Abstract

Ho3+, Pr3+: Sc2O3 crystal was successfully grown by the TGT method. The spectroscopic properties of the crystal were analyzed. The absorption cross section of Ho, Pr: Sc2O3 at 636 nm was 1.58×10–20 cm2. J-O theory was applied to analyze the fluorescence properties of the grown crystal at 2.9 μm. The intensity parameters Ωt (t=2,4,6), radiative transition rates, branching ratios and radiative lifetime were calculated. Ho, Pr: Sc2O3 exhibited strong emission at 2110 nm and 2864 nm with a stimulated emission cross section of 2.4 × 10–21 cm2 and 4.2 × 10–21 cm2, respectively. The fluorescence lifetime of the Ho3+ 5I6 and 5I7 levels were measured to be 1.64 ms and 5.74 ms. These results show that the Ho, Pr: Sc2O3 crystal would be a potential laser material at the 2.9 μm region.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

3 μm mid-infrared (MIR) laser sources with short duration, high-beam quality and relatively high repetition rates are used in medical treatments, including dental tissue, vitreoretinal surgery, and cardiovascular surgery, due to the strong absorption of water at this region. Additionally, these lasers can be used for free-space communication, light detection [1] and as pump sources for far-infrared optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) [2]. Therefore, 3μm pulsed lasers play a critical role and attract much attention in wide application fields [3].

Ho3+ ion is one of the most important active ions applied to luminescence lasers because of favorable energy level structure. It has been demonstrated that infrared laser emission of Ho3+ ion acts in the range of 1.2∼4.9 μm including mid-infrared emission with transition 5I75I8 (2.0 μm) and 5I65I7 (2.9 μm) which attracted much attention in recent years [45]. Up to now, the 2μm and 3μm efficient continuous-wave (CW) laser operation could be achieved at some matrix such as YLF, LLF, CaF2, CYA, YAG, CNGG, YAP [625] and so on. However, the lifetime of laser lower level (Ho3+ 5I7) is much longer than that of upper level (Ho3+ 5I6), which is not conducive to the laser operation of 2.9 μm. So, the deactivation of the lower Ho3+ 5I7 level is the key problem for the 2.9 μm laser output at present, which is not beneficial to the laser operation of 2μm. Pr3+ ion has been proved to be the effective deactivation ion for Ho3+ 5I7 level from the resonance energy transfer process: Ho3+ 5I7 → Pr3+ 3F2 [22].

Compared with fluoride crystal, many oxide host materials exhibit superior thermo-mechanical properties, including excellent hardness and good thermal conductivity, and can be easily grown by using the Czochralski method. Sc2O3 crystal has the high thermal conductivities of 15.5Wm-1K-1, which is higher than that of YAG (10.7Wm-1K-1) [2627] and relatively low phonon energy (656cm-1). Besides, the cubic structure of Sc2O3 crystal minimizes the thermal lensing effect and cracking from uneven thermal expansion [28]. All the results show that Sc2O3 crystal will be an excellent laser host crystal. But there were few reports about the rare earth ions doped Sc2O3 laser crystal due to its super high melting point ∼2430°C [29]. It is very difficult to grow Sc2O3 single crystals with high optical quality and large sizes.

In this work, Ho3+, Pr3+: Sc2O3 single crystal has been successfully grown by temperature gradient technique for the first time. The structure, spectral properties and J-O (Judd-Ofelt) theory analysis of Ho3+, Pr3+: Sc2O3 crystal were investigated.

2. Experiment

Ho3+, Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal was grown by TGT (Temperature gradient technique) method in an induction heated furnace. Sc2O3, Ho2O3, Pr6O11 powders with the purity of 99.99% have been used as the raw materials with the following molar compositions: 1 at.% Ho2O3, 0.1 at.% Pr6O11, 98.9 at.% Sc2O3, respectively. The mixed powders were pressed into bulks and put into the tungsten crucible. When the air pressure in the furnace reduced down to 8 Pa, the argon gas was filled into the furnace as the protective atmosphere. Then the crucible was heated up to 2500℃, and kept for 2 hours. The crystal growth was controlled by decreasing the temperature at the rate of 1℃/h from 2500℃ to 2400℃. Figure 1 shows the grown Ho3+, Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal sample with the size of 20mm*8mm*3mm

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The Ho3+ and Pr3+ concentrations in crystal were measured by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometry analysis. The Ho3+ and Pr3+ molar concentrations are 0.40 at.% and 0.03 at.% in the crystal. Structures of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) by using XD-98X diffractometer (XD-3, Beijing) with CuKa radiation at 0.15403 nm, and the scanning 2θ was from10 to 90 with 0.02 increments. The absorption spectra in the range of 300-3000 nm of samples were carried out by using Spectrometer (Cary 5000). The emission spectra and decay time were tested with a FLS 1000 (Edinburgh Instruments, England) in the range of 1700-2300 nm, and 2700-3100 nm excited by 640 nm LD pump. All measurements were carried out at room temperature.

