Abstract

In this work, we report on the spectroscopic properties of Dy3+ doped YAlO3 crystal grown by Czochralski technique. The Judd-Ofelt theory was performed based on the measured polarized absorption spectra. Under optical pumping at 1300 nm, Dy:YAP crystal exhibited a broad MIR emission centered at 3020 nm, with a bandwidth of 520 nm at full width half maximum. The decay lifetime of the 6H13/2 level was measured to be 8.88 ms, and the corresponding quantum efficiency evaluated was 57.9%. The studied optical gain properties indicate that Dy:YAlO3 crystal could be a potential candidate for solid-state mid-infrared laser applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Recently, rare earth (RE) ions doped crystals that exhibit mid-infrared (MIR) lasing have attracted considerable research interest due to their potential applications in medicine, military, eye-safe lasers, and radar etc [13]. Among RE ions, Dy3+ is one of the most efficient ion for obtaining MIR emissions due to its energy level structure which shows a series of closely spaced multiplets separated by 1500~3300 cm−1. Also Dy3+ exhibits intense absorption bands in the near-infrared region that are suitable for pumping to these multiplets [4]. Mainly, Dy3+ two lasing transitions H611/2H613/2(4.3~4.4 μm) [5] and H613/2H615/2 (3.0~3.4 μm) [6] are of particular interest for MIR lasers. The possibility of obtaining laser emission from Dy3+ at ~3.0 µm depends on the choice of host crystals, i.e., phonon energies should be relatively small and the orbital coupling of the ion to the lattice should be relatively weak [7]. To date, Dy3+ lasing for H613/2H615/2 transition has been demonstrated in fluoride compounds such as BaYb2F8 [6, 8], BaY2F8 [7] crystals and ZBLAN fiber [9], and PbGa2S4 [4] sulfide crystals mainly due to their low phonon energies of the host crystals (BaY2F8:415 cm−1 [10], and PbGa2S4:350 cm−1 [11]), which can decrease the non-radiative losses efficiently and thus increasing the quantum efficiency of H613/2H615/2 transition. However, fluoride and sulfide crystals must be grown in an inert atmosphere to avoid contamination from outside environment, and also their poor mechanical properties seriously limit the enhancement of MIR laser output power and efficiency. On the other hand, oxide crystals are much easier to grow with higher optical quality, and they possess much better physical properties.

YAlO3 (YAP) crystallizes in a distorted perovskite structure, belonging to orthorhombic system with the space group Pnma-D162h (No.62), Z = 4. The cell parameters are a = 5.330Å, b = 7.375Å, and c = 5.180Å. Its density is 5.35 g/cm3 [12]. As it melts congruently, large size single crystals can be obtained by the Czochralski (CZ) method. This crystal has low phonon energy (570 cm−1 [13]) and exhibits good physicochemical properties. To date, much research work has been devoted to Nd3+ [14], Yb3+ [15], Er3+ [16], Tm3+ [17], Ho3+ [18] doped YAP crystals as laser gain media. However, despite the afore-mentioned technological interests, Dy3+ doped YAP crystal for MIR lasing emission has not been reported yet. The ionic radii of Dy3+ (1.03Ǻ) and Y3+ (1.02 Ǻ) are almost same, and it has been proved that Dy3+ ions are easy to substitute the Y3+ ions in the octahedral site coordination of the YAP matrices since the orthorhombic structure of Y3+ (in YAP) occupies octahedral site coordination in C1h point symmetry [19]. In this work, for the first time we report on the strong Dy3+ emission in YAP crystal operating on the H613/2H615/2 transition at 3020 nm and tunable throughout the 2600~3400 nm region, at room-temperature.

2. Experimental

Dy:YAP crystal was grown by the Czochralski method. The 99.999% pure Y2O3, Al2O3 and Dy2O3 powders were appropriately dried and weighed according to the formula Dy0.02Y0.98AlO3. The mixtures were ground and mixed, then pressed into bulks and put into an alumina crucible. The bulks were sintered at 1450 °C for 72 h in air, and then the grinding and sintering processes were repeated twice to confirm the finally synthesized polycrystalline compounds by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. And then, the bulks were loaded into an iridium crucible of 70 mm in diameter and 50 mm in height for crystal growth. The crystal growth was carried out in DJL-400 furnace (NCIREO, China) with a a-cut YAP seed. A pulling rate of 1.5 mm/h and rotation rate of 16~20 r.p.m were adopted during the growth. High-purity nitrogen gas was used as a protective atmosphere. The initial growth boundary in the solid-melt was convex toward the melt, such that dislocations and impurities were reduced or eliminated from the crystal. Then the growth boundary became flat. To prevent the crystal from cracking, it was cooled to room temperature very slowly with a rate of 8.0~30.0 °C/h after its growth. Finally, a high optical quality Dy:YAP crystal with size Φ25 × 40 mm2 was obtained, which is free from cracks and inclusions, and no scattering centers inside. Owing to the electron trap O- centers produced in crystal growth, it shows shallow orange color, therefore the crystal was reheated to 1400~1600 °C in O2 atmosphere, finally its orange color fades and the crystal becomes colorless for spectral measurements. The study on the color change of YAP crystal has been carried out in Ref [20].

The concentrations of dysprosium and yttrium ions in the grown crystal were measured by the inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP–AES) method, and the values obtained are 1.52 wt%, and 52.34 wt%, respectively. Therefore, the effective segregation coefficient K for the Dy3+ is calculated to be 0.78 by following the Eq. (1) in Ref [21].

3. Spectral analyses

Samples for spectroscopic measurements were cut from the as-grown Dy:YAP bulk crystal with each face perpendicular to one of the three main crystallographic directions a~c of the crystal. They were optically polished to 5.0 × 5.0 × 1.0 mm3. The polarized absorption spectra were measured by using the Perkin–Elmer UV-VIS-NIR Spectrometer (Lambda 900) at room temperature, with the incident light along the certain direction corresponding to one of crystallographic axis of a~c. The spectral resolution for absorption spectra is 1 nm. The emission spectrum and fluorescence decay curve were recorded at room temperature by using Edinburgh Instrument FSP920 Spectrophotometer, under excitation with a 5 ns pulse of an optical parametric oscillator; the excitation wavelength is 1300 nm since Dy3+ shows strong absorption in YAP crystal. The sample used for emission spectrum and decay curve measurement is along a-axis, owing to unable to afford polarized plate in this FSP 920 Spectrophotometer. The spectral resolution for emission spectrum is 10 nm.

The polarization absorption spectra in the range from 300 to 3200 nm are shown in Fig. 1, in which the terminal levels of the corresponding transitions from the 6H15/2 ground state of Dy3+ ions were assigned and marked. It can be seen that the absorption spectra are polarization dependent,while the absorption peaks in three directions are similar with a slight difference in the absorption peaks location. Among the absorption bands, at around 1300 nm spectra show strong and broad absorption corresponding to the 6H15/26H9/2 + 6F11/2 transition, suitable for pumping by 1.3 µm Nd: YAG laser and laser diodes. The a, b and c polarized absorption cross sections with peaks at 1289 nm, 1312 nm and 1281 nm are 2.43 × 10−20 cm2, 1.90 × 10−20 cm2 and 2.21 × 10−20 cm2, respectively. The evaluated full widths at half maximum (FWHM) values are 46 nm, 52 nm and 48 nm, respectively, and these make Dy: YAP crystal highly appropriate for 1300 nm Nd: YAG laser pumping.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Polarized absorption spectra of Dy:YAP crystal at room temperature.

