Abstract

Transparent Ta2O5 nanostructured thin films have been fabricated using a multi-step anodization process. Obtained by a combination of the nanostructured surface and the deposition of the hydrophobic CFx coating, the transparent films can be made highly water repellent or superhydrophobic useful for self-cleaning and anti-fogging optical coatings. Contact angle measurements and optical transmittance curves of the nanostructured films are in good agreement with theoretical calculations.

© 2012 OSA

1. Introduction

In nature there are many examples of highly textured or superhydrophobic surfaces that easily shed water. These surfaces typically consist of micron and submicron structures with low surface energy coatings. When water contacts the surface, a highly mobile rolling ball is formed with a contact angle greater than 150°. Plants such as the lotus leaf (Nelumbonucifera) have evolved these surfaces for self-cleaning, as the rolling water droplet collects particulates as it falls from the leaf [1]. By removing water in a similar manner, the surface can have anti-fogging properties. Recently it was shown that water droplets impinging on superhydrophobic surfaces at below freezing temperatures are able to recoil from the surface before freezing, thus preventing ice to accumulate [2]. Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces with self-cleaning and anti-fogging properties are especially useful for glass windows and optical coatings for lenses. Various methods for preparing transparent superhydrophobic surfaces have already been reported [323]. In addition to being transparent, superhydrophobic optical coatings should possess feature sizes of less than 200 nm in order to avoid scattering loss of visible light. It is also desirable that the film can be conformally coated on curved or complex topographical surfaces. The superhydrophobic Ta2O5 optical thin film, which is the subject of this work, possesses both of these properties.

Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) is a transparent, low absorption, high refractive index material, which can be utilized as optical coatings from near ultraviolet (350 nm) to infrared (> 8 µm). The refractive index of Ta2O5 is in the range of 1.65-2.3 [2427] and depends on preparation techniques. It has been extensively studied because of its promising optical, physical, chemical and electrical properties. The material is robust, has melting temperature of greater than 1785 °C [28,29], and is useful for applications requiring high temperature. It is insoluble in water, ethanol and most acids, excluding hydrofluoric acid [28]. Its dielectric constant of greater than 22 [30,31] is useful for electronic applications such as capacitors. Many different preparation techniques of Ta2O5 have been reported [32], none of which describe the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces.

2. Experimental section

The transparent Ta2O5 nanostructured thin films were fabricated using a multi-step anodization process of tantalum (Ta) thin films as shown in Fig. 1 . The Ta layer (150 nm thick) was sputter-deposited (DC power 1 kW, 5 mT Ar pressure) on a cleaned quartz wafer. An aluminum (Al) layer 600 nm thick then was sputter-deposited (DC power 1 kW, 8 mT Ar pressure) on top of the Ta layer without breaking vacuum. The anodization process to form the porous Al layer was similar to recipes which have previously been published [3335]. The Al layer was anodized in 0.2 M oxalic acid with a constant current density of 10 mA/cm2 while ramping the voltage up to 53 V. As soon as 53 V was reached, the anodization process was stopped preventing the thin Al film from being completely anodized. The thin top layer of Al2O3 was stripped in a chromium trioxide (CrO3) / phosphoric acid (H3PO4) solution (2 g CrO3 / 100 ml H2O, 4.1 ml conc. H3PO4) at 70 °C for 15 min. The surface of the remaining Al layer is shown in Fig. 2(a) . The remaining Al layer was reanodized by sweeping the voltage from 0 V to 45 V (1 V/s) in 0.0005 M oxalic acid, and then the Al layer was reanodized in 0.2 M oxalic acid at 53 V with constant current density of 10 mA/cm2 to completely oxidize the Al as shown in Fig. 2(b). When the applied voltage was stable at 53 V and the current density dropped to 0.5 mA/cm2 or lower, the voltage was then increased to 200 V for 12 min to grow Ta2O5 posts in the Al2O3 pores as shown in Fig. 2(c). After that, the Al2O3 layer was stripped in the CrO3/H3PO4 solution at 70 °C for 120 min. The remaining metallic Ta layer was reanodized in 0.2 M oxalic acid ramping the voltage to 200 V with a constant current density of 0.2 mA/cm2. Complete oxidation of the film occurred at a voltage below 200 V, at which point the current would decrease. This process formed a transparent textured Ta2O5 thin film on a quartz substrate. To make the structure superhydrophobic a thin CFx film was deposited using plasma excitation of C4F8.

 

Fig. 1 Schematics of the multi-step anodization process of an Al-Ta bilayer.

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Fig. 2 Top view SEM images of (a) the Al surface after the first Al2O3 layer was stripped, (b) the Al2O3 porous layer, (c) Ta2O5 nanoposts grown in the Al2O3 pores, and (d) the final nanostructured Ta2O5 thin film after the Al2O3 porous layer was stripped. (e) The cross-section view of the final nanostructured Ta2O5 thin film.

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Contact angles of water droplets were measured using an automated drop shape analyzer (FTA1000 C Frame, First Ten Angstroms, Portsmouth, Virginia, US). Contact angles were measured at five different points. Advancing and receding contact angles were measured by video recording the change in drop shape as the drop, attached to the injection needle, was dragged across the moving surface. The nanostructure was observed by SEM (Zeiss 1500XB). The transmittance spectrum was measured with UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer (Lambda 900, Perkin Elmer, Waltham, Massachusetts, US).

