Abstract

We report a novel imprinting method employing an ultraviolet (UV) cured reactive mesogen (RM) hardened in a homeotropic orientation. During UV curing, selectively photopolymerized bonds were created and RM molecules were aligned vertically. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results, we confirmed than an increased atomic percentage of the alignment layer was made from the RM, which was UV cured using the imprinting method. The measurement of retardation showed the anisotropic nature of the imprinted substrates. Also, vertically aligned (VA) liquid crystal (LC) cells created by this imprinting method showed superior electro-optic (EO) properties as compared with the rubbing method.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Microcontact printing of polymer-based macromolecules has typically resulted in poorly defined or randomized molecular structures [1]. Here, we demonstrate a novel imprinting process of well-defined, defect-free polymeric layers with an ultra violet (UV) curing technique [2–4] based on polymerizable liquid crystals (LCs) [5–9]. Commercially, the mechanical rubbing method [10,11] on polyimide (PI) is used to provide microgrooves, which result in unidirectional alignment of LCs. However, this rubbing process has some drawbacks like the creation of static electricity due to the friction between the alignment layer and rubbing roller and the introduction of dust onto the layer [12]. To overcome these disadvantages, noncontact methods have been developed, including ion-beam [13–15], photo-alignment [16–18], self-assembled monolayers [19], and SiO oblique evaporation methods [20]. In particular, the imprinting method for the desired alignment states has been widely studied in other research groups [21–24]. These results discussed alignment layers made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) or using a lithography mold. More recently, a variety of processes for making polymeric thin films have been developed for flat panel displays, especially for liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). However, these processes usually result in polymeric structures with a poor or random orientation of the molecular chains.

H.-G. Park and associates employed nanoimprint lithography to produce a thin alignment layer of LCs [21]. The resulting polymeric structure demonstrated a well-defined nanopatterned surface topography. In addition, the LC molecules were homeotropically well-aligned to the patterned surface. This novel lithographic method was shown to be useful as alignment layers provide hysteresis-free and thermally stable LCDs.

In the present article, we demonstrate a novel soft imprinting technique for the stamping of polymeric layers based on reactive mesogens (RMs) [25–29] that are defect free and show superior electro-optic (EO) characteristics including low threshold voltage (Vth) and fast response times. The method is based on UV curing of RM [30,31] with liquid crystalline monomers, which can create rigid networks. We demonstrate that, by using this UV cured imprinting technique, we can locally apply monolithic structures stamped on the polymer layer with enhanced EO properties, in contrast to nanoimprinting, which requires additional laser controlling equipment and rubbing, creating electrostatic charges. Using our novel imprinting process, a 38.3% decrease in the Vth and a 26.1% reduction in the response time were observed for vertically aligned (VA)-mode LCDs as compared to the rubbing method.

2. Experimental

RM (RMS03-015, Merck) monomers were coated onto a flexible film with a thickness of about 1 µm using a spin coater at 3000 rpm for 30 sec. To induce anisotropy for LC alignment, these films were cured using a linearly polarized ultraviolet (UV) exposure system (Oriel Co.) with a 1-kW mercury lamp source connected to the lamp power supply. In order to obtain uniform UV energy density, the system employed UV exposure control to maintain 80% of the original UV energy. Also, the system employed a convex lens to achieve strong UV energy density. The films were exposed to UV at wavelength of 310-330 nm, and the UV energy density was 7.9 mW/cm2. The incident angle of UV exposure was 90°, and UV exposure time was 3 min. For comparison, the rubbing treatment, which is conventional process to induce anisotropy for the LC alignment, was applied to the original UV cured RM films. Using a spin coater, a 50-nm-thick blended polyimides (PIs, JSR Co. Ltd) was coated onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited glass substrates. The blended PIs used for the homogeneous and homeotropic alignment layers were prepared at various concentration. PI films were pre-baked on a hot plate at 80°C for 10 min and then hard-baked in the oven at 230°C for 1 h. After baking, PI films onto the ITO glass were pressed using a UV cured film for 10 min and were then peeled away from the UV cured film. From this imprinting process, an RM monolayer was printed on the PI-coated glass from an RM multilayer on the flexible film. To measure EO properties, we fabricated vertically aligned (VA)-mode LC cells. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) (multimode, VEECO) images were obtained to provide surface morphology on the alignment layer. To confirm of the existence of a printed monolayer of RM and their anisotropic nature, we conducted retardation (REMS-100, Sesim) measurements.