3. Results and discussion

The XRD pattern of the Ho3+, Pr3+: Sc2O3 crystal was shown in Fig. 2, which was in good agreement with the standard card: PDF#43-1028 of Sc2O3 single crystal. It can be confirmed that the crystal structure of Ho3+, Pr3+: Sc2O3 does not change significantly after co-doping with Ho3+ and Pr3+. The cell parameters of Ho3+, Pr3+: Sc2O3 crystal were calculated as 0.98352 nm by Jade software, which was close to the cell parameters of pure Sc2O3 crystal (0.9845 nm).

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) XRD pattern of the Sc2O3:Ho3+/Pr3+; (b) standard line pattern of the orthorhombic phase Sc2O3 (PDF#43-1028).

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The sample with thickness of 3 mm was cut and polished for spectroscopic measurements. The absorption spectra in the range of 400-2200 nm was recorded and shown in Fig. 3. There are 6 absorption peaks centered at 415 nm, 449 nm, 536 nm, 636 nm, 1144 nm and 1920nm with FWHM values of 9.51 nm, 3.52 nm, 7.56 nm, 16.35 nm, 21.31 nm and 8.13 nm respectively, which are corresponding to the transitions from the ground state Ho3+ 5I8 level to the excited states: 3G5, 5F1+5G6, 5S2 +5F4, 5F5, 5I6, 5I7 level. The absorption coefficients were calculated to be 0.67 cm-1, 8.52 cm-1, 1.17 cm-1, 0.80 cm-1, 0.39 cm-1 and 0.52 cm-1, respectively. And the corresponding absorption cross sections were 0.37×10−20 cm2, 4.77×10−20 cm2, 0.66×10−20 cm2, 0.45×10−20 cm2, 0.22×10−20 cm2 and 0.29×10−20 cm2, respectively. The high absorption cross section with broad FWHM at 636 nm were conducive to be pumped by the 640 nm LD.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Absorption spectra of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal.

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According to the framework of J-O theory [3032], absorption line strength Sed(J,J′) and calculated line strength Scal(J,J′) of Ho3+ in Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal were calculated and listed in Table 1.

Tables Icon

Table 1. The calculated average wavelength $\bar{{\boldsymbol{\lambda} }}$, absorption line strength Sed(J,J′) and calculated line strength Scal(J,J′) of Ho3+ in Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal.

About Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal, the values of Ω2,4,6 are calculated to be 4.90×10–20 cm2, 1.06×10–20 cm2, 0.18×10–20 cm2, respectively. The J-O intensity parameters of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped different crystals are listed in Table 2. As we know, the Ω46 is usually used as a parameter for spectroscopic quality [33]. The value of Ω46 of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 is 3.21, which is higher than that of YLF [4], LLY [34], PbF2 and YAG [35]. The results indicate that the rigidity of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal is higher than Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped YLF, LLY, PbF2, and YAG.

Tables Icon

Table 2. The J-O intensity parameters of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped in different crystals.

The radiative rate A(J,J′), The fluorescent branching ratio βJJ′ and the radiative lifetime $\tau _{rad}$ were listed in Table 3. The radiative τrad was closely related to laser power of potential transitions. The radiative lifetime τrad of 5I6 state of Ho3+ was calculated to be 12 ms in Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal. The fluorescence branching ratio of the 5I65I7 transition was calculated to be 36.2% of the Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal. The results make 5I6 energy level of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal to be a promising energy level for laser operation.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Radiative transition rates A(J-J′), branching ratios βJJ′ and radiative lifetime τrad of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped crystal

The emission spectra of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal excited at 640 nm at room temperature were shown in Fig. 4. The emission bands at ∼2 μm and ∼3 μm regions corresponding toHo3+ 5I75I8 and 5I65I7 transitions, respectively.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Emission spectra of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal.

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The emission cross section ${\sigma _{em}}$ can be calculated by F-L formula [36]:

$${\sigma _{em}}{(\lambda )_{JJ^{\prime}}} = \frac{{A({J,J^{\prime}} ){\lambda ^5}I(\lambda )}}{{8\pi {n^2}c\smallint \lambda I(\lambda )d\lambda }}$$
Where I(λ)is the fluorescent intensity at the wavelength λ, A(J,J′) is the radiative rate. Table 4 summarizes the parameters of peak wavelength λ, FWHM and emission cross section $\sigma _{em}$ corresponding to Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal. The emission cross-sections at 2110 nm and 2864 nm are 3.5×10–21 cm2 and 5.4×10–21 cm2. The emission bands FWHM are 158.99 nm and 144.57 nm, respectively.