3. Results and discussion

The final structure, as shown in SEM micrographs in Figs. 2(d) and 2(e), consists of a layer of Ta2O5 nanoposts (often called nanograss [36]) on top of a continuous Ta2O5 layer supported by a quartz substrate. The Ta2O5 nanoposts are about 40 nm in diameter and 200 nm in height. The thickness of the continuous Ta2O5 layer is 200 nm. The height of the nanoposts is controlled by the anodization voltage. The thickness of the continuous Ta2O5 layer is controlled by the initial thickness of the deposited Ta layer. Post diameter and density are somewhat dependent on anodization conditions used to form the porous Al2O3 mask.

The Ta2O5 nanograss surface, which was cleaned using O2 plasma, is highly hydrophilic. When a 10 μL water droplet was deposited on the surface, the diameter of the spreading droplet was about 10 mm. The water contact angle was estimated to be about 2.9° when assuming the spreading droplet possessed a hemispherical shape (see Fig. 3(a) ). Surfaces with contact angles less than 5° are often defined as superhydrophilic. However, the contact angle of a water droplet on a cleaned non-textured Ta2O5 surface was also less than 5°. The Ta2O5 nanostructured surface was easily made superhydrophobic by depositing a low surface energy CFx coating using plasma deposition from C4F8. As shown in Fig. 3(b), the observed contact angle of water on the Ta2O5 nanostructured surface with the hydrophobic coating was 155 ± 2° with a hysteresis of 20 ± 2°, as compared with the water contact angle of 107 ± 2° for a non-textured surface with the same hydrophobic coating. The contact angle hysteresis [37] is the difference between the advancing angle and the receding angle which is observed when the front contact line of a droplet advances, and its back contact line recedes. If the hysteresis is high, a droplet will tend to be pinned on a surface. In our case, the water droplet on the textured surface was highly mobile typical of superhydrophobic surfaces. The observed contact angle θ of 155° is in good agreement with the contact angle predicted by the Cassie Baxter equation [38]:

cosθ=f(cosθ0+1)1
where f is the ratio between the surface area in contact with a droplet and the total projected area and θ0 is the local contact angle or the contact angle formed on the posts. For our case, f is approximately equal to 0.126, and θ0 is estimated to be ~107° or the contact angle observed on a similar flat surface. The observed contact angle can be increased by decreasing the diameter of the nanoposts or by increasing the average distance between them.

 

Fig. 3 (a) A clean Ta2O5 nanograss surface which is highly hydrophilic showing a contact angle of less than 3°. (b) The same surface rendered superhydrophobic by depositing a CFx coating showing a contact angle 155 ± 2° with a hysteresis of 20°. (c) The transparent superhydrophobic nanograss film with two water droplets deposited on the surface.

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The transmittance (T) of the transparent multilayered Ta2O5 film (as shown in Fig. 3(c)) can be estimated by calculating the reflectance (R) and subtracting it from one, assuming the absorption is small. For light at normal incidence, the observed reflectance is given by [39]

R=reiz×(reiz)*
where r is the amplitude and eiz is the phase of the light wave and (reiz)* is the complex conjugate. In this case of three interfaces (i.e. by a double layer), the reflectance is given by [39]
reiz=r1+r2eiΔ1+r3ei(Δ1+Δ2)+r1r2r3eiΔ21+r1r2eiΔ1+r1r3ei(Δ1+Δ2)+r2r3eiΔ2
where rk=(nk1nk)/(nk1+nk) is the amplitude of the reflectance at the interface k, Δk=4πnkdk/λ is the phase change of the light wave at the interface k, k = 0, 1, 2, 3, nk is the refractive index in medium k, and dk is film thickness of layer k. In our case, we assumed the first, second, third, and fourth layers are air, Ta2O5 nanograss, Ta2O5 continuous, and air layers, respectively. The 500 μm thick quartz substrate was not included in the calculation since its thickness is much larger than the coherence length of the visible light source (here a tungsten halogen lamp), which is just a few micrometers and within which thin-film interference is still strong. The refractive indices of air and Ta2O5 continuous layer are well known. The effective refractive index of Ta2O5 nanograss layer was calculated from [40]
neffjαeff2k0=εeffε0
where k0=2π/λ, λ is the wavelength of light, ε0 is the permittivity of free space, αeff is the effective absorption coefficient of the medium. The effective dielectric function of the medium εeff can be approximated by [40]
f0ε0εeffε0+2εeff+f2ε2εeffε2+2εeff=0
where f0,2 and ε0,2 are volume fraction and dielectric functions of air medium and Ta2O5 medium.

The calculated transmittance of the Ta2O5 bi-layer film is shown in Fig. 4(a) . Two cases are shown for films with 90 nm thick nanograss layer on top of a continuous Ta2O5 layer with thickness of 300 nm and 410 nm. The measured transmittance of quartz and the two Ta2O5 films are shown in Fig. 4(b). Good qualitative agreement between the calculated and measured transmittance curves was obtained. Similar calculation shows that the thickness of the continuous Ta2O5 layer has the major affect on the reflectance as compared to the nanograss thickness. About 10% of the incident light is reflected at the quartz Ta2O5 interface which is not taken into account in the calculated curves. For much of the visible range the index of refraction for Ta2O5 remains relatively constant. For example, if the index of refraction of Ta2O5 at 550 nm is taken as 1.807 and the volume fraction of the nanograss as 0.15, the calculated index of refraction of the nanograss layer is 1.103.

 

Fig. 4 (a) The predicted transmittance spectra of two films with different layer thickness: the red curve is for a film consisting of a continuous Ta2O5 layer 300 nm thick and a Ta2O5 nanograss layer of 90 nm thick and the blue curve is for a film with a Ta2O5 continuous layer of 410 nm and a nanograss layer of 90 nm. (b) Measured transmittance spectra of quartz (green) and transparent nanograss films (blue, green) with the same dimensions.

