S. Sumida and T. Y. Fan, “Effect of Radiation Trapping on Fluorescence Lifetime and Emission Cross Section Measurements in Solid-State Laser Media,” Opt. Lett. 19(17), 1343–1345 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. J. S. Liao, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, Z. D. Luo, E. Ma, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, “Radiative-trapping and fluorescence-concentration quenching effects of Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2572–2580 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. Zhao, Z. S. Hu, Z. B. Lin, and G. F. Wang, “Growth and Spectral properties of Er3+/Yb3+ codoped Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 277(1–4), 401–405 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. G. Solé, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Nd3+→Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 68(3), 035118 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  26. E. Bovero, Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Single longitudinal mode laser oscillation from a neodymium aluminium borate stoichiometric crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 211108 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  27. N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  28. B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, A. M. Balbashov, J. E. Hellstrom, V. Pasiskervicius, and F. Laurell, “Yb3+, Er3+:YAG at high temperatures: Energy transfer and spectroscopic properties,” Opt. Commun. 271(1), 142–147 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic Properties and Diode-Pumped 1.6μm Laser Performance in Yb-Codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118(5–6), 557–561 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  30. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infraed Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  31. T. Taira, A. Mukai, Y. Nozawa, and T. Kobayashi, “Single-mode oscillation of laser-diode-pumped Nd:YVO(4) microchip lasers,” Opt. Lett. 16(24), 1955–1957 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, and C. Svelto, “Widely tunable single-frequency erbium-ytterbium phosphate glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2621–2623 (1996).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (3)

2012 (1)

T. Sasikala, L. R. Moorthy, K. Pavani, and T. Chengaiah, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Ce3+ co-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 542(25), 271–275 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Y. Ding, G. Zhao, Y. Nakai, and T. Tsuboi, “Spectroscopic investigation of Er3+-doped (Gd0.7Y0.3)2SiO5 single crystal for potential application in 1.5 μm laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(27), 7488–7492 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

D. Zhao and G. F. Wang, “Growth and spectroscopic characterizaiton of Er3+:Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 424–428 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, A. M. Balbashov, J. E. Hellstrom, V. Pasiskervicius, and F. Laurell, “Yb3+, Er3+:YAG at high temperatures: Energy transfer and spectroscopic properties,” Opt. Commun. 271(1), 142–147 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

J. S. Liao, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, Z. D. Luo, E. Ma, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, “Radiative-trapping and fluorescence-concentration quenching effects of Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2572–2580 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “2.0 W diode-pumped Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser at 1.5-1.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241111 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. N. Khamaganova, “Synthesis of indium alkali-earth double borates M3In(BO3)3,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 51(1), 32–34 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

D. Zhao, Z. S. Hu, Z. B. Lin, and G. F. Wang, “Growth and Spectral properties of Er3+/Yb3+ codoped Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 277(1–4), 401–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Bovero, Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Single longitudinal mode laser oscillation from a neodymium aluminium borate stoichiometric crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 211108 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. D. Jiang, and J. Y. Wang, “Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

G. J. Zhao, J. L. Si, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, H. Z. Song, and Y. Z. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+-doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. G. Solé, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Nd3+→Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 68(3), 035118 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

1996 (1)

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, and C. Svelto, “Widely tunable single-frequency erbium-ytterbium phosphate glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2621–2623 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic Properties and Diode-Pumped 1.6μm Laser Performance in Yb-Codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118(5–6), 557–561 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infraed Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (3)

T. Taira, A. Mukai, Y. Nozawa, and T. Kobayashi, “Single-mode oscillation of laser-diode-pumped Nd:YVO(4) microchip lasers,” Opt. Lett. 16(24), 1955–1957 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and Emission Cross Section of Er3+ doped Silica Fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1004–1010 (1991).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Jia, “Crystal radii and effective ionic radii of the rare earth ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 95(1), 184–187 (1991).
[Crossref]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical Absorption Intensities of Rare-Earth Ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of Crystal Spectra of Rare-Earth Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

Aka, G.

Aka, G. P.