3. Results and discussion

Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the fabrication process discussed above. The imprinted substrates were fabricated in VA cells with cell gaps of 5 μm to allow measurement of the EO characteristics. The LC materials were injected into the cell by capillary injection at room temperature.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematic representation of fabrication via the imprinting method. An RM monolayer detached and implementation of these imprinted PI layers in the VA mode cell.

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Figure 2 shows the AFM image of homeotropic PI, and imprinted RM films which are polarized UV exposed and rubbed. In the case of pristine homeotropic PI, almost no morphology was observed. However, the imprinted RM surface by polarized UV exposure showed better morphology images on the glass substrate since it came from RM molecules. When the rubbing method was used, groove morphology was observed on the substrate. These morphologies reflect alignment of the LC molecules on the glass substrates.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 AFM images of homeotropic PI, the imprinted cell, and the rubbed cell.

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Anisotropy is a key factor of the fabrication of display devices or materials. Measurement of infrared (IR) absorption cannot be used to evaluate the anisotropy of the alignment layer of actual display devices because their substrates are made of glass and are not transparent to IR radiation. However, optical retardation measurements [32] using ellipsometry for visible light can be used to evaluate the anisotropy of a thin membrane, and can be used to evaluate the alignment of the molecules in the alignment material after imprinting. To develop better RM anisotropic characteristics, we used polarized UV light. Figure 3 shows the results of optical retardation. To compare the anisotropic characteristics, we also measured a substrate where rubbing was performed on the blended PI. Non-treated PI measured almost zero retardation, which suggests few anisotropic characteristics. In contrast, retardation increased after the imprinting process. This result indicates that the anisotropic characteristics of the RM stamp were successfully transferred onto the blended PI layers and these were affected by base PI layers. The anisotropic characteristics of the imprinted RM layer by rubbing treatment was greater than those by polarized UV exposure because the groove morphology enhanced the anisotropic characteristics. In addition, the surface of imprinted RM layer by rubbing treatment was uneven due to groove morphology. This result affected the pretilt angle of LC molecules on the imprinted RM layer.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 A Rotation angle dependence of the optical retardation of rubbing, imprinting, and homeotropic PI surfaces: a) 60% homeotropic PI, b) 70% homeotropic PI, c) 80% homeotropic PI, d) 90% homeotropic PI.

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It is important to achieve a regular pretilt angle of LC molecules on alignment layers because the pretilt angle affects not only uniform LC alignment but also EO characteristics of LC cells. Thus, the pretilt angles of LC molecules on imprinted RM layers were measured. Figure 4 shows the calculated pretilt angles of LC molecules on imprinted RM layers with polarized UV exposure and rubbing method as a function of the homeotropic PI ratio. As can be seen, high and constant pretilt angles of approximately 90° were obtained in polarized UV exposed sample cells, while gradually increased pretilt angles from 58.65° to 83.84° were obtained in rubbed sample cells as a function of homeotropic PI ratio. The increase of pretilt angles in rubbed sample cells was attributed to the microgroove morphology, which uneven surface made base PIs layer more influenceable to LC alignment.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Pretilt angles of LC molecules on imprinted RM layers with polarized UV exposure and rubbing treatment as a function of hometropic PI ratio.

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We fabricated VA mode cells with imprinted RM films on the blended PIs layers to examine the EO characteristics. The time-transmittance plots for both imprinted and rubbed VA mode cells show the rise and fall response time in Fig. 5. The imprinted VA mode cell had rapid rise and fall times of 8.7 and 11.6 ms at an 80% homeotropic PI ratio, respectively. The rise times and the fall times of VA mode cells were range from 8.7 to 11.4 ms and from 10.5 to 15.7 ms, respectively. In contrast, the rubbed cell exhibited slower response times. Anchoring energies of imprinted and rubbed VA mode cells were almost the same and these values were 1.0 × 10−3 J/m2. Therefore, the anchoring energy were not affected the change of EO characteristics. In addition, since the rubbed cells had a large pretilt angle, they did not work as well as the VA mode cells. This result indicates that an imprinted RM layer reoriented the LCs in an azimuthal direction when voltage was supplied, and thus molecular collision with trapped defect points was minimized, resulting in improved response time [30].