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The calculated index of refraction of the nanograss layer from Eq. (4) is almost the same as the index of refraction of air since most of the volume of the nanograss layer consists of air. Consequently, the nanograss layer does not have a major influence on the optical transmittance spectrum based on the calculation from Eq. (2) and Eq. (3). One may vary anodization conditions to increase the volume fraction of the solid nanograss resulting in the increase of the index of refraction of the nanograss layer. If its index of refraction is high enough, the nanograss layer may affect the optical properties of Ta2O5 nanostructured thin films. However, an increase of the volume fraction of the nanograss also would affect the observed contact angle of water on the Ta2O5 nanostructured surface as indicated by Eq. (1). To maintain superhydrophobic surfaces (θ ≥ 150° at θ0 = 107°), f should be less than 0.189 which limits the maximum index of refraction of the nanograss layer.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we have demonstrated the fabrication of transparent Ta2O5 nanostructured thin films by using a multi-step anodization process of sputter-deposited Ta thin films. The transparent films can easily be made highly water repellent or superhydrophobic by depositing a low surface energy coating. The films have been characterized by measuring water contact angles and by obtaining optical transmittance spectra and SEM micrographs. The measured contact angles and transmittance curves are in good agreement with calculations. Our simple low-cost process can potentially be used on an industrial scale to fabricate superhydrophobic transparent Ta2O5 nanostructured thin films to create durable optical coatings with self-cleaning and anti-fogging properties.

Acknowledgments

This work has been funded by the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) Multi-University Research Initiative (MURI) Program under Award FA9550-09-1-0669-DOD35CAP. G. Myhre acknowledges funding from the Arizona Technology Research Infrastructure Fund (TRIF). The authors thank the Wisconsin Center for Applied Microelectronics (WCAM) and Materials Science Center (MSC) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison for processing assistance.

References and links

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2. L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano 4(12), 7699–7707 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

3. K. Tadanaga, N. Katata, and T. Minami, “Formation process of super-water-repellent Al2O3 coating films with high transparency by the sol-gel method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 80(12), 3213–3216 (1997). [CrossRef]  

4. A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Preparation of transparent superhydrophobic boehmite and silica films by sublimation of aluminum acetylacetonate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(16), 1365–1368 (1999). [CrossRef]  

5. M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir 16(13), 5754–5760 (2000). [CrossRef]  

6. A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir 16(17), 7044–7047 (2000). [CrossRef]  

7. K. Tadanaga, J. Morinaga, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic micropatterning on flowerlike alumina coating film by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater. 12(3), 590–592 (2000). [CrossRef]  

8. H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films 472(1-2), 37–43 (2005). [CrossRef]  

9. H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, “Single-step fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic porous polymer films,” Chem. Mater. 17(21), 5231–5234 (2005). [CrossRef]  

10. J. Fresnais, J. P. Chapel, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Synthesis of transparent superhydrophobic polyethylene surfaces,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 200(18-19), 5296–5305 (2006). [CrossRef]  

11. M. Kemell, E. Färm, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by self‐assembly of hydrophobic monolayers on nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi A 203(6), 1453–1458 (2006). [CrossRef]  

12. C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(5), 2633–2636 (2006). [CrossRef]  

13. J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir 23(13), 7293–7298 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. N. Vourdas, A. Tserepi, and E. Gogolides, “Nanotextured super-hydrophobic transparent poly (methyl methacrylate) surfaces using high-density plasma processing,” Nanotechnology 18(12), 125304 (2007). [CrossRef]  

15. X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

16. K. C. Chang, Y. K. Chen, and H. Chen, “Fabrication of highly transparent and superhydrophobic silica-based surface by TEOS/PPG hybrid with adjustment of the pH value,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 202(16), 3822–3831 (2008). [CrossRef]  

17. J. T. Han, S. Y. Kim, J. S. Woo, and G. W. Lee, “Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic films from stabilized carbon nanotube/silane sol mixture solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(19), 3724–3727 (2008). [CrossRef]  

18. Q. F. Xu, J. N. Wang, I. H. Smith, and K. D. Sanderson, “Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings based on removable polymeric spheres,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(5), 655–660 (2009). [CrossRef]  

19. Y. Li, F. Liu, and J. Sun, “A facile layer-by-layer deposition process for the fabrication of highly transparent superhydrophobic coatings,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (19): 2730–2732 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

20. X. Y. Ling, I. Y. Phang, G. J. Vancso, J. Huskens, and D. N. Reinhoudt, “Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films,” Langmuir 25(5), 3260–3263 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

21. A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 332(2), 484–490 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

22. J. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Men, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(22), 9244–9247 (2009). [CrossRef]  