Balbashov, A. M.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, A. M. Balbashov, J. E. Hellstrom, V. Pasiskervicius, and F. Laurell, “Yb3+, Er3+:YAG at high temperatures: Energy transfer and spectroscopic properties,” Opt. Commun. 271(1), 142–147 (2007).
[Crossref]

Balembois, F.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and Emission Cross Section of Er3+ doped Silica Fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1004–1010 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bausa, L. E.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. G. Solé, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Nd3+→Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 68(3), 035118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Benayas, A.

E. Bovero, Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Single longitudinal mode laser oscillation from a neodymium aluminium borate stoichiometric crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 211108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bettinelli, M.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. G. Solé, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Nd3+→Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 68(3), 035118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bovero, E.

E. Bovero, Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Single longitudinal mode laser oscillation from a neodymium aluminium borate stoichiometric crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 211108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bradley, W. M.

D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+-doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
[Crossref]

Burns, P. A.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. D. Jiang, and J. Y. Wang, “Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cavalli, E.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. G. Solé, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Nd3+→Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 68(3), 035118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infraed Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. J.

J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Spectral and laser properties of Er:Yb:Sr3Lu2(BO3)4 crystal at 1.5–1.6 μm,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(11), 1885–1892 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. L. Lin, J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties and 1.5–1.6 μm laser operation of Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2314–2319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “2.0 W diode-pumped Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser at 1.5-1.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241111 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. S. Liao, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, Z. D. Luo, E. Ma, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, “Radiative-trapping and fluorescence-concentration quenching effects of Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2572–2580 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chénais, S.

Chengaiah, T.

T. Sasikala, L. R. Moorthy, K. Pavani, and T. Chengaiah, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Ce3+ co-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 542(25), 271–275 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dawes, J. M.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. D. Jiang, and J. Y. Wang, “Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dekker, P.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. D. Jiang, and J. Y. Wang, “Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

Denker, B.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, A. M. Balbashov, J. E. Hellstrom, V. Pasiskervicius, and F. Laurell, “Yb3+, Er3+:YAG at high temperatures: Energy transfer and spectroscopic properties,” Opt. Commun. 271(1), 142–147 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, G. Zhao, Y. Nakai, and T. Tsuboi, “Spectroscopic investigation of Er3+-doped (Gd0.7Y0.3)2SiO5 single crystal for potential application in 1.5 μm laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(27), 7488–7492 (2011).
[Crossref]

Druon, F.

Fan, T. Y.

Feng, J.

Galagan, B.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, A. M. Balbashov, J. E. Hellstrom, V. Pasiskervicius, and F. Laurell, “Yb3+, Er3+:YAG at high temperatures: Energy transfer and spectroscopic properties,” Opt. Commun. 271(1), 142–147 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gaumé, R.

Georges, P.

Gong, X.

Gong, X. H.

F. L. Lin, J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties and 1.5–1.6 μm laser operation of Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2314–2319 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Spectral and laser properties of Er:Yb:Sr3Lu2(BO3)4 crystal at 1.5–1.6 μm,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(11), 1885–1892 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “2.0 W diode-pumped Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser at 1.5-1.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241111 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. S. Liao, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, Z. D. Luo, E. Ma, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, “Radiative-trapping and fluorescence-concentration quenching effects of Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2572–2580 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gruber, J. B.

D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+-doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
[Crossref]

Haumesser, P. H.

Hellstrom, J. E.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, A. M. Balbashov, J. E. Hellstrom, V. Pasiskervicius, and F. Laurell, “Yb3+, Er3+:YAG at high temperatures: Energy transfer and spectroscopic properties,” Opt. Commun. 271(1), 142–147 (2007).
[Crossref]

Heumann, E.

T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic Properties and Diode-Pumped 1.6μm Laser Performance in Yb-Codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118(5–6), 557–561 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hu, Z. S.

D. Zhao, Z. S. Hu, Z. B. Lin, and G. F. Wang, “Growth and Spectral properties of Er3+/Yb3+ codoped Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 277(1–4), 401–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Huang, J. H.

