Abstract

We demonstrate the usage of a new saturable absorber material – antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) for efficient mode-locking of an Erbium-doped fiber laser. The Sb2Te3 layers were obtained by mechanical exfoliation and transferred onto the fiber connector tip. The all-fiber laser was capable of generating optical solitons with the full width at half maximum of 1.8 nm centered at 1558.6 nm, with 4.75 MHz repetition rate. The pulse energy of the generated 1.8 ps pulses was at the level of 105 pJ.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

Mode-locked fiber lasers are essential sources for various applications, like basic science, material processing and precise optical metrology. Ultrafast fiber lasers utilize saturable absorption effect in order to start the pulsed operation. Various types of saturable absorbers (SA), the semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) [1,2], single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) [3,4], graphene SAs [520] and graphene oxide [2123] were extensively investigated in last years. Well-developed and optimized technology of SESAMs makes them useful in industrial and commercial lasers. However, SESAMs have also some limitations like complicated and expensive molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) manufacturing technology and relatively narrowband operation range. Those limitations can be overcome by using so called Dirac-materials as saturable absorbers. They are characterized by very broadband and flat absorption spectrum and less complicated manufacturing processes, like chemical vapor deposition (CVD) [58, 1820, 24], chemical exfoliation [1014] and mechanical exfoliation [1517]. Graphene has been the first 2D material widely used by the laser community to obtain mode-locked operation in fiber [517] and bulk lasers [1820]. The broadband operation of graphene saturable absorber has been confirmed by solid state lasers operating in spectral range from 0.8 µm to 2.5 µm [1820], widely tunable erbium fiber laser [12] and simultaneous mode-locked operation at 1.56 µm and 1.94 µm using common SA [8]. Recently, a new class of Dirac-materials called three-dimensional topological insulators (TI) has been strongly investigated [2528]. It was found that Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3 and Sb2Te3 are characterized by graphene-like electronic-band structure [28]. The very-first results on saturable absorption in Bi2Te3 were presented by Bernard et al. [29]. The absorption parameters of Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 were further investigated by C. Zhao et al. [30,31] and Lu et al. [32] The Z-scan measurements performed at 1550 nm have shown that three-dimensional TI are characterized by high modulation depth, reaching 27% (Bi2Se3) [30] and 28% (Bi2Te3) [31], saturation intensities of 0.49 GWcm-2 and 0.48 GWcm-2, respectively and low non-saturable losses of 1%. Both, bismuth selenide and bismuth telluride SA manufactured using chemical methods were used to obtain mode-locked operation of erbium-doped fiber lasers [30,31]. The very first results on an erbium mode-lock fiber laser using the third topological insulator Sb2Te3 up till now have been presented only by the authors of the paper [33]. Comprising to graphene, where in order to obtain high modulation depth the multilayer graphene need to be used - the modulation depth but also the non-saturable losses (around 1% per layer [20]) are scaled with graphene layers number [5,20], the first results indicates that topological insulator SAs are characterized by relatively high modulation depth with low non-saturable losses. Combination of the graphene-like band structure and high modulation depth with low losses cause that topological insulators can be considered as a perspective material for mode-locked lasers.

In this paper we present an erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked by mechanically exfoliated antimony telluride saturable absorber. The Sb2Te3 absorption layers were directly deposited onto fiber ferule making the resonator fully fiberized. The laser was capable of generating soliton pulses centered at 1558.6 nm with 1.8 ps duration and repetition rate of 4.75 MHz.

2. Sb2Te3 layers preparation and characterization

The SA was prepared by mechanical exfoliation method extensively developed for graphene [1517]. As a base material for SA preparation a commercially available high purity Sb2Te3 (Goodfellow) was used (inset in Fig. 1(a)). In the first step, antimony telluride flakes were obtained by precise scraping of the Sb2Te3 lumps with a sharp blade. Then, the flakes were mechanically exfoliated using scotch tape to adjust the thickness. Afterwards, the antimony telluride flakes were pressed with a fiber ferule, previously ultrasonically cleaned in the presence of isopropyl alcohol. The optical microscope (Fig. 1(a)) and scanning electron microscope (Fig. 1(b)) images indicate that the transferred layer very well cover the fiber core.