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The conventional Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory [22, 23] is used to calculate the spectroscopic parameters of Dy: YAP crystal, such as the integrated absorption coefficients, three intensity parameters, the calculated and experimental line strengths and oscillator strengths, radiative lifetimes etc. Ten absorption bands were used in the calculation of the J–O intensity parameters following the procedure given in Refs [21,24]. The parameters such as the reduced matrix elements of tensor operators are adopted from Ref [25]. and the refractive index of YAP crystal is estimated from the Sellmeier dispersion equation [26]: n2(λ)=1+Aλ2λ2B, where for the a, b, c crystallographic axes, A = 2.709, 2.678, 2.635 μm2 and B = 0.0126, 0.0123, 0.0116 μm2, respectively. The magnetic dipole transitions are not much important for the manifolds of Dy3+ ions relating to absorption transitions considered, therefore, it is sufficient to calculate the electric dipole transitions only [27]. The calculated average wavelength, refractive indices, integrated absorption coefficients are presented in Table 1.

Tables Icon

Table 1. The average wavelength (λ¯), refractive indices (n), integrated absorption coefficients (Г) for the absorption transitions of Dy3+ in YAP crystal.

And then, the experimental and calculated line strengths (S) and oscillator strengths (f) are acquired and listed in Table 2.The values in Table 2 provide a root-mean-square (RMS) deviation of 0.266 × 10−20 cm2 for a polarization, 0.525 × 10−20 cm2 for b polarization, 0.350 × 10−20 cm2 for c polarization. The values of error rmsΔS and rmsΔf are relatively low and thus the obtained results can be taken as reasonable.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Polarized experimental and calculated line strengths (S) and oscillator strengths (f) of Dy:YAP crystal

A least-square fitting of Sexp to Scal provides the three J–O intensity parameters Ωt (t = 2, 4, 6) for each polarization. For the biaxial Dy:YAP crystal, the effective intensity parameters Ωt,eff should be Ωt,eff = (Ωt,a + Ωt,b + Ωt,c)/3 [28]. So, three effective J–O intensity parameters of Dy:YAP are obtained and listed in Table 3, together with other Dy3+-doped crystals. As seen from Table 3, the three intensity parameters are polarization dependent, Ω2 value of Dy:YAP crystal is larger than that of some low-phonon-energy chloride, fluoride and sulfide crystals, and this indicates that Dy:YAP crystal is less ionic in character. With the above necessary parameters and the emission squared reduced matrix elements [33], the spontaneous emission probabilities for the transition H613/2H615/2are calculated to be 62.491 s−1, 65.594 s−1 and 67.626 s−1 for E//a, E//b, and E//c, respectively. According to [34], the average spontaneous emission probability is calculated to be 65.237 s−1, and thus the radiative lifetime τr of the 6H13/2 level is calculated as 15.33 ms.

Tables Icon

Table 3. The J–O intensity parameters of Dy3+-doped crystals

The MIR emission spectrum of Dy:YAP crystal under 1300 nm OPO pumping is shown in Fig. 2(a).A broad emission band from 2600 to 3400 nm was observed corresponding to Dy3+:H613/2H615/2 transition. The maximum emission cross section is 4.07 × 10−21 cm2 at 3020 nm; the FWHM of this emission band is 520 nm. Figure 2(b) presents the simplified energy level diagram of Dy3+ doped YAP crystal. Energy from the 1300 pump source excites the Dy3+ ions to its 6H9/2 + 6F11/2 level and then decay radiatively to 6H13/2 level, finally emitting at 3020 nm. This is the first time to observe MIR emission in Dy3+ doped oxide YAP crystal. According to Weber [35], in order for materials to emit at long wavelengths, the highest phonon frequencies of the host medium must be less than about 0.2~0.25 times the light frequency. The chloride, sulfide, selenide and telluride have suitably low phonon frequencies to allow for efficient emission beyond 3 microns, such as CaGa2S4 and KPb2Cl5, whose phonon frequency are as low as 350 cm−1 and 203 cm−1 [11], respectively, while the standard oxide crystals are usually not suitable for this purpose. As an example, the frequency (in wave number units) of 3 micron light is 3333 cm−1, and 20% of that corresponds to 667 cm−1, the approximate maximum phonon vibrational frequency of oxide host should possess in order to facilitate efficient 3 micron luminescence. In this work, the maximum phonon energy of YAP is only ~570 cm−1 [13], such low phonon vibrational frequency leads to a reduced non-radiative decay rates between excited states of Dy3+ with small energy separation, and finally ensures an efficient MIR emission.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 (a) MIR emission spectrum of Dy:YAP crystal excited by 1300 nm at room temperature. (b) The simplified energy level diagram of Dy3+ doped YAP crystal.

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To further explore the energy interaction mechanism, the fluorescence decay curve of the 6H13/2 level in Dy:YAP crystal is measured by monitoring 3020 nm emission, with excitation at 1300 nm. As shown in Fig. 3, the measured decay curve shows singly exponential decaying behavior. The fluorescence lifetime of the H613/2H615/2 transition of Dy3+ was determined to be 8.88 ms. Therefore, the fluorescence quantum efficiency was calculated to be: η = τfr = 8.88/15.33 = 57.9%. Table 4 presents the comparison of several important spectroscopic parameters of several Dy3+-doped laser crystals. One can see from Table 4 that the absorption cross-section, emission cross-section and quantum efficiency of Dy:YAP crystal are comparable and even higher than those of Dy:KPb2Br5, Dy:CaGa2S4and Dy:BaYb2F8 crystals, which imply that Dy:YAP crystal is an excellent candidate for MIR laser material by 1300 nm LD pumping.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 The fluorescence decay curve of the 6H13/2 level in Dy:YAP crystal at room temperature.

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Tables Icon

Table 4. Comparison of the optical spectroscopic parameters of some Dy3+-doped laser crystals

Once the absorption and emission cross-section spectra are derived, the gain cross-section spectrum G(λ) can be computed by following equation [36]:

G(λ)=Pσem(1P)σa
where population inversion P is assigned to the concentration ratio of Dy3+ in the 6H13/2 and 6H15/2 levels. Here the a-polarized absorption cross section spectrum is used since the measurement sample is along a-axis. The calculated gain cross sections as a function of wavelength with different P values are shown in Fig. 4.. Evidently, the gain cross section becomes positive once the population inversion level reaches 40%, indicating that a low pumping threshold is achieved for the Dy3+:H613/2H615/2 laser operation in Dy:YAP crystal. For a population inversion level of 0.6, it is possible to obtain smooth tuning in a rather wide spectral region 2860~3400 nm.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 Gain cross-section spectra of Dy3+:H613/2H615/2 in the Dy:YAP crystal.