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 Response time of imprinted and rubbed VA cells: a) rise time of imprinted VA cell, b) decay time of imprinted VA cell, c) rise time of rubbed VA cell, d) decay time of rubbed VA cell.

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EO characteristics, including a decreased Vth and fast response time, were achieved in VA mode LC cells, as shown in Fig. 6.The voltage-transmittance (V-T) curve confirms that the homeotropically aligned LC could completely switch ON and OFF under supplied voltage above a certain threshold voltage (V>Vth). The lowest Vth of imprinted VA mode cells is 2.306 V at an 60% homeotropic PI ratio. In VA mode, since the percentage of homeotropic PI was increased, the Vth decreased. Since the RM molecules are aligned in the same direction as that of PI, the LC molecular motion improved. In contrast, the rubbed VA mode cells did not work normally because the pretilt angle on imprinted RM surface treated by rubbing was low to operate in the VA mode. Consequently, imprinted VA cells can operate at a low driving voltage at imprinted VA mode cells, which means lower energy consumption.

 figure: Fig. 6

Fig. 6 Voltage-transmittance properties of VA cells: a) imprinted VA cell, b) rubbed VA cell.

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4. Conclusion

In summary, the imprinted RM layer, which is cured by UV light, was successfully aligned to a homeotropic state using VA mode cell fabrication. During the UV light curing, RM medium breaks down to form free radicals, starting a rapid polymerization process resulting in the creation of a cross-linked network of carbon-carbon bonds. Finally, RM monomers are vertically aligned, which provides anisotropic optical properties. The optical anisotropy were demonstrated by retardation measurements. From the imprinting process, the RM monomers were stamped randomly or linearly into the defects on the surface of homeotropic PI. Trapping defects on the alignment layer can result in superior EO characteristics, i.e., reduced Vth and the fast response time of VA mode cells with supplied voltage. This proposed imprinting process provides the advantage of a novel alignment method with controllable switching speed and low energy consumption.

References and links

1. H. Tu, C. E. Heitzman, and P. V. Braun, “Patterned poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on silica surfaces by microcontact printing followed by surface-initiated polymerization,” Langmuir 20(19), 8313–8320 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005). [CrossRef]  

3. C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001). [CrossRef]  

4. J. J. Yu, J.-Y. Zhang, and I. W. Boyd, “UV annealing of ultrathin tantalum oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 57–63 (2002). [CrossRef]  

5. J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995). [CrossRef]  

7. D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974). [CrossRef]  

10. D. H. Gray and D. L. Gin, “Polymerizable Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Containing Transition-Metal Ions as Building Blocks for Nanostructured Polymers and Composites,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1827–1832 (1998). [CrossRef]  

11. H. Miyata and K. Kuroda, “Alignment of Mesoporous Silica on a Glass Substrate by a Rubbing Method,” Chem. Mater. 11(6), 1609–1614 (1999). [CrossRef]  

12. J. van Haaren, “Wiping out dirty displays,” Nature 411(6833), 29–30 (2001). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012). [CrossRef]  

14. J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009). [CrossRef]  

15. W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009). [CrossRef]  

16. S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005). [CrossRef]  

17. H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006). [CrossRef]  

18. V. K. Gupta and N. L. Abbot, “Design of Surfaces for Patterned Alignment of Liquid Crystals on Planar and Curved Substrates,” Science 276(5318), 1533–1536 (1997). [CrossRef]  

19. P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988). [CrossRef]  

21. H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011). [CrossRef]  

22. Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006). [CrossRef]  

23. A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005). [CrossRef]  

25. S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007). [CrossRef]  

26. H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006). [CrossRef]  

27. H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005). [CrossRef]  

28. C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008). [CrossRef]  

29. D. R. Cairns, N. S. Eichenlaub, and G. P. Crawford, “Ordered Polymer Microstructures Synthesized from Dispersions of Liquid Crystal Mesogens,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. 352(1), 275–282 (2000). [CrossRef]  