 

Fig. 1 Fiber facet with transferred Sb2Te3 layer: a) optical microscope image (inset: high purity Sb2Te3 bulk material), scanning electron microscope image

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In order to characterize the transferred layer, the morphology of Sb2Te3 layers was investigated with atomic force microscope (AFM) in tapping mode (Veeco Nanoman V AFM with Bruker MPP-11100-10 silicon probe). The visual insight of the antimony telluride surface is presented in the 2D plot (Fig. 2(a)).It is clearly seen that the core surface is almost entirely covered by Sb2Te3 layer. The cross section profiles show that the multilayer Sb2Te3 thickness changing in the range from 40 nm to 100 nm (40-100 quintuples bonded with Van der Waals forces [28,34]). The deposited layer composition was confirmed with EDS spectrum taken using Hitachi SU 6600 scanning electron microscope equipped with a NORAN System 7 energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and depicted in Fig. 2(b). It consist of typical lines characteristics for antimony telluride [35,36].

 

Fig. 2 Characterization of prepared Sb2Te3 absorber: a) AFM scan, b) EDS spectrum, c) Raman spectrum, d) linear absorption.

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To confirm crystalline structure of the exfoliated Sb2Te3 layers the Raman spectrum, using Renishaw inVia Raman Microscope equipped with microscope objective with magnification x100 and laser operating at 532 nm, was measured. The spectrum presented in Fig. 2(c) contains three main peaks at 69 cm−1, 112.5cm−1 and 165.5cm−1. Comparing our results with the theoretical calculations done by Soso et al. [37] the measured peaks correspond to A11g (62 cm−1), Eg2 (113cm−1) and A21g (166 cm−1). The obtained results fit very well the theoretical data and are consistent with previously reported Raman spectra of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers thick Sb2Te3 [38]. To measure the linear absorption the fiber connector with deposited material was connected with the clean one using a fiber adapter. The measurement was done in the spectral range 1200nm to 1600nm using optical spectrum analyzer and white light source. The linear absorption has been changing from 80% to 60% (Fig. 2(d)). The obtained values are higher than that reported for Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3 [30,31] because our sample was thicker. Hence, contribution in optical absorption process from the topologically protected surface states were dominated by bulk states. It was also the main reason of the non-flat absorption characteristic.

3. Experimental setup and results

Such prepared and characterized fiber connector containing Sb2Te3 layers was spliced to the fiber resonator presented in Fig. 3.The all-fiber resonator consist of 70 cm long erbium doped fiber (Liekki Er80-4/125, EDF), fiber isolator, polarization controller (PC) and output coupler (OC). The resonator was counter-directionally pumped by a 980 nm laser diode via wavelength division multiplexer (WDM).

 

Fig. 3 Sb2Te3 SA based mode-locked laser setup.

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The laser performance was observed using optical spectrum analyzer (Yokogawa AQ6370B), 13 GHz digital oscilloscope (Agilent Infiniium DSO91304A), 7 GHz RF spectrum analyzer (Agilent EXA N9010A) and an autocorrelator.

The laser starts to operate in the mode-locked regime at the pump power of 45 mW after careful adjustment of the PC. The stable operation in fundamental mode locking was observed up to the 90 mW of pump power. For higher pump powers pulse braking was observed. In order to eliminate the Q-switching instabilities the intracavity energy was increased by adding 35 m long fiber loop. Hence, the total fiber resonator length was around 41 m. The output coupling ratio of the OC was also investigated. The fundamental, stable mode-locked operation was obtained for output coupling ranging from 80% to 1%. The highest average output power of 0.5 mW was obtained for the output coupling of 70%. Figure 4(a) shows the generated optical soliton centered at 1558.6 nm with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) bandwidth of 1.8 nm. The pulse duration measured using an optical autocorrelator was 1.8 ps, assuming a sech2 pulse shape (Fig. 4(b)). With 1.8 nm FWHM bandwidth (0.225 THz), the Time-Bandwidth Product (TBP) is equal to 0.405 in comparison to the 0.315 for sech2 transform limited pulse.

 

Fig. 4 Generated optical solitony centered at 1558.6 nm: a) optical spectrum with indicated 3dB bandwidth. Inset: optical spectrum recorded with 30 nm span, b) 1.8 ps pulse autocorrelation.

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The RF spectrum of the laser is depicted in Fig. 5(a).The repetition rate was 4.75 MHz. The electrical signal to noise ratio (SNR) measured with 1 kHz resolution bandwidth (RBW) at 4 MHz span was higher than 60 dB. The corresponding oscilloscope trace is depicted in Fig. 5(b). The pulses are equally spaced by approx. 210 ns, corresponding to 4.75 MHz repetition frequency and 41 m cavity length. The pulse energy and peak power calculated for the 0.5 mW average power is 105 pJ and 58 W, respectively.