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4. Conclusion

To conclude, a high quality Dy3+-doped YAlO3 single crystal has been successfully grown with the Czochralski method. The polarized absorption spectra, unpolarized fluorescence spectrum as well as decay curves are measured at room temperature. The effective J–O intensity parameters Ω2,eff, Ω4,eff and Ω6,eff are calculated to be 3.482 × 10−20, 3.786 × 10−20 and 3.712 × 10−20 cm2, respectively. The polarized line strengths, oscillator strengths, spontaneous emission probabilities as well as the radiative lifetimes of Dy3+ ions in YAP crystal are presented. One intense MIR emission extending from 2600 to 3400 nm on the phonon terminated transition H613/2H615/2 of Dy3+ was demonstrated for the first time at room temperature. The maximum emission cross-section is 4.07 × 10−21 cm2 at 3020 nm, and the FWHM of this emission band is 520 nm. The fluorescence lifetime of the H613/2H615/2 transition of Dy3+ was determined to be 8.88 ms and the quantum efficiency evaluated was 57.9%. In addition, the gain emission property of the Dy3+:H613/2H615/2 transition is discussed. The above results indicate that Dy:YAP crystal merits further investigation as a broadly tunable mid-infrared laser material.

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by Science and Technology Plan Major Projects of Fujian Province (2012H0048), National Nature Science Foundation of China (50902129, 61078076, 91122033,11304313) and Knowledge Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (KJCX2-EW-H03).

References and links

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3. Z. J. Zhu, J. F. Li, Z. Y. You, Y. Wang, S. Z. Lv, E. Ma, J. L. Xu, H. Y. Wang, and C. Y. Tu, “Benefit of Pr3+ ions to the spectral properties of Pr3+/Er3+:CaGdAlO4 crystal for a 2.7 μm laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4838–4840 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. M. E. Doroshenko, T. T. Basiev, V. V. Osiko, V. V. Badikov, D. V. Badikov, H. Jelínková, P. Koranda, and J. Šulc, “Oscillation properties of dysprosium-doped lead thiogallate crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 590–592 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, and P. G. Schunemann, “Room-temperature laser action at 4.34.4 µm in CaGa2S4:Dy3+,” Opt. Lett. 24(17), 1215–1217 (1999). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. N. Djeu, V. E. Hartwell, A. A. Kaminskii, and A. V. Butashin, “Room-temperature 3.4- µm Dy:BaYb2F8 laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 997–999 (1997). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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8. A. A. Mak and B. M. Antipenko, “Rare-earth converters of neodymium laser radiation,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 37(6), 1458–1471 (1982). [CrossRef]  

9. Y. H. Tsang, A. E. El-Taher, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Efficient 2.96 microm dysprosium-doped fluoride fibre laser pumped with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 14(2), 678–685 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Kramer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state dynamics in the low-phonon materials Er3+:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9,” OSA TOPS on Advanced Solid-State Lasers 1, 493–497 (1996).

11. A. G. Okhrimchuk, “Dy3+ and Pr3+ doped crystals for mid-IR lasers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA/ CLEO/QELS), CTuKK3, (2008).

12. J. Y. Chen, G. J. Zhao, D. H. Cao, Q. Dong, Y. T. Ding, and S. M. Zhou, “Computer simulation of intrinsic defects in YAlO3 single crystal,” Physica B 404(20), 3405–3409 (2009). [CrossRef]  

13. H. G. Yang, Z. W. Dai, and Z. W. Sun, “Upconversion luminescence and kinetics in Er3+:YAlO3 under 652.2 nm excitation,” J. Lumin. 124(2), 207–212 (2007). [CrossRef]  

14. S. Wang, X. Wang, H. Rhee, S. Meister, H. J. Eichler, and J. Chen, “Pulsed Nd:YAP laser at 1432 nm pumped with high power laser diode,” Opt. Commun. 283(14), 2881–2884 (2010). [CrossRef]  

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References

  • View by:

  1. Y. Wang, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, Z. Y. You, J. L. Xu, and C. Y. Tu, “Activation effect of Ho3+ at 2.84 μm MIR luminescence by Yb3+ ions in GGG crystal,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 3988–3990 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. I. T. Sorokina, “Solid-state mid-infrared laser sources,” Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 262–351 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  3. Z. J. Zhu, J. F. Li, Z. Y. You, Y. Wang, S. Z. Lv, E. Ma, J. L. Xu, H. Y. Wang, and C. Y. Tu, “Benefit of Pr3+ ions to the spectral properties of Pr3+/Er3+:CaGdAlO4 crystal for a 2.7 μm laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4838–4840 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. E. Doroshenko, T. T. Basiev, V. V. Osiko, V. V. Badikov, D. V. Badikov, H. Jelínková, P. Koranda, and J. Šulc, “Oscillation properties of dysprosium-doped lead thiogallate crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 590–592 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, and P. G. Schunemann, “Room-temperature laser action at 4.34.4 µm in CaGa2S4:Dy3+,” Opt. Lett. 24(17), 1215–1217 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. N. Djeu, V. E. Hartwell, A. A. Kaminskii, and A. V. Butashin, “Room-temperature 3.4- µm Dy:BaYb2F8 laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 997–999 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, “Laser emission at 3µm from Dy3+ in BaY2F8,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23(2), 96–98 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. A. Mak and B. M. Antipenko, “Rare-earth converters of neodymium laser radiation,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 37(6), 1458–1471 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. H. Tsang, A. E. El-Taher, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Efficient 2.96 microm dysprosium-doped fluoride fibre laser pumped with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 14(2), 678–685 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Kramer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state dynamics in the low-phonon materials Er3+:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9,” OSA TOPS on Advanced Solid-State Lasers 1, 493–497 (1996).
  11. A. G. Okhrimchuk, “Dy3+ and Pr3+ doped crystals for mid-IR lasers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (OSA/ CLEO/QELS), CTuKK3, (2008).
  12. J. Y. Chen, G. J. Zhao, D. H. Cao, Q. Dong, Y. T. Ding, and S. M. Zhou, “Computer simulation of intrinsic defects in YAlO3 single crystal,” Physica B 404(20), 3405–3409 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. G. Yang, Z. W. Dai, and Z. W. Sun, “Upconversion luminescence and kinetics in Er3+:YAlO3 under 652.2 nm excitation,” J. Lumin. 124(2), 207–212 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Wang, X. Wang, H. Rhee, S. Meister, H. J. Eichler, and J. Chen, “Pulsed Nd:YAP laser at 1432 nm pumped with high power laser diode,” Opt. Commun. 283(14), 2881–2884 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  15. X. H. Zeng, G. J. Zhao, X. D. Xu, H. J. Li, J. Xu, Z. W. Zhao, X. M. He, H. Y. Pang, M. Y. Jie, and C. F. Yan, “Comparison of spectroscopic parameters of 15 at% Yb: YAlO3 and 15 at% Yb: Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 106–112 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. K. Sardar, S. Chandrasekharan, K. L. Nash, and J. B. Gruber, “Optical intensity analyses of Er3+: YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 023102 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. L. Lu, Y. B. Dai, Y. Yang, J. Wang, A. P. Dong, and B. D. Sun, “Anisotropy of thermal and spectral characteristics in Tm: YAP laser crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 453(1–2), 482–486 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  18. B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91-μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chinese Phys. B 18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. G. S. Ramaraju, J. Y. Park, H. C. Jung, B. K. Moon, and J. H. Jeong, “White light emission from Dy3+: RAlO3 (R=Y or Gd) nanophosphors by solvothermal process,” Optoelectron Adv. Mater.-Rapid Comm. 3(1), 29–32 (2009).
  20. T. Li, G. J. Zhao, X. M. He, J. Xu, and S. K. Pan, “Study on the color change of YAP crystals,” Chinese J. Synthetic Crystals 31(5), 456–459 (2002).
  21. Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in GGG laser crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(7), 075402 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  22. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  23. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Y. Wang, J. F. Li, G. H. Jia, Z. Y. You, F. G. Yang, Y. P. Wei, Y. Wang, Z. J. Zhu, X. A. Lu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ions in sodium gadolinium tungstates crystal,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 452–458 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424–4442 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. J. Weber, B. H. Matsinger, V. L. Donlan, and G. T. Surratt, “Optical transition probabilities for trivalent holmium in LaF3 and YAlO3,” J. Chem. Phys. 57(1), 562–567 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  27. Y. Wang, J. F. Li, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Crystal growth and spectral analysis of Dy3+ and Er3+ doped KPb2Cl5 as a mid-infrared laser crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42(11), 1063–1067 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  28. Z. D. Luo, X. Y. Chen, and T. J. Zhao, “Judd–Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements,” Opt. Commun. 134(1-6), 415–422 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  29. U. Hommericha, E. Nyeina, J. A. Freemana, P. Amedzakea, S. B. Trivedib, and J. M. Zavadac, “Crystal growth and optical properties of Dy-doped potassium lead bromide (KPb2Br5),” J. Cryst. Growth 287(2), 230–233 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, L. J. Isaenko, and A. P. Yelisseyev, “Optical properties of Dy3+- and Nd3+-doped KPb2Cl5,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18(3), 264–276 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2C15:Dy3+,” OSA TOPS in Advanced Solid State Lasers 19, 524–528 (1998).
  32. M. G. Brik, T. Ishii, A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, and I. K. Razumova, “Calculations of the transitions intensities in the optical spectra of Dy3+:LiYF4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 374(1–2), 63–68 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  33. C. K. Jayasankar and E. Rukmini, “Spectroscopic investigations of Dy3+ ions in borosulphate glasses,” Physica B 240(3), 273–288 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  34. Q. Dong, G. J. Zhaoa, D. H. Cao, J. Y. Chen, and Y. C. Ding, “Growth and anisotropic spectral properties of Er:YAlO3 crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 493(1-2), 661–665 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  35. M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 54–64 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  36. P. X. Zhang, Y. Hang, and L. H. Zhang, “Deactivation effects of the lowest excited state of Ho3+ at 2.9 μm emission introduced by Pr3+ ions in LiLuF4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5241–5243 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2010 (3)