Tables Icon

Table 4. The emission peak wavelength λ, FWHM and emission cross section σem corresponding to Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal.

The decay time of Ho3+ 5I7 and 5I6 levels excited at 640 nm were tested at room temperature and shown in Fig. 5. With single exponential fitting, the fluorescence lifetime of 5I7 and 5I6 level were fitted to be 5.74 ms and 1.64 ms, respectively. Compared with 0.42% Ho:Sc2O3, the lifetime of 5I7 level was 8.2 ms. This is because the 3F2 energy level of Pr3+ ion is close to and the 5I7 energy level of Ho3+ ion. The two energy levels have energy transfer, shown in Fig. 6, ET process represents that the 5I7 of Ho3+ ion transfers energy to the 3F2 of Pr3+ ion. The above results indicate that Pr3+ ion can be used as an effective deactivation ion of Ho3+ ion, which reduces the lifetime of the 5I7 of Ho3+ ion, and good for the number of population inversion between the upper and lower energy levels.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Fluorescence decay time of the 5I7 and 5I6 of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal.

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 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Schematic diagram of energy transfer between Ho3+ and Pr3+

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4. Conclusion

1at%Ho,0.1at%Pr: Sc2O3 crystal was successfully grown by TGT method. The spectroscopic properties of the crystal were analyzed, and the absorption cross section of Ho,Pr: Sc2O3 at 636 nm is 1.58×10–20 cm2. J-O theory was applied to analyze spectroscopic properties of Ho3+ at 2.9 μm. The intensity parameters Ω2,4,6, radiative transition rates, branching ratios and radiative lifetime were calculated. Ho,Pr: Sc2O3 exhibits strong emission at 2110 nm and 2864 nm with stimulated emission cross section of 3.5×10–21 cm2 and 5.4×10–21 cm2, respectively. The fluorescence lifetimes of the 5I6 and 5I7 levels were measured to be 1.64 ms and 5.74 ms. All the results show that the Ho,Pr: Sc2O3 crystal is a potential laser material.

Acknowledgements

This work is partially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.61805177, No.52032009, No.61861136007 and No. 61621001).

Disclosures

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest related to this article.

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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References