23. M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter 6(7), 1401–1404 (2010). [CrossRef]  

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References

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  1. W. Barthlott and C. Neinhuis, “Purity of the sacred lotus, or escape from contamination in biological surfaces,” Planta202(1), 1–8 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. K. Tadanaga, N. Katata, and T. Minami, “Formation process of super-water-repellent Al2O3 coating films with high transparency by the sol-gel method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.80(12), 3213–3216 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Preparation of transparent superhydrophobic boehmite and silica films by sublimation of aluminum acetylacetonate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(16), 1365–1368 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir16(13), 5754–5760 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Tadanaga, J. Morinaga, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic micropatterning on flowerlike alumina coating film by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater.12(3), 590–592 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, “Single-step fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic porous polymer films,” Chem. Mater.17(21), 5231–5234 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Fresnais, J. P. Chapel, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Synthesis of transparent superhydrophobic polyethylene surfaces,” Surf. Coat. Tech.200(18-19), 5296–5305 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Kemell, E. Färm, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by self‐assembly of hydrophobic monolayers on nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(6), 1453–1458 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(5), 2633–2636 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. Vourdas, A. Tserepi, and E. Gogolides, “Nanotextured super-hydrophobic transparent poly (methyl methacrylate) surfaces using high-density plasma processing,” Nanotechnology18(12), 125304 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. C. Chang, Y. K. Chen, and H. Chen, “Fabrication of highly transparent and superhydrophobic silica-based surface by TEOS/PPG hybrid with adjustment of the pH value,” Surf. Coat. Tech.202(16), 3822–3831 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. T. Han, S. Y. Kim, J. S. Woo, and G. W. Lee, “Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic films from stabilized carbon nanotube/silane sol mixture solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(19), 3724–3727 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Q. F. Xu, J. N. Wang, I. H. Smith, and K. D. Sanderson, “Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings based on removable polymeric spheres,” J. Mater. Chem.19(5), 655–660 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Li, F. Liu, and J. Sun, “A facile layer-by-layer deposition process for the fabrication of highly transparent superhydrophobic coatings,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (19): 2730–2732 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. X. Y. Ling, I. Y. Phang, G. J. Vancso, J. Huskens, and D. N. Reinhoudt, “Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films,” Langmuir25(5), 3260–3263 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.332(2), 484–490 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Men, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(22), 9244–9247 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter6(7), 1401–1404 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. W. Cheng, S. Chi, and A. Chu, “Effect of thermal stresses on temperature dependence of refractive index for Ta2O5 dielectric films,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 233–237 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides–a review,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(2), 711–738 (2008).
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  31. L. Young, “The determination of the thickness, dielectric constant, and other properties of anodic oxide films on tantalum from the interference colours,” Proc. R. Soc. A244(1236), 41–53 (1958).
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  32. C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Mozalev, M. Sakairi, I. Saeki, and H. Takahashi, “Nucleation and growth of the nanostructured anodic oxides on tantalum and niobium under the porous alumina film,” Electrochim. Acta48(20-22), 3155–3170 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  34. C. Wu, F. Ko, and H. Hwang, “Self-aligned tantalum oxide nanodot arrays through anodic alumina template,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 1567–1570 (2006).
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  35. A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
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  36. T. N. Krupenkin, J. A. Taylor, T. M. Schneider, and S. Yang, “From rolling ball to complete wetting: the dynamic tuning of liquids on nanostructured surfaces,” Langmuir20(10), 3824–3827 (2004).
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  37. G. McHale, N. J. Shirtcliffe, and M. I. Newton, “Contact-angle hysteresis on super-hydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir20(23), 10146–10149 (2004).
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  39. H. Anders, ThinFilms in Optics (Focal Press, 1967).
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter6(7), 1401–1404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Xu, J. N. Wang, I. H. Smith, and K. D. Sanderson, “Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings based on removable polymeric spheres,” J. Mater. Chem.19(5), 655–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, F. Liu, and J. Sun, “A facile layer-by-layer deposition process for the fabrication of highly transparent superhydrophobic coatings,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (19): 2730–2732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Y. Ling, I. Y. Phang, G. J. Vancso, J. Huskens, and D. N. Reinhoudt, “Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films,” Langmuir25(5), 3260–3263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.332(2), 484–490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Men, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(22), 9244–9247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

K. C. Chang, Y. K. Chen, and H. Chen, “Fabrication of highly transparent and superhydrophobic silica-based surface by TEOS/PPG hybrid with adjustment of the pH value,” Surf. Coat. Tech.202(16), 3822–3831 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Han, S. Y. Kim, J. S. Woo, and G. W. Lee, “Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic films from stabilized carbon nanotube/silane sol mixture solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(19), 3724–3727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides–a review,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(2), 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vourdas, A. Tserepi, and E. Gogolides, “Nanotextured super-hydrophobic transparent poly (methyl methacrylate) surfaces using high-density plasma processing,” Nanotechnology18(12), 125304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

J. Fresnais, J. P. Chapel, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Synthesis of transparent superhydrophobic polyethylene surfaces,” Surf. Coat. Tech.200(18-19), 5296–5305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Kemell, E. Färm, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by self‐assembly of hydrophobic monolayers on nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(6), 1453–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(5), 2633–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, F. Ko, and H. Hwang, “Self-aligned tantalum oxide nanodot arrays through anodic alumina template,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 1567–1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, “Single-step fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic porous polymer films,” Chem. Mater.17(21), 5231–5234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. N. Krupenkin, J. A. Taylor, T. M. Schneider, and S. Yang, “From rolling ball to complete wetting: the dynamic tuning of liquids on nanostructured surfaces,” Langmuir20(10), 3824–3827 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. McHale, N. J. Shirtcliffe, and M. I. Newton, “Contact-angle hysteresis on super-hydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir20(23), 10146–10149 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Mozalev, M. Sakairi, I. Saeki, and H. Takahashi, “Nucleation and growth of the nanostructured anodic oxides on tantalum and niobium under the porous alumina film,” Electrochim. Acta48(20-22), 3155–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir16(13), 5754–5760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tadanaga, J. Morinaga, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic micropatterning on flowerlike alumina coating film by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater.12(3), 590–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Preparation of transparent superhydrophobic boehmite and silica films by sublimation of aluminum acetylacetonate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(16), 1365–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Tepehan, F. E. Ghodsi, N. Ozer, and G. G. Tepehan, “Optical properties of sol–gel dip-coated Ta2O5 films for electrochromic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells59(3), 265–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Cheng, S. Chi, and A. Chu, “Effect of thermal stresses on temperature dependence of refractive index for Ta2O5 dielectric films,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 233–237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