J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Spectral and laser properties of Er:Yb:Sr3Lu2(BO3)4 crystal at 1.5–1.6 μm,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(11), 1885–1892 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. L. Lin, J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties and 1.5–1.6 μm laser operation of Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2314–2319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Huang, Y. D.

J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Spectral and laser properties of Er:Yb:Sr3Lu2(BO3)4 crystal at 1.5–1.6 μm,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(11), 1885–1892 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. L. Lin, J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties and 1.5–1.6 μm laser operation of Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2314–2319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “2.0 W diode-pumped Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser at 1.5-1.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241111 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. S. Liao, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, Z. D. Luo, E. Ma, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, “Radiative-trapping and fluorescence-concentration quenching effects of Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2572–2580 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Bovero, Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Single longitudinal mode laser oscillation from a neodymium aluminium borate stoichiometric crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 211108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic Properties and Diode-Pumped 1.6μm Laser Performance in Yb-Codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118(5–6), 557–561 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hutchinson, J. A.

D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+-doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jaque, D.

E. Bovero, Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Single longitudinal mode laser oscillation from a neodymium aluminium borate stoichiometric crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 211108 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. G. Solé, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Nd3+→Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 68(3), 035118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jensen, T.

T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic Properties and Diode-Pumped 1.6μm Laser Performance in Yb-Codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118(5–6), 557–561 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jia, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Jia, “Crystal radii and effective ionic radii of the rare earth ions,” J. Solid State Chem. 95(1), 184–187 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. D.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. D. Jiang, and J. Y. Wang, “Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical Absorption Intensities of Rare-Earth Ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

Khamaganova, T. N.

T. N. Khamaganova, “Synthesis of indium alkali-earth double borates M3In(BO3)3,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 51(1), 32–34 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kisel, V. E.

N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

Kokta, M. R.

D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+-doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kopf, D.

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infraed Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kuleshov, N. V.

N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kupchenko, M. I.

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kurilchik, S. V.

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infraed Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Laming, R. I.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and Emission Cross Section of Er3+ doped Silica Fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1004–1010 (1991).
[Crossref]

Laporta, P.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, and C. Svelto, “Widely tunable single-frequency erbium-ytterbium phosphate glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2621–2623 (1996).
[Crossref]

Laurell, F.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, A. M. Balbashov, J. E. Hellstrom, V. Pasiskervicius, and F. Laurell, “Yb3+, Er3+:YAG at high temperatures: Energy transfer and spectroscopic properties,” Opt. Commun. 271(1), 142–147 (2007).
[Crossref]

Leonyuk, N. I.

N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, J. F.

Li, P.

Li, Y.

Liao, J. S.

Lin, F. L.

F. L. Lin, J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties and 1.5–1.6 μm laser operation of Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2314–2319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

Lin, Y. F.

J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Spectral and laser properties of Er:Yb:Sr3Lu2(BO3)4 crystal at 1.5–1.6 μm,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(11), 1885–1892 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. L. Lin, J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties and 1.5–1.6 μm laser operation of Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2314–2319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “2.0 W diode-pumped Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser at 1.5-1.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241111 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. S. Liao, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, Z. D. Luo, E. Ma, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, “Radiative-trapping and fluorescence-concentration quenching effects of Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2572–2580 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z. B.

D. Zhao, Z. S. Hu, Z. B. Lin, and G. F. Wang, “Growth and Spectral properties of Er3+/Yb3+ codoped Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 277(1–4), 401–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. C.

Luo, Z.

Luo, Z. D.

F. L. Lin, J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, X. H. Gong, Y. F. Lin, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Polarized spectral properties and 1.5–1.6 μm laser operation of Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4 crystal,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2314–2319 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. H. Huang, Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “Spectral and laser properties of Er:Yb:Sr3Lu2(BO3)4 crystal at 1.5–1.6 μm,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(11), 1885–1892 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “2.0 W diode-pumped Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser at 1.5-1.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241111 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. S. Liao, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, Z. D. Luo, E. Ma, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, “Radiative-trapping and fluorescence-concentration quenching effects of Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2572–2580 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Bovero, Z. D. Luo, Y. D. Huang, A. Benayas, and D. Jaque, “Single longitudinal mode laser oscillation from a neodymium aluminium borate stoichiometric crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 211108 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ma, E.