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  1. X.S. Zhu, G.W. Zhu, C. Wei, L. V. Kotov, J.F. Wang, M.H. Tong, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Pulsed fluoride fiber lasers at 3 μm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34(3), A15–A28 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous-waveoptical parametric oscillator based infrared spectroscopy for sensitive molecular gas sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 188–206 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. L. Vodopyanov, “Mid-infrared optical parametric generator with extra-wide (3–19-μm) tunability:applications for spectroscopy of two-dimensional electrons in quantum wells,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(9), 1579–1586 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. J.T. Peng, H.P. Xia, P.Y. Wang, H.Y. Hu, L. Tang, Y.P. Zhang, H.C. Jiang, and B.J. Chen, “Optical Spectra and gain properties of Ho3+/Pr3+ Co-doped LiYF4crystal,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 30(9), 910–916 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Lande, S.S. Orlov, A. Akella, L. Hesselink, and R.R. Neurgaonkar, “Digital holographic storage system incorporating optical fixing,” Opt. Lett. 22(22), 1722–1724 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Wu, Y.L. Ju, T.Y. Dai, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “1.5 W high efficiency and tunable single-longitudinal-mode Ho:YLF ring laser based on Faraday effect,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27671–27677 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Kwiatkowski, “Highly efficient high power CW and Q-switched Ho:YLF laser,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 23(2), 165–171 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. E.C. Ji, Q. Liu, M.M. Nie, X.Z. Cao, X. Fu, and M.L. Gong, “High-slope-efficiency 2.06 μm Ho: YLF laser in-band pumped by a fiber-coupled broadband diode,” Opt. Lett. 41(6), 1237–1240 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Schellhorn, “A comparison of resonantly pumped Ho: YLF and Ho: LLF lasers in CW and Q-switched operation under identical pump conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 777–788 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y.Y. Xue, N. Li, Q.S. Song, X.D. Xu, X.T. Yang, T.Y. Dai, D.H. Wang, Q.G. Wang, D.Z. Li, Z.S. Wang, and J. Xu, “Spectral properties and laser performance of Ho:CNGG crystals grown by the micro-pulling-down method,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(6), 2490–2496 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  11. X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, Z. Zhang, L.B. Su, and T.Y. Dai, “A passively Q-switching of diode-pumped 2.08-µm Ho: CaF2 laser,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 103, 103071 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  12. J.N. Zhang, D.Y. Shen, X.D. Xu, and H. Chen, “Widely tunable, narrow line-width Ho: CaYAlO4 laser with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(6), 1768–1773 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “A 106W Q-switched Ho: YAG laser with single crystal,” Optik 169, 224–227 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Lamrini, P. Koopmann, M. Schäfer, K. Scholle, and P. Fuhrberg, “Directly diode-pumped high-energy Ho:YAG oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 515–517 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. J.L. Wang, Q.S. Song, Y.G. Zhao, C.F. Shen, W.C. Yao, X.D. Xu, J. Xu, and D.Y. Shen, “Ho:YAG single-crystal fiber amplifier,” Laser Applications Conference. Optical Society of America, JM5A. 24 (2019).
  16. X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “146.4 W end-pumped Ho: YAG slab laser with two crystals,” Quantum Electron. 48(8), 691–694 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  17. J.L. Liu, X.Y. Chen, R.M. Wang, C.T. Wu, and G.Y. Jin, “A stable wavelength operation Ho: YAG laser with orthogonally polarized pump,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 36(2), 024201 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  18. W.C. Yao, E.H. Li, Y.J. Shen, C.Y. Ren, Y.G. Zhao, D.Y. Tang, and D.Y. Shen, “A 142 W Ho: YAG laser single-end-pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser at 1931nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16(11), 115001 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  19. F. Chen, M. Cai, Y.S. Zhang, and B. Li, “A high power Q-switched Ho YAG laser pumped by two Tm-fiber lasers,” Fifth Symposium on Novel Optoelectronic Detection Technology and Application. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 11023, 110233P (2019).
  20. M. Ganija, N. Simakov, A. Hemming, J. Haub, P. Veitch, and J. Munch, “Efficient, low threshold, cryogenic Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Express 24(11), 11569–11577 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  21. Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, X.M. Duan, G.L. Zhu, W. Wang, Y.L. Ju, and Y.Z. Wang, “103 W in-band dual-end-pumped Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3558–3560 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. H.K. Nie, H.P. Xia, B.N. Shi, J.X. Hu, B.T. Zhang, K.J. Yang, and J.L He, “High-efficiency watt-level continuous-wave 2.9 μm Ho, Pr: YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(24), 6109–6112 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  23. H.K. Nie, P.X. Zhang, B.T. Zhang, M. Xu, K.J. Yang, X.L. Sun, L.H. Zhang, Y. Hang, and J.L. He, “Watt-level continuous-wave and black phosphorus passive q-switching operation of Ho3+, Pr3+: LiLuF4 bulk laser at 2.95 μm,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–5 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  24. S.R. Bowman, W.S. Rabinovich, A.P. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and G.H. Rosenblatt, “3 μm laser performance of Ho:YAlO3 and Nd,Ho:YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(3), 403–406 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  25. W.S. Rabinovich, S.R. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and M.J. Winings, “Tunable laser pumped 3 μm Ho:YAlO3 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 895–897 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  26. M.J. Weber, “Handbook of Optical Materials,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, 122–136 (2003).
  27. P. Klopp, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, K. Petermann, V. Peters, and G. Erbert, “Highly efficient mode-locked Yb:Sc2O3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(4), 391–393 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  28. A. Bartos, K.P. Lieb, M. Uhrmacher, and D. Wiarda, “Refinement of atomic positions in bixbyite oxides using perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy,” Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci 49(2), 165–169 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  29. L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “New oxide crystals for solid state lasers,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(2), 255–260 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  30. B.R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  31. G.S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  32. W.T. Carnall, P.R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  33. B. Liu, J. Shi, Q. Wang, H. Tang, J. Liu, H. Zhao, D. Li, J. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Wang, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, polarized spectroscopy and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr:YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 196, 76–80 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  34. P. Zhang, Y. Hang, and L. Zhang, “Deactivation effects of the lowest excited state of Ho3+ at 2.9 μm emission introduced by Pr3+ ions in LiLuF4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5241–5243 (2012).
  35. B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in Y3Al5O12 and Lu3Al5O12,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 67(7), 1567–1582 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  36. J.A. Caird, A.J. Ramponi, and P.R. Staver, “Quantum efficiency and excited-state relaxation dynamics in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8(7), 1391–1403 (1991).
    [Crossref]

2019 (4)