W. Barthlott and C. Neinhuis, “Purity of the sacred lotus, or escape from contamination in biological surfaces,” Planta202(1), 1–8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tadanaga, N. Katata, and T. Minami, “Formation process of super-water-repellent Al2O3 coating films with high transparency by the sol-gel method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.80(12), 3213–3216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1971 (1)

D. Husted, L. Gruss, and T. Mackus, “Electrical properties of anodic oxide films of Ta, Nb, Zr, Ti, W, and V formed by the ion‐cathode method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.118(12), 1989–1992 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

L. Young, “The determination of the thickness, dielectric constant, and other properties of anodic oxide films on tantalum from the interference colours,” Proc. R. Soc. A244(1236), 41–53 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, “Wettability of porous surfaces,” Trans. Faraday Soc.40, 546–551 (1944).
[CrossRef]

1935 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen. I. Dielektrizitätskonstanten und Leitfähigkeiten der Mischkörper aus isotropen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys.416(7), 636–664 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizenberg, J.

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Autran, J. L.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bahadur, V.

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balland, B.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barthlott, W.

W. Barthlott and C. Neinhuis, “Purity of the sacred lotus, or escape from contamination in biological surfaces,” Planta202(1), 1–8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baxter, S.

A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, “Wettability of porous surfaces,” Trans. Faraday Soc.40, 546–551 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Borodin, S.

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bravo, J.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruggeman, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen. I. Dielektrizitätskonstanten und Leitfähigkeiten der Mischkörper aus isotropen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys.416(7), 636–664 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Cao, G. Z.

H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cassie, A. B. D.

A. B. D. Cassie and S. Baxter, “Wettability of porous surfaces,” Trans. Faraday Soc.40, 546–551 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Chaneliere, C.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K. C.

K. C. Chang, Y. K. Chen, and H. Chen, “Fabrication of highly transparent and superhydrophobic silica-based surface by TEOS/PPG hybrid with adjustment of the pH value,” Surf. Coat. Tech.202(16), 3822–3831 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chapel, J. P.

J. Fresnais, J. P. Chapel, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Synthesis of transparent superhydrophobic polyethylene surfaces,” Surf. Coat. Tech.200(18-19), 5296–5305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

K. C. Chang, Y. K. Chen, and H. Chen, “Fabrication of highly transparent and superhydrophobic silica-based surface by TEOS/PPG hybrid with adjustment of the pH value,” Surf. Coat. Tech.202(16), 3822–3831 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(5), 2633–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. K.

K. C. Chang, Y. K. Chen, and H. Chen, “Fabrication of highly transparent and superhydrophobic silica-based surface by TEOS/PPG hybrid with adjustment of the pH value,” Surf. Coat. Tech.202(16), 3822–3831 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.

W. Cheng, S. Chi, and A. Chu, “Effect of thermal stresses on temperature dependence of refractive index for Ta2O5 dielectric films,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 233–237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. C.

Chi, S.

W. Cheng, S. Chi, and A. Chu, “Effect of thermal stresses on temperature dependence of refractive index for Ta2O5 dielectric films,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 233–237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. K.

M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter6(7), 1401–1404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chou, T. P.

H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, A.

W. Cheng, S. Chi, and A. Chu, “Effect of thermal stresses on temperature dependence of refractive index for Ta2O5 dielectric films,” Thin Solid Films347(1-2), 233–237 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R. E.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devine, R. A. B.

C. Chaneliere, J. L. Autran, R. A. B. Devine, and B. Balland, “Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) thin films for advanced dielectric applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.22(6), 269–322 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Färm, E.

M. Kemell, E. Färm, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by self‐assembly of hydrophobic monolayers on nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(6), 1453–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fresnais, J.

J. Fresnais, J. P. Chapel, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Synthesis of transparent superhydrophobic polyethylene surfaces,” Surf. Coat. Tech.200(18-19), 5296–5305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujishima, A.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir16(13), 5754–5760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Preparation of transparent superhydrophobic boehmite and silica films by sublimation of aluminum acetylacetonate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(16), 1365–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ganesan, V.

A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.332(2), 484–490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geng, H.

C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(5), 2633–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghodsi, F. E.

F. Z. Tepehan, F. E. Ghodsi, N. Ozer, and G. G. Tepehan, “Optical properties of sol–gel dip-coated Ta2O5 films for electrochromic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells59(3), 265–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gogolides, E.

N. Vourdas, A. Tserepi, and E. Gogolides, “Nanotextured super-hydrophobic transparent poly (methyl methacrylate) surfaces using high-density plasma processing,” Nanotechnology18(12), 125304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gruss, L.

D. Husted, L. Gruss, and T. Mackus, “Electrical properties of anodic oxide films of Ta, Nb, Zr, Ti, W, and V formed by the ion‐cathode method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.118(12), 1989–1992 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. T.

J. T. Han, S. Y. Kim, J. S. Woo, and G. W. Lee, “Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic films from stabilized carbon nanotube/silane sol mixture solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(19), 3724–3727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, K.