 

Fig. 5 a) RF spectrum of the mode-locked laser output measured with 4 MHz frequency span and 1 kHz RBW. Inset: spectrum in 500 MHz span, b) corresponding pulse train recorded with oscilloscope.

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4. Conclusion

Concluding, we demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge an erbium-doped fiber mode-locked laser based on antimony telluride saturable absorber. The SA was prepared by mechanically exfoliation. The 40-100nm thick Sb2Te3 layer deposited onto the fiber core were fully characterized. The crystalline structure were confirm by Raman spectroscopy. Such prepared SA with linear absorption of 60% @ 1550 nm were used to picosecond pulse generation. The laser was capable to generate optical soliton centered at 1558.6 nm with the FWHM of 1.8 nm. The pulse duration and energy was 1.8 ps and 105 ps, respectively.

Acknowledgment

This work was supported by statutory funds of the Chair of Electronic Devices, Electromagnetic Field and Optoelectronics, Wroclaw University of Technology under the grant no. S30028. The Project “Interuniversity Didactic-Technological Center ‘TECHNOPOLIS’ in Wrocław” co-funded by European Union from the funds of European Regional Development Fund under the Infrastructure and Environment Programme, no UDA-POIS.13.01-021/09-00 is greatly acknowledged for EDX pictures/maps.

References and links

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2. U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1581–1583 (2004). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Enhanced stability of nitrogen-sealed carbon nanotube saturable absorbers under high-intensity irradiation,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4665–4670 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009). [CrossRef]  

6. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

7. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Thulium-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene/PMMA saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12797–12802 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

8. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Simultaneous mode-locking at 1565 nm and 1944 nm in fiber laser based on common graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18994–19002 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. P. L. Huang, S.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Yeh, H.-H. Kuo, S.-H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L.-J. Li, C.-Y. Su, and W.-H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

10. T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009). [CrossRef]  

11. D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010). [CrossRef]  

12. Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010). [CrossRef]  

13. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. Y.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Yang, J.-H. Liou, C.-P. Yu, and G.-R. Lin, “Using graphene nano-particle embedded in photonic crystal fiber for evanescent wave mode-locking of fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16763–16776 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

15. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011). [CrossRef]  

16. Y. Chang, H. Kim, J. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010). [CrossRef]  

17. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012). [CrossRef]  

18. M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. I. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient Mode-Locking of Sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire Laser by Graphene Saturable Absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012). [CrossRef]  

20. W. B. Cho, J. W. Kim, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, S. Y. Choi, I. H. Baek, K. Kim, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “High-quality, large-area monolayer graphene for efficient bulk laser mode-locking near 1.25 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4089–4091 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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22. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene Oxide vs. Reduced Graphene Oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19463–19473 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

23. M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20062–20072 (2013). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

24. W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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26. D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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30. C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

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38. K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in Ultrashort Pulse Generation: Pushing the Limits in Linear and Nonlinear Optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly synthesized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1581–1583 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Enhanced stability of nitrogen-sealed carbon nanotube saturable absorbers under high-intensity irradiation,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4665–4670 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Thulium-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene/PMMA saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12797–12802 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Simultaneous mode-locking at 1565 nm and 1944 nm in fiber laser based on common graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18994–19002 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. P. L. Huang, S.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Yeh, H.-H. Kuo, S.-H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L.-J. Li, C.-Y. Su, and W.-H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  12. Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Yang, J.-H. Liou, C.-P. Yu, and G.-R. Lin, “Using graphene nano-particle embedded in photonic crystal fiber for evanescent wave mode-locking of fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16763–16776 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  16. Y. Chang, H. Kim, J. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. I. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient Mode-Locking of Sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire Laser by Graphene Saturable Absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  20. W. B. Cho, J. W. Kim, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, S. Y. Choi, I. H. Baek, K. Kim, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “High-quality, large-area monolayer graphene for efficient bulk laser mode-locking near 1.25 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4089–4091 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. J. Xu, S. Wu, H. Li, J. Liu, R. Sun, F. Tan, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Dissipative soliton generation from a graphene oxide mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23653–23658 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene Oxide vs. Reduced Graphene Oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19463–19473 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20062–20072 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. M. Z. Hasan and C. Kane, “Colloquium: Topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(4), 3045–3067 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  26. D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. J. E. Moore, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature 464(7286), 194–198 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  29. F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.
  30. C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  32. S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. J. Z. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, and K. M. Abramski, “Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” in Nonlinear Optics, B. Boulanger, S. Cundiff, M. Kauranen, and W. Knox, eds., OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper NW4A.02.
  34. Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. Q. Yuan, Q. Nie, and D. Huo, “Preparation and characterization of the antimony telluride hexagonal nanoplates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(1), 224–226 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  36. G. Dong, Y. Zhu, and L. Chen, “Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of Sb2Te3 nanosheets and thermoelectric properties of bulk samples prepared by spark plasma sintering,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1976–1981 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  37. G. C. Sosso, S. Caravatil, and M. Bernasconi, “Vibrational properties of crystalline Sb2Te3 from first principles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 095410 (2009).
  38. K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2013 (7)