Y.Y. Xue, N. Li, Q.S. Song, X.D. Xu, X.T. Yang, T.Y. Dai, D.H. Wang, Q.G. Wang, D.Z. Li, Z.S. Wang, and J. Xu, “Spectral properties and laser performance of Ho:CNGG crystals grown by the micro-pulling-down method,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(6), 2490–2496 (2019).
[Crossref]

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, Z. Zhang, L.B. Su, and T.Y. Dai, “A passively Q-switching of diode-pumped 2.08-µm Ho: CaF2 laser,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 103, 103071 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.L. Liu, X.Y. Chen, R.M. Wang, C.T. Wu, and G.Y. Jin, “A stable wavelength operation Ho: YAG laser with orthogonally polarized pump,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 36(2), 024201 (2019).
[Crossref]

W.C. Yao, E.H. Li, Y.J. Shen, C.Y. Ren, Y.G. Zhao, D.Y. Tang, and D.Y. Shen, “A 142 W Ho: YAG laser single-end-pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser at 1931nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16(11), 115001 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “A 106W Q-switched Ho: YAG laser with single crystal,” Optik 169, 224–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.K. Nie, H.P. Xia, B.N. Shi, J.X. Hu, B.T. Zhang, K.J. Yang, and J.L He, “High-efficiency watt-level continuous-wave 2.9 μm Ho, Pr: YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(24), 6109–6112 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.K. Nie, P.X. Zhang, B.T. Zhang, M. Xu, K.J. Yang, X.L. Sun, L.H. Zhang, Y. Hang, and J.L. He, “Watt-level continuous-wave and black phosphorus passive q-switching operation of Ho3+, Pr3+: LiLuF4 bulk laser at 2.95 μm,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref]

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “146.4 W end-pumped Ho: YAG slab laser with two crystals,” Quantum Electron. 48(8), 691–694 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, J. Shi, Q. Wang, H. Tang, J. Liu, H. Zhao, D. Li, J. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Wang, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, polarized spectroscopy and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr:YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 196, 76–80 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

2016 (3)

2015 (1)

J. Kwiatkowski, “Highly efficient high power CW and Q-switched Ho:YLF laser,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 23(2), 165–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

J.T. Peng, H.P. Xia, P.Y. Wang, H.Y. Hu, L. Tang, Y.P. Zhang, H.C. Jiang, and B.J. Chen, “Optical Spectra and gain properties of Ho3+/Pr3+ Co-doped LiYF4crystal,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 30(9), 910–916 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous-waveoptical parametric oscillator based infrared spectroscopy for sensitive molecular gas sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 188–206 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (1)

M. Schellhorn, “A comparison of resonantly pumped Ho: YLF and Ho: LLF lasers in CW and Q-switched operation under identical pump conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 777–788 (2011).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in Y3Al5O12 and Lu3Al5O12,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 67(7), 1567–1582 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

A. Bartos, K.P. Lieb, M. Uhrmacher, and D. Wiarda, “Refinement of atomic positions in bixbyite oxides using perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy,” Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci 49(2), 165–169 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

W.S. Rabinovich, S.R. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and M.J. Winings, “Tunable laser pumped 3 μm Ho:YAlO3 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 895–897 (1991).
[Crossref]

J.A. Caird, A.J. Ramponi, and P.R. Staver, “Quantum efficiency and excited-state relaxation dynamics in neodymium-doped phosphate laser glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8(7), 1391–1403 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

S.R. Bowman, W.S. Rabinovich, A.P. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and G.H. Rosenblatt, “3 μm laser performance of Ho:YAlO3 and Nd,Ho:YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(3), 403–406 (1990).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

W.T. Carnall, P.R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
[Crossref]

1962 (2)

B.R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

G.S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

Akella, A.

Arslanov, D. D.

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous-waveoptical parametric oscillator based infrared spectroscopy for sensitive molecular gas sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 188–206 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barnes, N. P.

B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in Y3Al5O12 and Lu3Al5O12,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 67(7), 1567–1582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bartos, A.

A. Bartos, K.P. Lieb, M. Uhrmacher, and D. Wiarda, “Refinement of atomic positions in bixbyite oxides using perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy,” Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci 49(2), 165–169 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bowman, A.P.

S.R. Bowman, W.S. Rabinovich, A.P. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and G.H. Rosenblatt, “3 μm laser performance of Ho:YAlO3 and Nd,Ho:YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(3), 403–406 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bowman, S.R.

W.S. Rabinovich, S.R. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and M.J. Winings, “Tunable laser pumped 3 μm Ho:YAlO3 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 895–897 (1991).
[Crossref]

S.R. Bowman, W.S. Rabinovich, A.P. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and G.H. Rosenblatt, “3 μm laser performance of Ho:YAlO3 and Nd,Ho:YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(3), 403–406 (1990).
[Crossref]

Cai, M.