M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir16(13), 5754–5760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Preparation of transparent superhydrophobic boehmite and silica films by sublimation of aluminum acetylacetonate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(16), 1365–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hassel, A. W.

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hatton, B.

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirashima, H.

A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.332(2), 484–490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, C.

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides–a review,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(2), 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huskens, J.

X. Y. Ling, I. Y. Phang, G. J. Vancso, J. Huskens, and D. N. Reinhoudt, “Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films,” Langmuir25(5), 3260–3263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husted, D.

D. Husted, L. Gruss, and T. Mackus, “Electrical properties of anodic oxide films of Ta, Nb, Zr, Ti, W, and V formed by the ion‐cathode method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.118(12), 1989–1992 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, H.

C. Wu, F. Ko, and H. Hwang, “Self-aligned tantalum oxide nanodot arrays through anodic alumina template,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 1567–1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Im, H.

M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter6(7), 1401–1404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Im, M.

M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter6(7), 1401–1404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ingrey, S. J.

Katata, N.

K. Tadanaga, N. Katata, and T. Minami, “Formation process of super-water-repellent Al2O3 coating films with high transparency by the sol-gel method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.80(12), 3213–3216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kemell, M.

M. Kemell, E. Färm, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by self‐assembly of hydrophobic monolayers on nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(6), 1453–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. Y.

J. T. Han, S. Y. Kim, J. S. Woo, and G. W. Lee, “Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic films from stabilized carbon nanotube/silane sol mixture solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(19), 3724–3727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ko, F.

C. Wu, F. Ko, and H. Hwang, “Self-aligned tantalum oxide nanodot arrays through anodic alumina template,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 1567–1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kono, H.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krupenkin, T.

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krupenkin, T. N.

T. N. Krupenkin, J. A. Taylor, T. M. Schneider, and S. Yang, “From rolling ball to complete wetting: the dynamic tuning of liquids on nanostructured surfaces,” Langmuir20(10), 3824–3827 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Latthe, S. S.

A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.332(2), 484–490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, G. W.

J. T. Han, S. Y. Kim, J. S. Woo, and G. W. Lee, “Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic films from stabilized carbon nanotube/silane sol mixture solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(19), 3724–3727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter6(7), 1401–1404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Leskelä, M.

M. Kemell, E. Färm, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by self‐assembly of hydrophobic monolayers on nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(6), 1453–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(5), 2633–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, F. Liu, and J. Sun, “A facile layer-by-layer deposition process for the fabrication of highly transparent superhydrophobic coatings,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (19): 2730–2732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Limmer, S. J.

H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ling, X. Y.

X. Y. Ling, I. Y. Phang, G. J. Vancso, J. Huskens, and D. N. Reinhoudt, “Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films,” Langmuir25(5), 3260–3263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Y. Li, F. Liu, and J. Sun, “A facile layer-by-layer deposition process for the fabrication of highly transparent superhydrophobic coatings,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (19): 2730–2732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackus, T.

D. Husted, L. Gruss, and T. Mackus, “Electrical properties of anodic oxide films of Ta, Nb, Zr, Ti, W, and V formed by the ion‐cathode method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.118(12), 1989–1992 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, A.

K. Tadanaga, J. Morinaga, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic micropatterning on flowerlike alumina coating film by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater.12(3), 590–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McHale, G.

G. McHale, N. J. Shirtcliffe, and M. I. Newton, “Contact-angle hysteresis on super-hydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir20(23), 10146–10149 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Men, X.

J. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Men, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(22), 9244–9247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minami, T.

K. Tadanaga, J. Morinaga, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic micropatterning on flowerlike alumina coating film by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater.12(3), 590–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tadanaga, N. Katata, and T. Minami, “Formation process of super-water-repellent Al2O3 coating films with high transparency by the sol-gel method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.80(12), 3213–3216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, L.

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miwa, M.

M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir16(13), 5754–5760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morinaga, J.

K. Tadanaga, J. Morinaga, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic micropatterning on flowerlike alumina coating film by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater.12(3), 590–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mozalev, A.

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mozalev, M. Sakairi, I. Saeki, and H. Takahashi, “Nucleation and growth of the nanostructured anodic oxides on tantalum and niobium under the porous alumina film,” Electrochim. Acta48(20-22), 3155–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, T.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nadargi, D. Y.

A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.332(2), 484–490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakajima, A.

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir16(13), 5754–5760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Preparation of transparent superhydrophobic boehmite and silica films by sublimation of aluminum acetylacetonate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(16), 1365–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neinhuis, C.

W. Barthlott and C. Neinhuis, “Purity of the sacred lotus, or escape from contamination in biological surfaces,” Planta202(1), 1–8 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Newton, M. I.

G. McHale, N. J. Shirtcliffe, and M. I. Newton, “Contact-angle hysteresis on super-hydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir20(23), 10146–10149 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimoto, S.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oehse, K.

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides–a review,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(2), 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozer, N.

F. Z. Tepehan, F. E. Ghodsi, N. Ozer, and G. G. Tepehan, “Optical properties of sol–gel dip-coated Ta2O5 films for electrochromic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells59(3), 265–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phang, I. Y.

X. Y. Ling, I. Y. Phang, G. J. Vancso, J. Huskens, and D. N. Reinhoudt, “Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films,” Langmuir25(5), 3260–3263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plihauka, A.

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poncin-Epaillard, F.