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Enhanced stability of nitrogen-sealed carbon nanotube saturable absorbers under high-intensity irradiation,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4665–4670 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Thulium-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene/PMMA saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12797–12802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Simultaneous mode-locking at 1565 nm and 1944 nm in fiber laser based on common graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18994–19002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Yang, J.-H. Liou, C.-P. Yu, and G.-R. Lin, “Using graphene nano-particle embedded in photonic crystal fiber for evanescent wave mode-locking of fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16763–16776 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20062–20072 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, S. Wu, H. Li, J. Liu, R. Sun, F. Tan, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Dissipative soliton generation from a graphene oxide mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23653–23658 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene Oxide vs. Reduced Graphene Oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19463–19473 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient Mode-Locking of Sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire Laser by Graphene Saturable Absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. L. Huang, S.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Yeh, H.-H. Kuo, S.-H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L.-J. Li, C.-Y. Su, and W.-H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

W. B. Cho, J. W. Kim, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, S. Y. Choi, I. H. Baek, K. Kim, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “High-quality, large-area monolayer graphene for efficient bulk laser mode-locking near 1.25 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4089–4091 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

M. Z. Hasan and C. Kane, “Colloquium: Topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(4), 3045–3067 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. E. Moore, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature 464(7286), 194–198 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dong, Y. Zhu, and L. Chen, “Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of Sb2Te3 nanosheets and thermoelectric properties of bulk samples prepared by spark plasma sintering,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1976–1981 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Chang, H. Kim, J. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. C. Sosso, S. Caravatil, and M. Bernasconi, “Vibrational properties of crystalline Sb2Te3 from first principles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 095410 (2009).

Q. Yuan, Q. Nie, and D. Huo, “Preparation and characterization of the antimony telluride hexagonal nanoplates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(1), 224–226 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in Ultrashort Pulse Generation: Pushing the Limits in Linear and Nonlinear Optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abramski, K. M.

Ahn, Y. H.

I. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient Mode-Locking of Sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire Laser by Graphene Saturable Absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.

Baek, I.

I. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient Mode-Locking of Sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire Laser by Graphene Saturable Absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baek, I. H.

Balandin, A. A.

K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Baranowski, J. M.

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernasconi, M.

G. C. Sosso, S. Caravatil, and M. Bernasconi, “Vibrational properties of crystalline Sb2Te3 from first principles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 095410 (2009).

Boguslawski, J.

Bonaccorso, F.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bozek, R.

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caravatil, S.

G. C. Sosso, S. Caravatil, and M. Bernasconi, “Vibrational properties of crystalline Sb2Te3 from first principles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 095410 (2009).

Cava, R. J.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.

Y. Chang, H. Kim, J. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

G. Dong, Y. Zhu, and L. Chen, “Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of Sb2Te3 nanosheets and thermoelectric properties of bulk samples prepared by spark plasma sintering,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1976–1981 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, M.

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

Chen, X.

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, W.-H.

Cho, W. B.

Choi, S. Y.

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

Dai, X.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dong, G.

G. Dong, Y. Zhu, and L. Chen, “Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of Sb2Te3 nanosheets and thermoelectric properties of bulk samples prepared by spark plasma sintering,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1976–1981 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fuse, K.

Gallmann, L.

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in Ultrashort Pulse Generation: Pushing the Limits in Linear and Nonlinear Optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gaskell, P. E.

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goyal, V.

K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grodecki, K.

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grüneis, A.

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haberer, D.

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasan, M. Z.

M. Z. Hasan and C. Kane, “Colloquium: Topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(4), 3045–3067 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

He, K.

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holdynski, M.

Hong, B. H.

Hor, Y. S.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hossain, M. Z.

K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, D.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, P. L.