30. S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008). [CrossRef]  

31. Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009). [CrossRef]  

32. J. F. Lin and Y. L. Lo, “Optical Retardation Measurement Using a Zeeman Laser,” Key Eng. Mater. 326–328, 191–194 (2006). [CrossRef]  

References

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  • |

  1. H. Tu, C. E. Heitzman, and P. V. Braun, “Patterned poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on silica surfaces by microcontact printing followed by surface-initiated polymerization,” Langmuir 20(19), 8313–8320 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. J. Yu, J.-Y. Zhang, and I. W. Boyd, “UV annealing of ultrathin tantalum oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 57–63 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  7. D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. H. Gray and D. L. Gin, “Polymerizable Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Containing Transition-Metal Ions as Building Blocks for Nanostructured Polymers and Composites,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1827–1832 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Miyata and K. Kuroda, “Alignment of Mesoporous Silica on a Glass Substrate by a Rubbing Method,” Chem. Mater. 11(6), 1609–1614 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. van Haaren, “Wiping out dirty displays,” Nature 411(6833), 29–30 (2001).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  18. V. K. Gupta and N. L. Abbot, “Design of Surfaces for Patterned Alignment of Liquid Crystals on Planar and Curved Substrates,” Science 276(5318), 1533–1536 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  21. H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  27. H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  28. C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  29. D. R. Cairns, N. S. Eichenlaub, and G. P. Crawford, “Ordered Polymer Microstructures Synthesized from Dispersions of Liquid Crystal Mesogens,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. 352(1), 275–282 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  30. S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  31. Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  32. J. F. Lin and Y. L. Lo, “Optical Retardation Measurement Using a Zeeman Laser,” Key Eng. Mater. 326–328, 191–194 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2012 (1)

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (6)

H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. F. Lin and Y. L. Lo, “Optical Retardation Measurement Using a Zeeman Laser,” Key Eng. Mater. 326–328, 191–194 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. Tu, C. E. Heitzman, and P. V. Braun, “Patterned poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on silica surfaces by microcontact printing followed by surface-initiated polymerization,” Langmuir 20(19), 8313–8320 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. J. Yu, J.-Y. Zhang, and I. W. Boyd, “UV annealing of ultrathin tantalum oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 57–63 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. van Haaren, “Wiping out dirty displays,” Nature 411(6833), 29–30 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. R. Cairns, N. S. Eichenlaub, and G. P. Crawford, “Ordered Polymer Microstructures Synthesized from Dispersions of Liquid Crystal Mesogens,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. 352(1), 275–282 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Miyata and K. Kuroda, “Alignment of Mesoporous Silica on a Glass Substrate by a Rubbing Method,” Chem. Mater. 11(6), 1609–1614 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. H. Gray and D. L. Gin, “Polymerizable Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Containing Transition-Metal Ions as Building Blocks for Nanostructured Polymers and Composites,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1827–1832 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

V. K. Gupta and N. L. Abbot, “Design of Surfaces for Patterned Alignment of Liquid Crystals on Planar and Curved Substrates,” Science 276(5318), 1533–1536 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974).
[Crossref]

Abbot, N. L.

V. K. Gupta and N. L. Abbot, “Design of Surfaces for Patterned Alignment of Liquid Crystals on Planar and Curved Substrates,” Science 276(5318), 1533–1536 (1997).
[Crossref]

Achalkumar, A. S.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, K.-S.

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bastiaansen, C. W. M.

C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bouligand, Y.

Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974).
[Crossref]

Boyd, I. W.

J. J. Yu, J.-Y. Zhang, and I. W. Boyd, “UV annealing of ultrathin tantalum oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 57–63 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bramble, J. P.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, P. V.

H. Tu, C. E. Heitzman, and P. V. Braun, “Patterned poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on silica surfaces by microcontact printing followed by surface-initiated polymerization,” Langmuir 20(19), 8313–8320 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Broer, D. J.

C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
[Crossref]

Buguin, A.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bushby, R. J.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cairns, D. R.

D. R. Cairns, N. S. Eichenlaub, and G. P. Crawford, “Ordered Polymer Microstructures Synthesized from Dispersions of Liquid Crystal Mesogens,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. 352(1), 275–282 (2000).
[Crossref]

Choi, B.-D.