Q. Dong, G. J. Zhaoa, D. H. Cao, J. Y. Chen, and Y. C. Ding, “Growth and anisotropic spectral properties of Er:YAlO3 crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 493(1-2), 661–665 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in GGG laser crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(7), 075402 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, X. Wang, H. Rhee, S. Meister, H. J. Eichler, and J. Chen, “Pulsed Nd:YAP laser at 1432 nm pumped with high power laser diode,” Opt. Commun. 283(14), 2881–2884 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

J. Y. Chen, G. J. Zhao, D. H. Cao, Q. Dong, Y. T. Ding, and S. M. Zhou, “Computer simulation of intrinsic defects in YAlO3 single crystal,” Physica B 404(20), 3405–3409 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91-μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chinese Phys. B 18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. S. Ramaraju, J. Y. Park, H. C. Jung, B. K. Moon, and J. H. Jeong, “White light emission from Dy3+: RAlO3 (R=Y or Gd) nanophosphors by solvothermal process,” Optoelectron Adv. Mater.-Rapid Comm. 3(1), 29–32 (2009).

M. E. Doroshenko, T. T. Basiev, V. V. Osiko, V. V. Badikov, D. V. Badikov, H. Jelínková, P. Koranda, and J. Šulc, “Oscillation properties of dysprosium-doped lead thiogallate crystal,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 590–592 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

D. K. Sardar, S. Chandrasekharan, K. L. Nash, and J. B. Gruber, “Optical intensity analyses of Er3+: YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 023102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. L. Lu, Y. B. Dai, Y. Yang, J. Wang, A. P. Dong, and B. D. Sun, “Anisotropy of thermal and spectral characteristics in Tm: YAP laser crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 453(1–2), 482–486 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

H. G. Yang, Z. W. Dai, and Z. W. Sun, “Upconversion luminescence and kinetics in Er3+:YAlO3 under 652.2 nm excitation,” J. Lumin. 124(2), 207–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Wang, J. F. Li, G. H. Jia, Z. Y. You, F. G. Yang, Y. P. Wei, Y. Wang, Z. J. Zhu, X. A. Lu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ions in sodium gadolinium tungstates crystal,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 452–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, J. F. Li, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Crystal growth and spectral analysis of Dy3+ and Er3+ doped KPb2Cl5 as a mid-infrared laser crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42(11), 1063–1067 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

U. Hommericha, E. Nyeina, J. A. Freemana, P. Amedzakea, S. B. Trivedib, and J. M. Zavadac, “Crystal growth and optical properties of Dy-doped potassium lead bromide (KPb2Br5),” J. Cryst. Growth 287(2), 230–233 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Tsang, A. E. El-Taher, T. A. King, and S. D. Jackson, “Efficient 2.96 microm dysprosium-doped fluoride fibre laser pumped with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.3 µm,” Opt. Express 14(2), 678–685 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

X. H. Zeng, G. J. Zhao, X. D. Xu, H. J. Li, J. Xu, Z. W. Zhao, X. M. He, H. Y. Pang, M. Y. Jie, and C. F. Yan, “Comparison of spectroscopic parameters of 15 at% Yb: YAlO3 and 15 at% Yb: Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 106–112 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. G. Brik, T. Ishii, A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, and I. K. Razumova, “Calculations of the transitions intensities in the optical spectra of Dy3+:LiYF4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 374(1–2), 63–68 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

I. T. Sorokina, “Solid-state mid-infrared laser sources,” Top. Appl. Phys. 89, 262–351 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

T. Li, G. J. Zhao, X. M. He, J. Xu, and S. K. Pan, “Study on the color change of YAP crystals,” Chinese J. Synthetic Crystals 31(5), 456–459 (2002).

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2C15:Dy3+,” OSA TOPS in Advanced Solid State Lasers 19, 524–528 (1998).

1997 (3)

C. K. Jayasankar and E. Rukmini, “Spectroscopic investigations of Dy3+ ions in borosulphate glasses,” Physica B 240(3), 273–288 (1997).
[Crossref]

Z. D. Luo, X. Y. Chen, and T. J. Zhao, “Judd–Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements,” Opt. Commun. 134(1-6), 415–422 (1997).
[Crossref]

N. Djeu, V. E. Hartwell, A. A. Kaminskii, and A. V. Butashin, “Room-temperature 3.4- µm Dy:BaYb2F8 laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 997–999 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Kramer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state dynamics in the low-phonon materials Er3+:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9,” OSA TOPS on Advanced Solid-State Lasers 1, 493–497 (1996).