Maltsev, V. V.

N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Matrosov, V. N.

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matrosova, T. A.

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mohr, S.

Moorthy, L. R.

T. Sasikala, L. R. Moorthy, K. Pavani, and T. Chengaiah, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Ce3+ co-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 542(25), 271–275 (2012).
[Crossref]

Morkel, P. R.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and Emission Cross Section of Er3+ doped Silica Fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1004–1010 (1991).
[Crossref]

Mukai, A.

Nakai, Y.

Y. Ding, G. Zhao, Y. Nakai, and T. Tsuboi, “Spectroscopic investigation of Er3+-doped (Gd0.7Y0.3)2SiO5 single crystal for potential application in 1.5 μm laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(27), 7488–7492 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nozawa, Y.

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of Crystal Spectra of Rare-Earth Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

Osiko, V.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, A. M. Balbashov, J. E. Hellstrom, V. Pasiskervicius, and F. Laurell, “Yb3+, Er3+:YAG at high temperatures: Energy transfer and spectroscopic properties,” Opt. Commun. 271(1), 142–147 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pasiskervicius, V.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, A. M. Balbashov, J. E. Hellstrom, V. Pasiskervicius, and F. Laurell, “Yb3+, Er3+:YAG at high temperatures: Energy transfer and spectroscopic properties,” Opt. Commun. 271(1), 142–147 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pavani, K.

T. Sasikala, L. R. Moorthy, K. Pavani, and T. Chengaiah, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Ce3+ co-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 542(25), 271–275 (2012).
[Crossref]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infraed Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Perez, J. J.

D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+-doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
[Crossref]

Piper, J. A.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. D. Jiang, and J. Y. Wang, “Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ramirez, M. O.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. G. Solé, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Nd3+→Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 68(3), 035118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Raybaut, P.

Sardar, D. K.

D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+-doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sasikala, T.

T. Sasikala, L. R. Moorthy, K. Pavani, and T. Chengaiah, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Ce3+ co-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 542(25), 271–275 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schweizer, T.

T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic Properties and Diode-Pumped 1.6μm Laser Performance in Yb-Codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118(5–6), 557–561 (1995).
[Crossref]

Si, J. L.

G. J. Zhao, J. L. Si, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, H. Z. Song, and Y. Z. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[Crossref]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infraed Cross-Section Measurements for Crystals Doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[Crossref]

Solé, J. G.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. G. Solé, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Nd3+→Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 68(3), 035118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Song, H. Z.

G. J. Zhao, J. L. Si, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, H. Z. Song, and Y. Z. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[Crossref]

Speghini, A.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. G. Solé, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Nd3+→Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 68(3), 035118 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sumida, D. S.

Svelto, C.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, and C. Svelto, “Widely tunable single-frequency erbium-ytterbium phosphate glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2621–2623 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sverchkov, S.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, V. Osiko, S. Sverchkov, A. M. Balbashov, J. E. Hellstrom, V. Pasiskervicius, and F. Laurell, “Yb3+, Er3+:YAG at high temperatures: Energy transfer and spectroscopic properties,” Opt. Commun. 271(1), 142–147 (2007).
[Crossref]

Taccheo, S.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, and C. Svelto, “Widely tunable single-frequency erbium-ytterbium phosphate glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2621–2623 (1996).
[Crossref]

Taira, T.

Tan, Q. G.

J. S. Liao, Y. F. Lin, Y. J. Chen, Z. D. Luo, E. Ma, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, and Y. D. Huang, “Radiative-trapping and fluorescence-concentration quenching effects of Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(12), 2572–2580 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, Y. F. Lin, X. H. Gong, Q. G. Tan, Z. D. Luo, and Y. D. Huang, “2.0 W diode-pumped Er:Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser at 1.5-1.6 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(24), 241111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tarbox, E. J.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and Emission Cross Section of Er3+ doped Silica Fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 1004–1010 (1991).
[Crossref]

Tolstik, N. A.