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cladis, P. E.

Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974).
[Crossref]

Crawford, G. P.

D. R. Cairns, N. S. Eichenlaub, and G. P. Crawford, “Ordered Polymer Microstructures Synthesized from Dispersions of Liquid Crystal Mesogens,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. 352(1), 275–282 (2000).
[Crossref]

Decker, C.

C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001).
[Crossref]

Decker, D.

C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dong, K.-Y.

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eichenlaub, N. S.

D. R. Cairns, N. S. Eichenlaub, and G. P. Crawford, “Ordered Polymer Microstructures Synthesized from Dispersions of Liquid Crystal Mesogens,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. 352(1), 275–282 (2000).
[Crossref]

Elemans, J. A. A. W.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Escuti, M. J.

C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
[Crossref]

Evans, S. D.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, J.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fujishima, A.

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, A.

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

Fukumoto, H.

H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006).
[Crossref]

Garcia, P. M. L.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gauza, S.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gin, D. L.

D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Gray and D. L. Gin, “Polymerizable Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Containing Transition-Metal Ions as Building Blocks for Nanostructured Polymers and Composites,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1827–1832 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gobrecht, J.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gray, D. H.

D. H. Gray and D. L. Gin, “Polymerizable Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Containing Transition-Metal Ions as Building Blocks for Nanostructured Polymers and Composites,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1827–1832 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gu, W.

D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, Z.-Z.

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gupta, V. K.

V. K. Gupta and N. L. Abbot, “Design of Surfaces for Patterned Alignment of Liquid Crystals on Planar and Curved Substrates,” Science 276(5318), 1533–1536 (1997).
[Crossref]

Han, J.-M.

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hanft, D.

H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heitzman, C. E.

H. Tu, C. E. Heitzman, and P. V. Braun, “Patterned poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on silica surfaces by microcontact printing followed by surface-initiated polymerization,” Langmuir 20(19), 8313–8320 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoogboom, J.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoshino, K.

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, J.-Y.

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jandke, M.

H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.-Y.

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jo, S. I.

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ju, B.-K.

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kagata, T.

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, Y.-G.

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kato, T.

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawatsuki, N.

H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006).
[Crossref]

Keller, P.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kelly, S. M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.-Y.

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.-J.

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.-H.

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. H.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. G.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. M.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. S.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-H.

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-K.

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kitamura, T.

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kondo, K.

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kubo, S.

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kuroda, K.

H. Miyata and K. Kuroda, “Alignment of Mesoporous Silica on a Glass Substrate by a Rubbing Method,” Chem. Mater. 11(6), 1609–1614 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ladoux, B.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lazarenko, S. V.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, G.-D.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. K.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-J.

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-M.

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-K.

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, M.-H.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liebert, L.

Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.-H.

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. F.

J. F. Lin and Y. L. Lo, “Optical Retardation Measurement Using a Zeeman Laser,” Key Eng. Mater. 326–328, 191–194 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lo, Y. L.

J. F. Lin and Y. L. Lo, “Optical Retardation Measurement Using a Zeeman Laser,” Key Eng. Mater. 326–328, 191–194 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, R.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lyu, J.-J.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

McCulloch, I.

H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005).
[Crossref]

Miyata, H.

H. Miyata and K. Kuroda, “Alignment of Mesoporous Silica on a Glass Substrate by a Rubbing Method,” Chem. Mater. 11(6), 1609–1614 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukoh, A.

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

Na, H.-J.

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nagano, S.

H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nolte, R. J. M.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, B.-Y.

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ohno, H.

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Otten, M. B. J.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ouchi, Y.

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

Padeste, C.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, H.-G.

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Park, S.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pindzola, B. A.

D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prompinit, P.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rasing, T.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rowan, A. E.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sánchez, C.

C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sato, O.

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995).
[Crossref]

Scharf, T.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schift, H.

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schuster, A.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995).
[Crossref]

Segawa, H.

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Seiberle, H.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995).
[Crossref]

Seki, T.

H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006).
[Crossref]

Seo, D.-S.

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shkunov, M.

H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005).
[Crossref]

Silberzan, P.

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sly, J.