1982 (1)

A. A. Mak and B. M. Antipenko, “Rare-earth converters of neodymium laser radiation,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 37(6), 1458–1471 (1982).
[Crossref]

1973 (2)

M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 54–64 (1973).
[Crossref]

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, “Laser emission at 3µm from Dy3+ in BaY2F8,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23(2), 96–98 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

M. J. Weber, B. H. Matsinger, V. L. Donlan, and G. T. Surratt, “Optical transition probabilities for trivalent holmium in LaF3 and YAlO3,” J. Chem. Phys. 57(1), 562–567 (1972).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424–4442 (1968).
[Crossref]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

Amedzakea, P.

U. Hommericha, E. Nyeina, J. A. Freemana, P. Amedzakea, S. B. Trivedib, and J. M. Zavadac, “Crystal growth and optical properties of Dy-doped potassium lead bromide (KPb2Br5),” J. Cryst. Growth 287(2), 230–233 (2006).
[Crossref]

Antipenko, B. M.

A. A. Mak and B. M. Antipenko, “Rare-earth converters of neodymium laser radiation,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 37(6), 1458–1471 (1982).
[Crossref]

Badikov, D. V.

Badikov, V. V.

Basiev, T. T.

Brik, M. G.

M. G. Brik, T. Ishii, A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, and I. K. Razumova, “Calculations of the transitions intensities in the optical spectra of Dy3+:LiYF4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 374(1–2), 63–68 (2004).
[Crossref]

Butashin, A. V.

Cao, D. H.

Q. Dong, G. J. Zhaoa, D. H. Cao, J. Y. Chen, and Y. C. Ding, “Growth and anisotropic spectral properties of Er:YAlO3 crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 493(1-2), 661–665 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Chen, G. J. Zhao, D. H. Cao, Q. Dong, Y. T. Ding, and S. M. Zhou, “Computer simulation of intrinsic defects in YAlO3 single crystal,” Physica B 404(20), 3405–3409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424–4442 (1968).
[Crossref]

Chandrasekharan, S.

D. K. Sardar, S. Chandrasekharan, K. L. Nash, and J. B. Gruber, “Optical intensity analyses of Er3+: YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 023102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

S. Wang, X. Wang, H. Rhee, S. Meister, H. J. Eichler, and J. Chen, “Pulsed Nd:YAP laser at 1432 nm pumped with high power laser diode,” Opt. Commun. 283(14), 2881–2884 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. Y.

Q. Dong, G. J. Zhaoa, D. H. Cao, J. Y. Chen, and Y. C. Ding, “Growth and anisotropic spectral properties of Er:YAlO3 crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 493(1-2), 661–665 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Chen, G. J. Zhao, D. H. Cao, Q. Dong, Y. T. Ding, and S. M. Zhou, “Computer simulation of intrinsic defects in YAlO3 single crystal,” Physica B 404(20), 3405–3409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. Y.

Z. D. Luo, X. Y. Chen, and T. J. Zhao, “Judd–Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements,” Opt. Commun. 134(1-6), 415–422 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y. B.

Y. L. Lu, Y. B. Dai, Y. Yang, J. Wang, A. P. Dong, and B. D. Sun, “Anisotropy of thermal and spectral characteristics in Tm: YAP laser crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 453(1–2), 482–486 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dai, Z. W.

H. G. Yang, Z. W. Dai, and Z. W. Sun, “Upconversion luminescence and kinetics in Er3+:YAlO3 under 652.2 nm excitation,” J. Lumin. 124(2), 207–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y. C.

Q. Dong, G. J. Zhaoa, D. H. Cao, J. Y. Chen, and Y. C. Ding, “Growth and anisotropic spectral properties of Er:YAlO3 crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 493(1-2), 661–665 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y. T.

J. Y. Chen, G. J. Zhao, D. H. Cao, Q. Dong, Y. T. Ding, and S. M. Zhou, “Computer simulation of intrinsic defects in YAlO3 single crystal,” Physica B 404(20), 3405–3409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Djeu, N.

Dong, A. P.

Y. L. Lu, Y. B. Dai, Y. Yang, J. Wang, A. P. Dong, and B. D. Sun, “Anisotropy of thermal and spectral characteristics in Tm: YAP laser crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 453(1–2), 482–486 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dong, Q.

Q. Dong, G. J. Zhaoa, D. H. Cao, J. Y. Chen, and Y. C. Ding, “Growth and anisotropic spectral properties of Er:YAlO3 crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 493(1-2), 661–665 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91-μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chinese Phys. B 18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Chen, G. J. Zhao, D. H. Cao, Q. Dong, Y. T. Ding, and S. M. Zhou, “Computer simulation of intrinsic defects in YAlO3 single crystal,” Physica B 404(20), 3405–3409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Donlan, V. L.

M. J. Weber, B. H. Matsinger, V. L. Donlan, and G. T. Surratt, “Optical transition probabilities for trivalent holmium in LaF3 and YAlO3,” J. Chem. Phys. 57(1), 562–567 (1972).
[Crossref]

Doroshenko, M. E.

Duan, X. M.

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91-μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chinese Phys. B 18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eichler, H. J.

S. Wang, X. Wang, H. Rhee, S. Meister, H. J. Eichler, and J. Chen, “Pulsed Nd:YAP laser at 1432 nm pumped with high power laser diode,” Opt. Commun. 283(14), 2881–2884 (2010).
[Crossref]

El-Taher, A. E.

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424–4442 (1968).
[Crossref]

Freemana, J. A.

U. Hommericha, E. Nyeina, J. A. Freemana, P. Amedzakea, S. B. Trivedib, and J. M. Zavadac, “Crystal growth and optical properties of Dy-doped potassium lead bromide (KPb2Br5),” J. Cryst. Growth 287(2), 230–233 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gruber, J. B.

D. K. Sardar, S. Chandrasekharan, K. L. Nash, and J. B. Gruber, “Optical intensity analyses of Er3+: YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 023102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Güdel, H. U.

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Kramer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state dynamics in the low-phonon materials Er3+:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9,” OSA TOPS on Advanced Solid-State Lasers 1, 493–497 (1996).

Guggenheim, H. J.

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, “Laser emission at 3µm from Dy3+ in BaY2F8,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23(2), 96–98 (1973).
[Crossref]

Hang, Y.

Hartwell, V. E.

He, X. M.

X. H. Zeng, G. J. Zhao, X. D. Xu, H. J. Li, J. Xu, Z. W. Zhao, X. M. He, H. Y. Pang, M. Y. Jie, and C. F. Yan, “Comparison of spectroscopic parameters of 15 at% Yb: YAlO3 and 15 at% Yb: Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 106–112 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Li, G. J. Zhao, X. M. He, J. Xu, and S. K. Pan, “Study on the color change of YAP crystals,” Chinese J. Synthetic Crystals 31(5), 456–459 (2002).

Hommericha, U.

U. Hommericha, E. Nyeina, J. A. Freemana, P. Amedzakea, S. B. Trivedib, and J. M. Zavadac, “Crystal growth and optical properties of Dy-doped potassium lead bromide (KPb2Br5),” J. Cryst. Growth 287(2), 230–233 (2006).
[Crossref]

Isaenko, L. I.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2C15:Dy3+,” OSA TOPS in Advanced Solid State Lasers 19, 524–528 (1998).