Huang, S.-H.

Huo, D.

Q. Yuan, Q. Nie, and D. Huo, “Preparation and characterization of the antimony telluride hexagonal nanoplates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(1), 224–226 (2009).
[Crossref]

Inoue, Y.

Jablonski, M.

Jagiello, J.

Jhon, Y. M.

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, M.

Kane, C.

M. Z. Hasan and C. Kane, “Colloquium: Topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(4), 3045–3067 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kelleher, E. J.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in Ultrashort Pulse Generation: Pushing the Limits in Linear and Nonlinear Optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Y. Chang, H. Kim, J. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. W.

Kim, K.

Koo, J.

Kozinski, R.

Krajewska, A.

Krupka, J.

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, H.-H.

Lee, H. W.

I. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient Mode-Locking of Sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire Laser by Graphene Saturable Absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. B. Cho, J. W. Kim, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, S. Y. Choi, I. H. Baek, K. Kim, D. I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “High-quality, large-area monolayer graphene for efficient bulk laser mode-locking near 1.25 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36(20), 4089–4091 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

Y. Chang, H. Kim, J. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Lee, K.

Lee, S.

Li, H.

Li, L.-J.

Li, Y.

Li, Z.

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, G.-R.

Lin, S.-C.

Lin, Y.-H.

Liou, J.-H.

Lipinska, L.

Liu, C. X.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Loh, K. P.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, S.

Ma, X.

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martinez, A.

Maruyama, S.

Matuschek, N.

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in Ultrashort Pulse Generation: Pushing the Limits in Linear and Nonlinear Optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, J. E.

J. E. Moore, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature 464(7286), 194–198 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murakami, Y.

Ni, Z. H.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nicolosi, V.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nie, Q.

Q. Yuan, Q. Nie, and D. Huo, “Preparation and characterization of the antimony telluride hexagonal nanoplates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(1), 224–226 (2009).
[Crossref]

Paletko, P.

Park, J.

Pasternak, I.

Popa, D.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Qi, X.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qi, X. L.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qian, D.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rotermund, F.

Rozhin, A. G.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sennaroglu, A.

Set, S. Y.

Shahil, K. M. F.

K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, Z. X.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sobon, G.

Song, C.

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, Y.

Y. Chang, H. Kim, J. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.-W.

Sosso, G. C.

G. C. Sosso, S. Caravatil, and M. Bernasconi, “Vibrational properties of crystalline Sb2Te3 from first principles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 095410 (2009).

Sotor, J.

Steinmeyer, G.

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in Ultrashort Pulse Generation: Pushing the Limits in Linear and Nonlinear Optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stepniewski, R.

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strupinski, W.

Su, C.-Y.

Sun, R.

Sun, Y. Y.

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sutter, D. H.

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in Ultrashort Pulse Generation: Pushing the Limits in Linear and Nonlinear Optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szkopek, T.

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, F.

Tan, P. H.

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torrisi, F.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Travers, J. C.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
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Wang, P.

Wang, Y.

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wen, S.

Wray, L.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, S.

Wysmolek, A.

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, B.

Xu, J.

Xue, Q. K.

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yaguchi, H.

Yamashita, S.

Yang, C.-Y.

Yang, Q.-H.

Yeh, C.-Y.

Yeom, D. I.

Yeom, D.-I.

I. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient Mode-Locking of Sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire Laser by Graphene Saturable Absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.-P.

Yuan, Q.

Q. Yuan, Q. Nie, and D. Huo, “Preparation and characterization of the antimony telluride hexagonal nanoplates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(1), 224–226 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zdrojek, M.

Zhang, H.

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S. B.

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S. C.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, L. M.

Zhu, Y.

G. Dong, Y. Zhu, and L. Chen, “Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of Sb2Te3 nanosheets and thermoelectric properties of bulk samples prepared by spark plasma sintering,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1976–1981 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zou, Y.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38–39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

I. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient Mode-Locking of Sub-70-fs Ti:Sapphire Laser by Graphene Saturable Absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(12), 121107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Chang, H. Kim, J. Lee, and Y. Song, “Multilayered graphene efficiently formed by mechanical exfoliation for nonlinear saturable absorbers in fiber mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(21), 211102 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

Q. Yuan, Q. Nie, and D. Huo, “Preparation and characterization of the antimony telluride hexagonal nanoplates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(1), 224–226 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. M. F. Shahil, M. Z. Hossain, V. Goyal, and A. A. Balandin, “Micro-Raman spectroscopy of mechanically exfoliated few-quintuple layers of Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3 materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(5), 054305 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

G. Dong, Y. Zhu, and L. Chen, “Microwave-assisted rapid synthesis of Sb2Te3 nanosheets and thermoelectric properties of bulk samples prepared by spark plasma sintering,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(10), 1976–1981 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

G. C. Sosso, S. Caravatil, and M. Bernasconi, “Vibrational properties of crystalline Sb2Te3 from first principles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 095410 (2009).