F. Chen, M. Cai, Y.S. Zhang, and B. Li, “A high power Q-switched Ho YAG laser pumped by two Tm-fiber lasers,” Fifth Symposium on Novel Optoelectronic Detection Technology and Application. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 11023, 110233P (2019).

Caird, J.A.

Cao, X.Z.

Carnall, W.T.

W.T. Carnall, P.R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.J.

J.T. Peng, H.P. Xia, P.Y. Wang, H.Y. Hu, L. Tang, Y.P. Zhang, H.C. Jiang, and B.J. Chen, “Optical Spectra and gain properties of Ho3+/Pr3+ Co-doped LiYF4crystal,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 30(9), 910–916 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

F. Chen, M. Cai, Y.S. Zhang, and B. Li, “A high power Q-switched Ho YAG laser pumped by two Tm-fiber lasers,” Fifth Symposium on Novel Optoelectronic Detection Technology and Application. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 11023, 110233P (2019).

Chen, H.

Chen, X.Y.

J.L. Liu, X.Y. Chen, R.M. Wang, C.T. Wu, and G.Y. Jin, “A stable wavelength operation Ho: YAG laser with orthogonally polarized pump,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 36(2), 024201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cristescu, S. M.

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous-waveoptical parametric oscillator based infrared spectroscopy for sensitive molecular gas sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 188–206 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dai, T.Y.

Duan, X.M.

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, Z. Zhang, L.B. Su, and T.Y. Dai, “A passively Q-switching of diode-pumped 2.08-µm Ho: CaF2 laser,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 103, 103071 (2019).
[Crossref]

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “A 106W Q-switched Ho: YAG laser with single crystal,” Optik 169, 224–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “146.4 W end-pumped Ho: YAG slab laser with two crystals,” Quantum Electron. 48(8), 691–694 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, X.M. Duan, G.L. Zhu, W. Wang, Y.L. Ju, and Y.Z. Wang, “103 W in-band dual-end-pumped Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3558–3560 (2012).
[Crossref]

Erbert, G.

Feldman, B.J.

W.S. Rabinovich, S.R. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and M.J. Winings, “Tunable laser pumped 3 μm Ho:YAlO3 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 895–897 (1991).
[Crossref]

S.R. Bowman, W.S. Rabinovich, A.P. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and G.H. Rosenblatt, “3 μm laser performance of Ho:YAlO3 and Nd,Ho:YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(3), 403–406 (1990).
[Crossref]

Fields, P.R.

W.T. Carnall, P.R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
[Crossref]

Fornasiero, L.

L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “New oxide crystals for solid state lasers,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(2), 255–260 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

Fuhrberg, P.

Ganija, M.

Gong, M.L.

Grew, G. W.

B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in Y3Al5O12 and Lu3Al5O12,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 67(7), 1567–1582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Griebner, U.

Hang, Y.

H.K. Nie, P.X. Zhang, B.T. Zhang, M. Xu, K.J. Yang, X.L. Sun, L.H. Zhang, Y. Hang, and J.L. He, “Watt-level continuous-wave and black phosphorus passive q-switching operation of Ho3+, Pr3+: LiLuF4 bulk laser at 2.95 μm,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Zhang, Y. Hang, and L. Zhang, “Deactivation effects of the lowest excited state of Ho3+ at 2.9 μm emission introduced by Pr3+ ions in LiLuF4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 37(24), 5241–5243 (2012).

Harren, F. J. M.

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous-waveoptical parametric oscillator based infrared spectroscopy for sensitive molecular gas sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 188–206 (2013).
[Crossref]

Haub, J.

He, J.L

He, J.L.

H.K. Nie, P.X. Zhang, B.T. Zhang, M. Xu, K.J. Yang, X.L. Sun, L.H. Zhang, Y. Hang, and J.L. He, “Watt-level continuous-wave and black phosphorus passive q-switching operation of Ho3+, Pr3+: LiLuF4 bulk laser at 2.95 μm,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hemming, A.

Hesselink, L.

Hu, H.Y.

J.T. Peng, H.P. Xia, P.Y. Wang, H.Y. Hu, L. Tang, Y.P. Zhang, H.C. Jiang, and B.J. Chen, “Optical Spectra and gain properties of Ho3+/Pr3+ Co-doped LiYF4crystal,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 30(9), 910–916 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.X.

Huber, G.

L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “New oxide crystals for solid state lasers,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(2), 255–260 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ji, E.C.

Jiang, H.C.