J. Fresnais, J. P. Chapel, and F. Poncin-Epaillard, “Synthesis of transparent superhydrophobic polyethylene surfaces,” Surf. Coat. Tech.200(18-19), 5296–5305 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reinhoudt, D. N.

X. Y. Ling, I. Y. Phang, G. J. Vancso, J. Huskens, and D. N. Reinhoudt, “Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films,” Langmuir25(5), 3260–3263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritala, M.

M. Kemell, E. Färm, M. Leskelä, and M. Ritala, “Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by self‐assembly of hydrophobic monolayers on nanostructured surfaces,” Phys. Status Solidi A203(6), 1453–1458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rubner, M. F.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saeki, I.

A. Mozalev, M. Sakairi, I. Saeki, and H. Takahashi, “Nucleation and growth of the nanostructured anodic oxides on tantalum and niobium under the porous alumina film,” Electrochim. Acta48(20-22), 3155–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, H.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakairi, M.

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mozalev, M. Sakairi, I. Saeki, and H. Takahashi, “Nucleation and growth of the nanostructured anodic oxides on tantalum and niobium under the porous alumina film,” Electrochim. Acta48(20-22), 3155–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanderson, K. D.

Q. F. Xu, J. N. Wang, I. H. Smith, and K. D. Sanderson, “Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings based on removable polymeric spheres,” J. Mater. Chem.19(5), 655–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, K.

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides–a review,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(2), 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, T. M.

T. N. Krupenkin, J. A. Taylor, T. M. Schneider, and S. Yang, “From rolling ball to complete wetting: the dynamic tuning of liquids on nanostructured surfaces,” Langmuir20(10), 3824–3827 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shang, H. M.

H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shimomura, M.

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, “Single-step fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic porous polymer films,” Chem. Mater.17(21), 5231–5234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shirtcliffe, N. J.

G. McHale, N. J. Shirtcliffe, and M. I. Newton, “Contact-angle hysteresis on super-hydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir20(23), 10146–10149 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, A. J.

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, I. H.

Q. F. Xu, J. N. Wang, I. H. Smith, and K. D. Sanderson, “Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings based on removable polymeric spheres,” J. Mater. Chem.19(5), 655–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Su, C.

C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(5), 2633–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sulz, G.

K. Schmitt, K. Oehse, G. Sulz, and C. Hoffmann, “Evanescent field sensors based on tantalum pentoxide waveguides–a review,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland)8(2), 711–738 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Y. Li, F. Liu, and J. Sun, “A facile layer-by-layer deposition process for the fabrication of highly transparent superhydrophobic coatings,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (19): 2730–2732 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadanaga, K.

K. Tadanaga, J. Morinaga, A. Matsuda, and T. Minami, “Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic micropatterning on flowerlike alumina coating film by the sol-gel method,” Chem. Mater.12(3), 590–592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Tadanaga, N. Katata, and T. Minami, “Formation process of super-water-repellent Al2O3 coating films with high transparency by the sol-gel method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.80(12), 3213–3216 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

A. Mozalev, A. J. Smith, S. Borodin, A. Plihauka, A. W. Hassel, M. Sakairi, and H. Takahashi, “Growth of multioxide planar film with the nanoscale inner structure via anodizing Al/Ta layers on Si,” Electrochim. Acta54(3), 935–945 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mozalev, M. Sakairi, I. Saeki, and H. Takahashi, “Nucleation and growth of the nanostructured anodic oxides on tantalum and niobium under the porous alumina film,” Electrochim. Acta48(20-22), 3155–3170 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, K.

H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takai, K.

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. A.

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Krupenkin, J. A. Taylor, T. M. Schneider, and S. Yang, “From rolling ball to complete wetting: the dynamic tuning of liquids on nanostructured surfaces,” Langmuir20(10), 3824–3827 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tepehan, F. Z.

F. Z. Tepehan, F. E. Ghodsi, N. Ozer, and G. G. Tepehan, “Optical properties of sol–gel dip-coated Ta2O5 films for electrochromic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells59(3), 265–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tepehan, G. G.

F. Z. Tepehan, F. E. Ghodsi, N. Ozer, and G. G. Tepehan, “Optical properties of sol–gel dip-coated Ta2O5 films for electrochromic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells59(3), 265–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tryk, D. A.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tserepi, A.

N. Vourdas, A. Tserepi, and E. Gogolides, “Nanotextured super-hydrophobic transparent poly (methyl methacrylate) surfaces using high-density plasma processing,” Nanotechnology18(12), 125304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vancso, G. J.

X. Y. Ling, I. Y. Phang, G. J. Vancso, J. Huskens, and D. N. Reinhoudt, “Stable and transparent superhydrophobic nanoparticle films,” Langmuir25(5), 3260–3263 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkateswara Rao, A.

A. Venkateswara Rao, S. S. Latthe, D. Y. Nadargi, H. Hirashima, and V. Ganesan, “Preparation of MTMS based transparent superhydrophobic silica films by sol-gel method,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.332(2), 484–490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vourdas, N.

N. Vourdas, A. Tserepi, and E. Gogolides, “Nanotextured super-hydrophobic transparent poly (methyl methacrylate) surfaces using high-density plasma processing,” Nanotechnology18(12), 125304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. N.

Q. F. Xu, J. N. Wang, I. H. Smith, and K. D. Sanderson, “Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings based on removable polymeric spheres,” J. Mater. Chem.19(5), 655–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(5), 2633–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

H. M. Shang, Y. Wang, S. J. Limmer, T. P. Chou, K. Takahashi, and G. Z. Cao, “Optically transparent superhydrophobic silica-based films,” Thin Solid Films472(1-2), 37–43 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Miwa, A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Effects of the surface roughness on sliding angles of water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces,” Langmuir16(13), 5754–5760 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Preparation of transparent superhydrophobic boehmite and silica films by sublimation of aluminum acetylacetonate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(16), 1365–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wei, J.