Nano Lett. (1)

W. Strupinski, K. Grodecki, A. Wysmolek, R. Stepniewski, T. Szkopek, P. E. Gaskell, A. Grüneis, D. Haberer, R. Bozek, J. Krupka, and J. M. Baranowski, “Graphene epitaxy by chemical vapor deposition on SiC,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1786–1791 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Res. (1)

Z. Sun, D. Popa, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, F. Wang, E. J. Kelleher, J. C. Travers, V. Nicolosi, and A. C. Ferrari, “A stable, wideband tunable, near transform-limited, graphene-mode-locked, ultrafast laser,” Nano Res. 3(9), 653–660 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, and M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Moore, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature 464(7286), 194–198 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (12)

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “Enhanced stability of nitrogen-sealed carbon nanotube saturable absorbers under high-intensity irradiation,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4665–4670 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Large energy mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser with atomic layer graphene,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17630–17635 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Thulium-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene/PMMA saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12797–12802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Simultaneous mode-locking at 1565 nm and 1944 nm in fiber laser based on common graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18994–19002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Huang, S.-C. Lin, C.-Y. Yeh, H.-H. Kuo, S.-H. Huang, G.-R. Lin, L.-J. Li, C.-Y. Su, and W.-H. Cheng, “Stable mode-locked fiber laser based on CVD fabricated graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2460–2465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, and S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Yang, J.-H. Liou, C.-P. Yu, and G.-R. Lin, “Using graphene nano-particle embedded in photonic crystal fiber for evanescent wave mode-locking of fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16763–16776 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, S. Wu, H. Li, J. Liu, R. Sun, F. Tan, Q.-H. Yang, and P. Wang, “Dissipative soliton generation from a graphene oxide mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23653–23658 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, J. Jagiello, R. Kozinski, M. Zdrojek, M. Holdynski, P. Paletko, J. Boguslawski, L. Lipinska, and K. M. Abramski, “Graphene Oxide vs. Reduced Graphene Oxide as saturable absorbers for Er-doped passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19463–19473 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, Y. M. Jhon, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Mode-locked pulse generation from an all-fiberized, Tm-Ho-codoped fiber laser incorporating a graphene oxide-deposited side-polished fiber,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20062–20072 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lu, C. Zhao, Y. Zou, S. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Third order nonlinear optical property of Bi₂Se₃,” Opt. Express 21(2), 2072–2082 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Jiang, Y. Y. Sun, M. Chen, Y. Wang, Z. Li, C. Song, K. He, L. Wang, X. Chen, Q. K. Xue, X. Ma, and S. B. Zhang, “Fermi-Level Tuning of Epitaxial Sb2Te3 Thin Films on Graphene by Regulating Intrinsic Defects and Substrate Transfer Doping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(6), 066809 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Z. Hasan and C. Kane, “Colloquium: Topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(4), 3045–3067 (2010).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in Ultrashort Pulse Generation: Pushing the Limits in Linear and Nonlinear Optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

J. Z. Sotor, G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, and K. M. Abramski, “Er-doped fiber laser mode-locked by mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” in Nonlinear Optics, B. Boulanger, S. Cundiff, M. Kauranen, and W. Knox, eds., OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper NW4A.02.

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Fiber facet with transferred Sb2Te3 layer: a) optical microscope image (inset: high purity Sb2Te3 bulk material), scanning electron microscope image
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Characterization of prepared Sb2Te3 absorber: a) AFM scan, b) EDS spectrum, c) Raman spectrum, d) linear absorption.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Sb2Te3 SA based mode-locked laser setup.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Generated optical solitony centered at 1558.6 nm: a) optical spectrum with indicated 3dB bandwidth. Inset: optical spectrum recorded with 30 nm span, b) 1.8 ps pulse autocorrelation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 a) RF spectrum of the mode-locked laser output measured with 4 MHz frequency span and 1 kHz RBW. Inset: spectrum in 500 MHz span, b) corresponding pulse train recorded with oscilloscope.

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