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strohriegl, P.

H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005).
[Crossref]

Strzelecki, L.

Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, K.

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

Thiem, H.

H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tu, H.

H. Tu, C. E. Heitzman, and P. V. Braun, “Patterned poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on silica surfaces by microcontact printing followed by surface-initiated polymerization,” Langmuir 20(19), 8313–8320 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Haaren, J.

J. van Haaren, “Wiping out dirty displays,” Nature 411(6833), 29–30 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verbakel, F.

C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
[Crossref]

Viet, T. N. T.

C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wälti, C.

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber-Koehl, E.

C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wu, S.-T.

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yoshio, M.

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-J.

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, J. J.

J. J. Yu, J.-Y. Zhang, and I. W. Boyd, “UV annealing of ultrathin tantalum oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 57–63 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.-Y.

J. J. Yu, J.-Y. Zhang, and I. W. Boyd, “UV annealing of ultrathin tantalum oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 57–63 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhou, W. J.

D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

D. L. Gin, W. Gu, B. A. Pindzola, and W. J. Zhou, “Polymerized Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Assemblies for Materials Applications,” Acc. Chem. Res. 34(12), 973–980 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

P. Prompinit, A. S. Achalkumar, J. P. Bramble, R. J. Bushby, C. Wälti, and S. D. Evans, “Controlling liquid crystal alignment using photocleavable cyanobiphenyl self-assembled monolayers,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(12), 3686–3692 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (2)

S. Park, C. Padeste, H. Schift, J. Gobrecht, and T. Scharf, “Chemical nanopatterns via nanoimprint lithography for simultaneous control over azimuthal and polar alignment of liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17(11), 1398–1401 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Sánchez, F. Verbakel, M. J. Escuti, C. W. M. Bastiaansen, and D. J. Broer, “Printing of Monolithic Polymeric Microstructures Using Reactive Mesogens,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 74–78 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, G.-D. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, and K. H. Kim, “Stabilization of the liquid crystal director in the patterned vertical alignment mode through formation of pretilt angle by reactive mesogen,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261910 (2007).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Lim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, K.-M. Lee, H.-J. Na, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, J.-M. Han, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Selective liquid crystal molecule orientation on ion beam irradiated tantalum oxide ultrathin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(12), 123503 (2009).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. J. Yu, J.-Y. Zhang, and I. W. Boyd, “UV annealing of ultrathin tantalum oxide films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 57–63 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (5)

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. H. Gray and D. L. Gin, “Polymerizable Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Containing Transition-Metal Ions as Building Blocks for Nanostructured Polymers and Composites,” Chem. Mater. 10(7), 1827–1832 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Miyata and K. Kuroda, “Alignment of Mesoporous Silica on a Glass Substrate by a Rubbing Method,” Chem. Mater. 11(6), 1609–1614 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Kubo, Z.-Z. Gu, K. Takahashi, A. Fujishima, H. Segawa, and O. Sato, “Control of the Optical Properties of Liquid Crystal-Infiltrated Inverse Opal Structures Using Photo Irradiation and/or an Electric Field,” Chem. Mater. 17(9), 2298–2309 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Fukumoto, S. Nagano, N. Kawatsuki, and T. Seki, “Photo-Alignment Behavior of Mesoporous Silica Thin Films Synthesized on a Photo-Cross-Linkable Polymer Film,” Chem. Mater. 18(5), 1226–1234 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (3)

M. Yoshio, T. Kagata, K. Hoshino, T. Mukai, H. Ohno, and T. Kato, “One-Dimensional Ion-Conductive Polymer Films: Alignment and Fixation of Ionic Channels Formed by Self-Organization of Polymerizable Columnar Liquid Crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(16), 5570–5577 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hoogboom, P. M. L. Garcia, M. B. J. Otten, J. A. A. W. Elemans, J. Sly, S. V. Lazarenko, T. Rasing, A. E. Rowan, and R. J. M. Nolte, “Tunable Command Layers for Liquid Crystal Alignment,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127(31), 11047–11052 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Buguin, M.-H. Li, P. Silberzan, B. Ladoux, and P. Keller, “Micro-Actuators: When Artificial Muscles Made of Nematic Liquid Crystal Elastomers Meet Soft Lithography,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(4), 1088–1089 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