N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Troshin, A. E.

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Trussell, C. W.

D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+-doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tsuboi, T.

Y. Ding, G. Zhao, Y. Nakai, and T. Tsuboi, “Spectroscopic investigation of Er3+-doped (Gd0.7Y0.3)2SiO5 single crystal for potential application in 1.5 μm laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(27), 7488–7492 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tu, C. Y.

Viana, B.

Vivien, D.

Wang, G. F.

D. Zhao and G. F. Wang, “Growth and spectroscopic characterizaiton of Er3+:Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 424–428 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Zhao, Z. S. Hu, Z. B. Lin, and G. F. Wang, “Growth and Spectral properties of Er3+/Yb3+ codoped Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 277(1–4), 401–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. Y.

P. A. Burns, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, H. D. Jiang, and J. Y. Wang, “Optimization of Er,Yb:YCOB for CW laser operation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(11), 1575–1582 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Xu, J.

G. J. Zhao, J. L. Si, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, H. Z. Song, and Y. Z. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xu, J. L.

Xu, J. Q.

Xu, X. D.

G. J. Zhao, J. L. Si, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, H. Z. Song, and Y. Z. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yin, J. G.

You, Z. Y.

Zandi, B.

D. K. Sardar, W. M. Bradley, J. J. Perez, J. B. Gruber, B. Zandi, J. A. Hutchinson, C. W. Trussell, and M. R. Kokta, “Judd-Ofelt analysis of the Er3+(4f11) absorption intensities in Er3+-doped garnets,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(5), 2602–2607 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

Zhang, L. H.

Zhang, P. X.

Zhang, R.

Zhang, S. Y.

Zhao, D.

D. Zhao and G. F. Wang, “Growth and spectroscopic characterizaiton of Er3+:Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 424–428 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Zhao, Z. S. Hu, Z. B. Lin, and G. F. Wang, “Growth and Spectral properties of Er3+/Yb3+ codoped Sr3Y(BO3)3 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 277(1–4), 401–405 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhao, G.

Y. Ding, G. Zhao, Y. Nakai, and T. Tsuboi, “Spectroscopic investigation of Er3+-doped (Gd0.7Y0.3)2SiO5 single crystal for potential application in 1.5 μm laser,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(27), 7488–7492 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, G. J.

G. J. Zhao, J. L. Si, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, H. Z. Song, and Y. Z. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y. Z.

G. J. Zhao, J. L. Si, X. D. Xu, J. Xu, H. Z. Song, and Y. Z. Zhou, “Growth of large-sized Yb:YAG single crystals by temperature gradient technique,” J. Cryst. Growth 252(1–3), 355–359 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z. J.

Zou, Y.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

N. A. Tolstik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. V. Maltsev, and N. I. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 μm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. A. Tolstik, A. E. Troshin, S. V. Kurilchik, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, and C. Svelto, “Widely tunable single-frequency erbium-ytterbium phosphate glass laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(19), 2621–2623 (1996).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 RT polarized absorption spectra of the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal from 280 to 1700 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 RT diffuse reflection spectrum of the Sr3Yb(BO3)3 polycrystalline powder from 830 to 1100 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 RT polarized emission cross-sections of the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal from 1400 to 1700 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Gain curves of the 4I13/24I15/2 transition of Er3+ ions in the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal for σ polarization with different β.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 RT fluorescence decay curves of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions in the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 crystal (a) and Yb3+ ions in Sr3Yb(BO3)3 polycrystalline powder (b).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 1.55 μm laser output power as a function of absorbed pump power at 970 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Spectra of the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3 laser around 1.55 μm when the absorbed pump power is 13.95 W and output coupler transmissions are: (a) T = 0.6%, (b) T = 1.0%, (c) T = 1.8%..

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Spectral parameters and laser performances of the Er:Sr3Yb(BO3)3, Er:Sr3Yb2(BO3)4, Er:YbAl3(BO3)4, Er:Yb:YVO4, and Er:Yb:YAG crystals

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