Isaenko, L. J.

Ishii, T.

M. G. Brik, T. Ishii, A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, and I. K. Razumova, “Calculations of the transitions intensities in the optical spectra of Dy3+:LiYF4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 374(1–2), 63–68 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ivanova, S. E.

M. G. Brik, T. Ishii, A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, and I. K. Razumova, “Calculations of the transitions intensities in the optical spectra of Dy3+:LiYF4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 374(1–2), 63–68 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jackson, S. D.

Jayasankar, C. K.

C. K. Jayasankar and E. Rukmini, “Spectroscopic investigations of Dy3+ ions in borosulphate glasses,” Physica B 240(3), 273–288 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jelínková, H.

Jeong, J. H.

G. S. Ramaraju, J. Y. Park, H. C. Jung, B. K. Moon, and J. H. Jeong, “White light emission from Dy3+: RAlO3 (R=Y or Gd) nanophosphors by solvothermal process,” Optoelectron Adv. Mater.-Rapid Comm. 3(1), 29–32 (2009).

Jia, G. H.

H. Y. Wang, J. F. Li, G. H. Jia, Z. Y. You, F. G. Yang, Y. P. Wei, Y. Wang, Z. J. Zhu, X. A. Lu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ions in sodium gadolinium tungstates crystal,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 452–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jie, M. Y.

X. H. Zeng, G. J. Zhao, X. D. Xu, H. J. Li, J. Xu, Z. W. Zhao, X. M. He, H. Y. Pang, M. Y. Jie, and C. F. Yan, “Comparison of spectroscopic parameters of 15 at% Yb: YAlO3 and 15 at% Yb: Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 106–112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, “Laser emission at 3µm from Dy3+ in BaY2F8,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23(2), 96–98 (1973).
[Crossref]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

Jung, H. C.

G. S. Ramaraju, J. Y. Park, H. C. Jung, B. K. Moon, and J. H. Jeong, “White light emission from Dy3+: RAlO3 (R=Y or Gd) nanophosphors by solvothermal process,” Optoelectron Adv. Mater.-Rapid Comm. 3(1), 29–32 (2009).

Kaminskii, A. A.

King, T. A.

Koranda, P.

Kramer, K.

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Kramer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state dynamics in the low-phonon materials Er3+:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9,” OSA TOPS on Advanced Solid-State Lasers 1, 493–497 (1996).

Krupke, W. F.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, and P. G. Schunemann, “Room-temperature laser action at 4.34.4 µm in CaGa2S4:Dy3+,” Opt. Lett. 24(17), 1215–1217 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2C15:Dy3+,” OSA TOPS in Advanced Solid State Lasers 19, 524–528 (1998).

Li, H. J.

X. H. Zeng, G. J. Zhao, X. D. Xu, H. J. Li, J. Xu, Z. W. Zhao, X. M. He, H. Y. Pang, M. Y. Jie, and C. F. Yan, “Comparison of spectroscopic parameters of 15 at% Yb: YAlO3 and 15 at% Yb: Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 106–112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, J. F.

Y. Wang, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, Z. Y. You, J. L. Xu, and C. Y. Tu, “Activation effect of Ho3+ at 2.84 μm MIR luminescence by Yb3+ ions in GGG crystal,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 3988–3990 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. J. Zhu, J. F. Li, Z. Y. You, Y. Wang, S. Z. Lv, E. Ma, J. L. Xu, H. Y. Wang, and C. Y. Tu, “Benefit of Pr3+ ions to the spectral properties of Pr3+/Er3+:CaGdAlO4 crystal for a 2.7 μm laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4838–4840 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in GGG laser crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(7), 075402 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Wang, J. F. Li, G. H. Jia, Z. Y. You, F. G. Yang, Y. P. Wei, Y. Wang, Z. J. Zhu, X. A. Lu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ions in sodium gadolinium tungstates crystal,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 452–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, J. F. Li, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Crystal growth and spectral analysis of Dy3+ and Er3+ doped KPb2Cl5 as a mid-infrared laser crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42(11), 1063–1067 (2007).
[Crossref]

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T. Li, G. J. Zhao, X. M. He, J. Xu, and S. K. Pan, “Study on the color change of YAP crystals,” Chinese J. Synthetic Crystals 31(5), 456–459 (2002).

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H. Y. Wang, J. F. Li, G. H. Jia, Z. Y. You, F. G. Yang, Y. P. Wei, Y. Wang, Z. J. Zhu, X. A. Lu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ions in sodium gadolinium tungstates crystal,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 452–458 (2007).
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Y. L. Lu, Y. B. Dai, Y. Yang, J. Wang, A. P. Dong, and B. D. Sun, “Anisotropy of thermal and spectral characteristics in Tm: YAP laser crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 453(1–2), 482–486 (2008).
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Z. D. Luo, X. Y. Chen, and T. J. Zhao, “Judd–Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements,” Opt. Commun. 134(1-6), 415–422 (1997).
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M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Kramer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state dynamics in the low-phonon materials Er3+:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9,” OSA TOPS on Advanced Solid-State Lasers 1, 493–497 (1996).

Lv, S. Z.

Ma, E.

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M. J. Weber, B. H. Matsinger, V. L. Donlan, and G. T. Surratt, “Optical transition probabilities for trivalent holmium in LaF3 and YAlO3,” J. Chem. Phys. 57(1), 562–567 (1972).
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M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Kramer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state dynamics in the low-phonon materials Er3+:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9,” OSA TOPS on Advanced Solid-State Lasers 1, 493–497 (1996).

Meister, S.

S. Wang, X. Wang, H. Rhee, S. Meister, H. J. Eichler, and J. Chen, “Pulsed Nd:YAP laser at 1432 nm pumped with high power laser diode,” Opt. Commun. 283(14), 2881–2884 (2010).
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G. S. Ramaraju, J. Y. Park, H. C. Jung, B. K. Moon, and J. H. Jeong, “White light emission from Dy3+: RAlO3 (R=Y or Gd) nanophosphors by solvothermal process,” Optoelectron Adv. Mater.-Rapid Comm. 3(1), 29–32 (2009).

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Nyeina, E.

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Page, R. H.

Pan, S. K.

T. Li, G. J. Zhao, X. M. He, J. Xu, and S. K. Pan, “Study on the color change of YAP crystals,” Chinese J. Synthetic Crystals 31(5), 456–459 (2002).

Pang, H. Y.

X. H. Zeng, G. J. Zhao, X. D. Xu, H. J. Li, J. Xu, Z. W. Zhao, X. M. He, H. Y. Pang, M. Y. Jie, and C. F. Yan, “Comparison of spectroscopic parameters of 15 at% Yb: YAlO3 and 15 at% Yb: Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 106–112 (2005).
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Park, J. Y.

G. S. Ramaraju, J. Y. Park, H. C. Jung, B. K. Moon, and J. H. Jeong, “White light emission from Dy3+: RAlO3 (R=Y or Gd) nanophosphors by solvothermal process,” Optoelectron Adv. Mater.-Rapid Comm. 3(1), 29–32 (2009).

Payne, S. A.