Y.-H. Lin, H. Ren, S. Gauza, Y.-H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, and S.-T. Wu, “IPS-LCD using a glass substrate and an anisotropic polymer film,” J. Disp. Technol. 2(1), 21–25 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S. G. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. S. Kim, H. K. Lee, S. H. Lee, J.-J. Lyu, K. H. Kim, R. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Trapping of defect point to improve response time via controlled azimuthal anchoring in a vertically aligned liquid crystal cell with polymer wall,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(5), 055401 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Ouchi, J. Lee, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, K. Kondo, T. Kitamura, and A. Mukoh, “Smectic layer structure of thin ferroelectric liquid crystal cells aligned by SiO oblique evaporation technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27(11), L1993–L1995 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photoinduced alignment and patterning of hybrid liquid-crystalline polymer-films on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 2, No. 6B), L764–L767 (1995).
[Crossref]

Key Eng. Mater. (1)

J. F. Lin and Y. L. Lo, “Optical Retardation Measurement Using a Zeeman Laser,” Key Eng. Mater. 326–328, 191–194 (2006).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

H. Tu, C. E. Heitzman, and P. V. Braun, “Patterned poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on silica surfaces by microcontact printing followed by surface-initiated polymerization,” Langmuir 20(19), 8313–8320 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (2)

H. Thiem, M. Jandke, D. Hanft, and P. Strohriegl, “Synthesis and orientation of fluorine containing reactive mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 207(4), 370–381 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Thiem, P. Strohriegl, M. Shkunov, and I. McCulloch, “Photopolymerization of Reactive Mesogens,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 206(21), 2153–2159 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. (1)

D. R. Cairns, N. S. Eichenlaub, and G. P. Crawford, “Ordered Polymer Microstructures Synthesized from Dispersions of Liquid Crystal Mesogens,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Crys. A. 352(1), 275–282 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

Y. Bouligand, P. E. Cladis, L. Liebert, and L. Strzelecki, “Study of Sections of Polymerized Liquid Crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 25(3-4), 233–252 (1974).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. van Haaren, “Wiping out dirty displays,” Nature 411(6833), 29–30 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Exp. (1)

Y.-J. Lee, Y.-K. Kim, S. I. Jo, K.-S. Bae, B.-D. Choi, J.-H. Kim, and C.-J. Yu, “Fast vertical alignment mode with continuous multi-domains for a liquid crystal display,” Opt. Exp. 17(26), 23417–23422 (2009).
[Crossref]

Polymer (Guildf.) (1)

C. Decker, T. N. T. Viet, D. Decker, and E. Weber-Koehl, “UV-radiation curing of acrylate/epoxide systems,” Polymer (Guildf.) 42(13), 5531–5541 (2001).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

V. K. Gupta and N. L. Abbot, “Design of Surfaces for Patterned Alignment of Liquid Crystals on Planar and Curved Substrates,” Science 276(5318), 1533–1536 (1997).
[Crossref]

Soft Matter (1)

H.-G. Park, J.-J. Lee, K.-Y. Dong, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, H.-Y. Jeong, B.-K. Ju, and D.-S. Seo, “Homeotropic alignment of liquid crystals on a nano-patterned polyimide surface using nanoimprint lithography,” Soft Matter 7(12), 5610–5614 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of fabrication via the imprinting method. An RM monolayer detached and implementation of these imprinted PI layers in the VA mode cell.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 AFM images of homeotropic PI, the imprinted cell, and the rubbed cell.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A Rotation angle dependence of the optical retardation of rubbing, imprinting, and homeotropic PI surfaces: a) 60% homeotropic PI, b) 70% homeotropic PI, c) 80% homeotropic PI, d) 90% homeotropic PI.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Pretilt angles of LC molecules on imprinted RM layers with polarized UV exposure and rubbing treatment as a function of hometropic PI ratio.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Response time of imprinted and rubbed VA cells: a) rise time of imprinted VA cell, b) decay time of imprinted VA cell, c) rise time of rubbed VA cell, d) decay time of rubbed VA cell.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Voltage-transmittance properties of VA cells: a) imprinted VA cell, b) rubbed VA cell.

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