J.T. Peng, H.P. Xia, P.Y. Wang, H.Y. Hu, L. Tang, Y.P. Zhang, H.C. Jiang, and B.J. Chen, “Optical Spectra and gain properties of Ho3+/Pr3+ Co-doped LiYF4crystal,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 30(9), 910–916 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jin, G.Y.

J.L. Liu, X.Y. Chen, R.M. Wang, C.T. Wu, and G.Y. Jin, “A stable wavelength operation Ho: YAG laser with orthogonally polarized pump,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 36(2), 024201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ju, Y.L.

Judd, B.R.

B.R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

Klopp, P.

Koopmann, P.

Kotov, L. V.

Kwiatkowski, J.

J. Kwiatkowski, “Highly efficient high power CW and Q-switched Ho:YLF laser,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 23(2), 165–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lamrini, S.

Lande, D.

Li, B.

F. Chen, M. Cai, Y.S. Zhang, and B. Li, “A high power Q-switched Ho YAG laser pumped by two Tm-fiber lasers,” Fifth Symposium on Novel Optoelectronic Detection Technology and Application. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 11023, 110233P (2019).

Li, D.

B. Liu, J. Shi, Q. Wang, H. Tang, J. Liu, H. Zhao, D. Li, J. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Wang, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, polarized spectroscopy and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr:YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 196, 76–80 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, D.Z.

Li, E.H.

W.C. Yao, E.H. Li, Y.J. Shen, C.Y. Ren, Y.G. Zhao, D.Y. Tang, and D.Y. Shen, “A 142 W Ho: YAG laser single-end-pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser at 1931nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16(11), 115001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, N.

Lieb, K.P.

A. Bartos, K.P. Lieb, M. Uhrmacher, and D. Wiarda, “Refinement of atomic positions in bixbyite oxides using perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy,” Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci 49(2), 165–169 (1993).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

B. Liu, J. Shi, Q. Wang, H. Tang, J. Liu, H. Zhao, D. Li, J. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Wang, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, polarized spectroscopy and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr:YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 196, 76–80 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

B. Liu, J. Shi, Q. Wang, H. Tang, J. Liu, H. Zhao, D. Li, J. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Wang, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, polarized spectroscopy and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr:YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 196, 76–80 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, J. Shi, Q. Wang, H. Tang, J. Liu, H. Zhao, D. Li, J. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Wang, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, polarized spectroscopy and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr:YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 196, 76–80 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.L.

J.L. Liu, X.Y. Chen, R.M. Wang, C.T. Wu, and G.Y. Jin, “A stable wavelength operation Ho: YAG laser with orthogonally polarized pump,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 36(2), 024201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

Mandon, J.

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous-waveoptical parametric oscillator based infrared spectroscopy for sensitive molecular gas sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 188–206 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mix, E.

L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “New oxide crystals for solid state lasers,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(2), 255–260 (1999).
[Crossref]

Munch, J.

Neurgaonkar, R.R.

Nie, H.K.

H.K. Nie, H.P. Xia, B.N. Shi, J.X. Hu, B.T. Zhang, K.J. Yang, and J.L He, “High-efficiency watt-level continuous-wave 2.9 μm Ho, Pr: YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(24), 6109–6112 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.K. Nie, P.X. Zhang, B.T. Zhang, M. Xu, K.J. Yang, X.L. Sun, L.H. Zhang, Y. Hang, and J.L. He, “Watt-level continuous-wave and black phosphorus passive q-switching operation of Ho3+, Pr3+: LiLuF4 bulk laser at 2.95 μm,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nie, M.M.

Norwood, R. A.

Ofelt, G.S.

G.S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

Orlov, S.S.

Peng, J.T.

J.T. Peng, H.P. Xia, P.Y. Wang, H.Y. Hu, L. Tang, Y.P. Zhang, H.C. Jiang, and B.J. Chen, “Optical Spectra and gain properties of Ho3+/Pr3+ Co-doped LiYF4crystal,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 30(9), 910–916 (2014).
[Crossref]

Persijn, S. T.

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous-waveoptical parametric oscillator based infrared spectroscopy for sensitive molecular gas sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 188–206 (2013).
[Crossref]

Peterman, K.

L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “New oxide crystals for solid state lasers,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(2), 255–260 (1999).
[Crossref]

Petermann, K.

Peters, V.

P. Klopp, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, K. Petermann, V. Peters, and G. Erbert, “Highly efficient mode-locked Yb:Sc2O3 laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(4), 391–393 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “New oxide crystals for solid state lasers,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(2), 255–260 (1999).
[Crossref]

Petrov, V.

Peyghambarian, N.