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Kramer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state dynamics in the low-phonon materials Er3+:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9,” OSA TOPS on Advanced Solid-State Lasers 1, 493–497 (1996).

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424–4442 (1968).
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G. S. Ramaraju, J. Y. Park, H. C. Jung, B. K. Moon, and J. H. Jeong, “White light emission from Dy3+: RAlO3 (R=Y or Gd) nanophosphors by solvothermal process,” Optoelectron Adv. Mater.-Rapid Comm. 3(1), 29–32 (2009).

Razumova, I. K.

M. G. Brik, T. Ishii, A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, and I. K. Razumova, “Calculations of the transitions intensities in the optical spectra of Dy3+:LiYF4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 374(1–2), 63–68 (2004).
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Rhee, H.

S. Wang, X. Wang, H. Rhee, S. Meister, H. J. Eichler, and J. Chen, “Pulsed Nd:YAP laser at 1432 nm pumped with high power laser diode,” Opt. Commun. 283(14), 2881–2884 (2010).
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D. K. Sardar, S. Chandrasekharan, K. L. Nash, and J. B. Gruber, “Optical intensity analyses of Er3+: YAlO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(2), 023102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schunemann, P. G.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, and P. G. Schunemann, “Room-temperature laser action at 4.34.4 µm in CaGa2S4:Dy3+,” Opt. Lett. 24(17), 1215–1217 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, “Spectroscopic data for infrared transitions in CaGa2S4:Dy3+ and KPb2C15:Dy3+,” OSA TOPS in Advanced Solid State Lasers 19, 524–528 (1998).

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Sun, B. D.

Y. L. Lu, Y. B. Dai, Y. Yang, J. Wang, A. P. Dong, and B. D. Sun, “Anisotropy of thermal and spectral characteristics in Tm: YAP laser crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 453(1–2), 482–486 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z. W.

H. G. Yang, Z. W. Dai, and Z. W. Sun, “Upconversion luminescence and kinetics in Er3+:YAlO3 under 652.2 nm excitation,” J. Lumin. 124(2), 207–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Surratt, G. T.

M. J. Weber, B. H. Matsinger, V. L. Donlan, and G. T. Surratt, “Optical transition probabilities for trivalent holmium in LaF3 and YAlO3,” J. Chem. Phys. 57(1), 562–567 (1972).
[Crossref]

Tkachuk, A. M.

M. G. Brik, T. Ishii, A. M. Tkachuk, S. E. Ivanova, and I. K. Razumova, “Calculations of the transitions intensities in the optical spectra of Dy3+:LiYF4,” J. Alloy. Comp. 374(1–2), 63–68 (2004).
[Crossref]

Trivedib, S. B.

U. Hommericha, E. Nyeina, J. A. Freemana, P. Amedzakea, S. B. Trivedib, and J. M. Zavadac, “Crystal growth and optical properties of Dy-doped potassium lead bromide (KPb2Br5),” J. Cryst. Growth 287(2), 230–233 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tsang, Y. H.

Tu, C. Y.

Y. Wang, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, Z. Y. You, J. L. Xu, and C. Y. Tu, “Activation effect of Ho3+ at 2.84 μm MIR luminescence by Yb3+ ions in GGG crystal,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 3988–3990 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. J. Zhu, J. F. Li, Z. Y. You, Y. Wang, S. Z. Lv, E. Ma, J. L. Xu, H. Y. Wang, and C. Y. Tu, “Benefit of Pr3+ ions to the spectral properties of Pr3+/Er3+:CaGdAlO4 crystal for a 2.7 μm laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4838–4840 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in GGG laser crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(7), 075402 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Wang, J. F. Li, G. H. Jia, Z. Y. You, F. G. Yang, Y. P. Wei, Y. Wang, Z. J. Zhu, X. A. Lu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ions in sodium gadolinium tungstates crystal,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 452–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, J. F. Li, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Crystal growth and spectral analysis of Dy3+ and Er3+ doped KPb2Cl5 as a mid-infrared laser crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42(11), 1063–1067 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. Y.

Z. J. Zhu, J. F. Li, Z. Y. You, Y. Wang, S. Z. Lv, E. Ma, J. L. Xu, H. Y. Wang, and C. Y. Tu, “Benefit of Pr3+ ions to the spectral properties of Pr3+/Er3+:CaGdAlO4 crystal for a 2.7 μm laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4838–4840 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Y. Wang, J. F. Li, G. H. Jia, Z. Y. You, F. G. Yang, Y. P. Wei, Y. Wang, Z. J. Zhu, X. A. Lu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ions in sodium gadolinium tungstates crystal,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 452–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Y. L. Lu, Y. B. Dai, Y. Yang, J. Wang, A. P. Dong, and B. D. Sun, “Anisotropy of thermal and spectral characteristics in Tm: YAP laser crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 453(1–2), 482–486 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, X. Wang, H. Rhee, S. Meister, H. J. Eichler, and J. Chen, “Pulsed Nd:YAP laser at 1432 nm pumped with high power laser diode,” Opt. Commun. 283(14), 2881–2884 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, T. H.

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91-μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chinese Phys. B 18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

S. Wang, X. Wang, H. Rhee, S. Meister, H. J. Eichler, and J. Chen, “Pulsed Nd:YAP laser at 1432 nm pumped with high power laser diode,” Opt. Commun. 283(14), 2881–2884 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, Z. Y. You, J. L. Xu, and C. Y. Tu, “Activation effect of Ho3+ at 2.84 μm MIR luminescence by Yb3+ ions in GGG crystal,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 3988–3990 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. J. Zhu, J. F. Li, Z. Y. You, Y. Wang, S. Z. Lv, E. Ma, J. L. Xu, H. Y. Wang, and C. Y. Tu, “Benefit of Pr3+ ions to the spectral properties of Pr3+/Er3+:CaGdAlO4 crystal for a 2.7 μm laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4838–4840 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in GGG laser crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(7), 075402 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Wang, J. F. Li, G. H. Jia, Z. Y. You, F. G. Yang, Y. P. Wei, Y. Wang, Z. J. Zhu, X. A. Lu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ions in sodium gadolinium tungstates crystal,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 452–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, J. F. Li, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Crystal growth and spectral analysis of Dy3+ and Er3+ doped KPb2Cl5 as a mid-infrared laser crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42(11), 1063–1067 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weber, H. P.

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Kramer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state dynamics in the low-phonon materials Er3+:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9,” OSA TOPS on Advanced Solid-State Lasers 1, 493–497 (1996).

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M. J. Weber, “Multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in yttrium orthoaluminate,” Phys. Rev. B 8(1), 54–64 (1973).
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M. J. Weber, B. H. Matsinger, V. L. Donlan, and G. T. Surratt, “Optical transition probabilities for trivalent holmium in LaF3 and YAlO3,” J. Chem. Phys. 57(1), 562–567 (1972).
[Crossref]

Wei, Y. P.

H. Y. Wang, J. F. Li, G. H. Jia, Z. Y. You, F. G. Yang, Y. P. Wei, Y. Wang, Z. J. Zhu, X. A. Lu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ions in sodium gadolinium tungstates crystal,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 452–458 (2007).
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Wu, B. C.