Westwood, W. D.

Woo, J. S.

J. T. Han, S. Y. Kim, J. S. Woo, and G. W. Lee, “Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic films from stabilized carbon nanotube/silane sol mixture solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(19), 3724–3727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, F. Ko, and H. Hwang, “Self-aligned tantalum oxide nanodot arrays through anodic alumina template,” Microelectron. Eng.83(4-9), 1567–1570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q. F.

Q. F. Xu, J. N. Wang, I. H. Smith, and K. D. Sanderson, “Superhydrophobic and transparent coatings based on removable polymeric spheres,” J. Mater. Chem.19(5), 655–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

J. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Men, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(22), 9244–9247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yabu, H.

H. Yabu and M. Shimomura, “Single-step fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic porous polymer films,” Chem. Mater.17(21), 5231–5234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, G.

A. Nakajima, K. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe, K. Takai, G. Yamauchi, and A. Fujishima, “Transparent superhydrophobic thin films with self-cleaning properties,” Langmuir16(17), 7044–7047 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Men, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(22), 9244–9247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

T. N. Krupenkin, J. A. Taylor, T. M. Schneider, and S. Yang, “From rolling ball to complete wetting: the dynamic tuning of liquids on nanostructured surfaces,” Langmuir20(10), 3824–3827 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, J. B.

M. Im, H. Im, J. H. Lee, J. B. Yoon, and Y. K. Choi, “A robust superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surface with inverse-trapezoidal microstructures on a large transparent flexible substrate,” Soft Matter6(7), 1401–1404 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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L. Young, “The determination of the thickness, dielectric constant, and other properties of anodic oxide films on tantalum from the interference colours,” Proc. R. Soc. A244(1236), 41–53 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, L.

J. Bravo, L. Zhai, Z. Wu, R. E. Cohen, and M. F. Rubner, “Transparent superhydrophobic films based on silica nanoparticles,” Langmuir23(13), 7293–7298 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

J. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Men, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(22), 9244–9247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

L. Mishchenko, B. Hatton, V. Bahadur, J. A. Taylor, T. Krupenkin, and J. Aizenberg, “Design of ice-free nanostructured surfaces based on repulsion of impacting water droplets,” ACS Nano4(12), 7699–7707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

A. Nakajima, A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, “Preparation of transparent superhydrophobic boehmite and silica films by sublimation of aluminum acetylacetonate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)11(16), 1365–1368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Han, S. Y. Kim, J. S. Woo, and G. W. Lee, “Transparent, conductive, and superhydrophobic films from stabilized carbon nanotube/silane sol mixture solution,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)20(19), 3724–3727 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen. I. Dielektrizitätskonstanten und Leitfähigkeiten der Mischkörper aus isotropen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys.416(7), 636–664 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

J. Yang, Z. Zhang, X. Men, and X. Xu, “Fabrication of stable, transparent and superhydrophobic nanocomposite films with polystyrene functionalized carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Surf. Sci.255(22), 9244–9247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Su, J. Li, H. Geng, Q. Wang, and Q. Chen, “Fabrication of an optically transparent super-hydrophobic surface via embedding nano-silica,” Appl. Surf. Sci.253(5), 2633–2636 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2)

X. Zhang, H. Kono, Z. Liu, S. Nishimoto, D. A. Tryk, T. Murakami, H. Sakai, M. Abe, and A. Fujishima, “A transparent and photo-patternable superhydrophobic film,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (46): 4949–4951 (2007).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of the multi-step anodization process of an Al-Ta bilayer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view SEM images of (a) the Al surface after the first Al2O3 layer was stripped, (b) the Al2O3 porous layer, (c) Ta2O5 nanoposts grown in the Al2O3 pores, and (d) the final nanostructured Ta2O5 thin film after the Al2O3 porous layer was stripped. (e) The cross-section view of the final nanostructured Ta2O5 thin film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A clean Ta2O5 nanograss surface which is highly hydrophilic showing a contact angle of less than 3°. (b) The same surface rendered superhydrophobic by depositing a CFx coating showing a contact angle 155 ± 2° with a hysteresis of 20°. (c) The transparent superhydrophobic nanograss film with two water droplets deposited on the surface.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The predicted transmittance spectra of two films with different layer thickness: the red curve is for a film consisting of a continuous Ta2O5 layer 300 nm thick and a Ta2O5 nanograss layer of 90 nm thick and the blue curve is for a film with a Ta2O5 continuous layer of 410 nm and a nanograss layer of 90 nm. (b) Measured transmittance spectra of quartz (green) and transparent nanograss films (blue, green) with the same dimensions.

Equations (5)

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cosθ=f( cos θ 0 +1 )1
R=r e iz × ( r e iz ) *
r e iz = r 1 + r 2 e i Δ 1 + r 3 e i( Δ 1 + Δ 2 ) + r 1 r 2 r 3 e i Δ 2 1+ r 1 r 2 e i Δ 1 + r 1 r 3 e i( Δ 1 + Δ 2 ) + r 2 r 3 e i Δ 2
n eff j α eff 2 k 0 = ε eff ε 0
f 0 ε 0 ε eff ε 0 +2 ε eff + f 2 ε 2 ε eff ε 2 +2 ε eff =0

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