Y. Wang, J. F. Li, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Crystal growth and spectral analysis of Dy3+ and Er3+ doped KPb2Cl5 as a mid-infrared laser crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42(11), 1063–1067 (2007).
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X. H. Zeng, G. J. Zhao, X. D. Xu, H. J. Li, J. Xu, Z. W. Zhao, X. M. He, H. Y. Pang, M. Y. Jie, and C. F. Yan, “Comparison of spectroscopic parameters of 15 at% Yb: YAlO3 and 15 at% Yb: Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 106–112 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Li, G. J. Zhao, X. M. He, J. Xu, and S. K. Pan, “Study on the color change of YAP crystals,” Chinese J. Synthetic Crystals 31(5), 456–459 (2002).

Xu, J. L.

Xu, X. D.

X. H. Zeng, G. J. Zhao, X. D. Xu, H. J. Li, J. Xu, Z. W. Zhao, X. M. He, H. Y. Pang, M. Y. Jie, and C. F. Yan, “Comparison of spectroscopic parameters of 15 at% Yb: YAlO3 and 15 at% Yb: Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 106–112 (2005).
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Yan, C. F.

X. H. Zeng, G. J. Zhao, X. D. Xu, H. J. Li, J. Xu, Z. W. Zhao, X. M. He, H. Y. Pang, M. Y. Jie, and C. F. Yan, “Comparison of spectroscopic parameters of 15 at% Yb: YAlO3 and 15 at% Yb: Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 106–112 (2005).
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Yang, F. G.

H. Y. Wang, J. F. Li, G. H. Jia, Z. Y. You, F. G. Yang, Y. P. Wei, Y. Wang, Z. J. Zhu, X. A. Lu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ions in sodium gadolinium tungstates crystal,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 452–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. G.

H. G. Yang, Z. W. Dai, and Z. W. Sun, “Upconversion luminescence and kinetics in Er3+:YAlO3 under 652.2 nm excitation,” J. Lumin. 124(2), 207–212 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, X. T.

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91-μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chinese Phys. B 18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Y. L. Lu, Y. B. Dai, Y. Yang, J. Wang, A. P. Dong, and B. D. Sun, “Anisotropy of thermal and spectral characteristics in Tm: YAP laser crystals,” J. Alloy. Comp. 453(1–2), 482–486 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yao, B. Q.

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91-μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chinese Phys. B 18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yelisseyev, A. P.

You, Z. Y.

Y. Wang, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, Z. Y. You, J. L. Xu, and C. Y. Tu, “Activation effect of Ho3+ at 2.84 μm MIR luminescence by Yb3+ ions in GGG crystal,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 3988–3990 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. J. Zhu, J. F. Li, Z. Y. You, Y. Wang, S. Z. Lv, E. Ma, J. L. Xu, H. Y. Wang, and C. Y. Tu, “Benefit of Pr3+ ions to the spectral properties of Pr3+/Er3+:CaGdAlO4 crystal for a 2.7 μm laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(23), 4838–4840 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in GGG laser crystal,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 43(7), 075402 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Wang, J. F. Li, G. H. Jia, Z. Y. You, F. G. Yang, Y. P. Wei, Y. Wang, Z. J. Zhu, X. A. Lu, and C. Y. Tu, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ions in sodium gadolinium tungstates crystal,” J. Lumin. 126(2), 452–458 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, J. F. Li, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Crystal growth and spectral analysis of Dy3+ and Er3+ doped KPb2Cl5 as a mid-infrared laser crystal,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 42(11), 1063–1067 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zavadac, J. M.

U. Hommericha, E. Nyeina, J. A. Freemana, P. Amedzakea, S. B. Trivedib, and J. M. Zavadac, “Crystal growth and optical properties of Dy-doped potassium lead bromide (KPb2Br5),” J. Cryst. Growth 287(2), 230–233 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X. H.

X. H. Zeng, G. J. Zhao, X. D. Xu, H. J. Li, J. Xu, Z. W. Zhao, X. M. He, H. Y. Pang, M. Y. Jie, and C. F. Yan, “Comparison of spectroscopic parameters of 15 at% Yb: YAlO3 and 15 at% Yb: Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 106–112 (2005).
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Zhang, L. H.

Zhang, P. X.

Zhao, G. J.

J. Y. Chen, G. J. Zhao, D. H. Cao, Q. Dong, Y. T. Ding, and S. M. Zhou, “Computer simulation of intrinsic defects in YAlO3 single crystal,” Physica B 404(20), 3405–3409 (2009).
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B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91-μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chinese Phys. B 18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. H. Zeng, G. J. Zhao, X. D. Xu, H. J. Li, J. Xu, Z. W. Zhao, X. M. He, H. Y. Pang, M. Y. Jie, and C. F. Yan, “Comparison of spectroscopic parameters of 15 at% Yb: YAlO3 and 15 at% Yb: Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 106–112 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Li, G. J. Zhao, X. M. He, J. Xu, and S. K. Pan, “Study on the color change of YAP crystals,” Chinese J. Synthetic Crystals 31(5), 456–459 (2002).

Zhao, T. J.

Z. D. Luo, X. Y. Chen, and T. J. Zhao, “Judd–Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements,” Opt. Commun. 134(1-6), 415–422 (1997).
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Zhao, Z. W.

X. H. Zeng, G. J. Zhao, X. D. Xu, H. J. Li, J. Xu, Z. W. Zhao, X. M. He, H. Y. Pang, M. Y. Jie, and C. F. Yan, “Comparison of spectroscopic parameters of 15 at% Yb: YAlO3 and 15 at% Yb: Y3Al5O12,” J. Cryst. Growth 274(1–2), 106–112 (2005).
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Zhaoa, G. J.

Q. Dong, G. J. Zhaoa, D. H. Cao, J. Y. Chen, and Y. C. Ding, “Growth and anisotropic spectral properties of Er:YAlO3 crystal,” J. Alloy. Comp. 493(1-2), 661–665 (2010).
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Zheng, L. L.

B. Q. Yao, L. L. Zheng, X. T. Yang, T. H. Wang, X. M. Duan, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Judd-Oflet analysis of spectrum and laser performance of Ho:YAP crystal end-pumped by 1.91-μm Tm:YLF laser,” Chinese Phys. B 18(3), 1009–1013 (2009).
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Zhou, S. M.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Polarized absorption spectra of Dy:YAP crystal at room temperature.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) MIR emission spectrum of Dy:YAP crystal excited by 1300 nm at room temperature. (b) The simplified energy level diagram of Dy3+ doped YAP crystal.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The fluorescence decay curve of the 6H13/2 level in Dy:YAP crystal at room temperature.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Gain cross-section spectra of Dy3+: H 6 13 / 2 H 6 15 / 2 in the Dy:YAP crystal.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 The average wavelength ( λ ¯ ), refractive indices (n), integrated absorption coefficients (Г) for the absorption transitions of Dy3+ in YAP crystal.

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Table 2 Polarized experimental and calculated line strengths (S) and oscillator strengths (f) of Dy:YAP crystal

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Table 3 The J–O intensity parameters of Dy3+-doped crystals

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Table 4 Comparison of the optical spectroscopic parameters of some Dy3+-doped laser crystals

Equations (1)

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G ( λ ) = P σ e m ( 1 P ) σ a

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