Rabinovich, W.S.

W.S. Rabinovich, S.R. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and M.J. Winings, “Tunable laser pumped 3 μm Ho:YAlO3 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 895–897 (1991).
[Crossref]

S.R. Bowman, W.S. Rabinovich, A.P. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and G.H. Rosenblatt, “3 μm laser performance of Ho:YAlO3 and Nd,Ho:YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(3), 403–406 (1990).
[Crossref]

Rajnak, K.

W.T. Carnall, P.R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
[Crossref]

Ramponi, A.J.

Ren, C.Y.

W.C. Yao, E.H. Li, Y.J. Shen, C.Y. Ren, Y.G. Zhao, D.Y. Tang, and D.Y. Shen, “A 142 W Ho: YAG laser single-end-pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser at 1931nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16(11), 115001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rosenblatt, G.H.

S.R. Bowman, W.S. Rabinovich, A.P. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and G.H. Rosenblatt, “3 μm laser performance of Ho:YAlO3 and Nd,Ho:YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(3), 403–406 (1990).
[Crossref]

Schäfer, M.

Schellhorn, M.

M. Schellhorn, “A comparison of resonantly pumped Ho: YLF and Ho: LLF lasers in CW and Q-switched operation under identical pump conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 777–788 (2011).
[Crossref]

Scholle, K.

Shen, C.F.

J.L. Wang, Q.S. Song, Y.G. Zhao, C.F. Shen, W.C. Yao, X.D. Xu, J. Xu, and D.Y. Shen, “Ho:YAG single-crystal fiber amplifier,” Laser Applications Conference. Optical Society of America, JM5A. 24 (2019).

Shen, D.Y.

W.C. Yao, E.H. Li, Y.J. Shen, C.Y. Ren, Y.G. Zhao, D.Y. Tang, and D.Y. Shen, “A 142 W Ho: YAG laser single-end-pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser at 1931nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16(11), 115001 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.N. Zhang, D.Y. Shen, X.D. Xu, and H. Chen, “Widely tunable, narrow line-width Ho: CaYAlO4 laser with a volume Bragg grating,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(6), 1768–1773 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.L. Wang, Q.S. Song, Y.G. Zhao, C.F. Shen, W.C. Yao, X.D. Xu, J. Xu, and D.Y. Shen, “Ho:YAG single-crystal fiber amplifier,” Laser Applications Conference. Optical Society of America, JM5A. 24 (2019).

Shen, Y.J.

W.C. Yao, E.H. Li, Y.J. Shen, C.Y. Ren, Y.G. Zhao, D.Y. Tang, and D.Y. Shen, “A 142 W Ho: YAG laser single-end-pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser at 1931nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16(11), 115001 (2019).
[Crossref]

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, Z. Zhang, L.B. Su, and T.Y. Dai, “A passively Q-switching of diode-pumped 2.08-µm Ho: CaF2 laser,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 103, 103071 (2019).
[Crossref]

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “A 106W Q-switched Ho: YAG laser with single crystal,” Optik 169, 224–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “146.4 W end-pumped Ho: YAG slab laser with two crystals,” Quantum Electron. 48(8), 691–694 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, X.M. Duan, G.L. Zhu, W. Wang, Y.L. Ju, and Y.Z. Wang, “103 W in-band dual-end-pumped Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3558–3560 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shi, B.N.

Shi, J.

B. Liu, J. Shi, Q. Wang, H. Tang, J. Liu, H. Zhao, D. Li, J. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Wang, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, polarized spectroscopy and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr:YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 196, 76–80 (2018).
[Crossref]

Simakov, N.

Song, Q.S.

Y.Y. Xue, N. Li, Q.S. Song, X.D. Xu, X.T. Yang, T.Y. Dai, D.H. Wang, Q.G. Wang, D.Z. Li, Z.S. Wang, and J. Xu, “Spectral properties and laser performance of Ho:CNGG crystals grown by the micro-pulling-down method,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(6), 2490–2496 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.L. Wang, Q.S. Song, Y.G. Zhao, C.F. Shen, W.C. Yao, X.D. Xu, J. Xu, and D.Y. Shen, “Ho:YAG single-crystal fiber amplifier,” Laser Applications Conference. Optical Society of America, JM5A. 24 (2019).

Spunei, M.

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous-waveoptical parametric oscillator based infrared spectroscopy for sensitive molecular gas sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 188–206 (2013).
[Crossref]

Staver, P.R.

Su, L.B.

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, Z. Zhang, L.B. Su, and T.Y. Dai, “A passively Q-switching of diode-pumped 2.08-µm Ho: CaF2 laser,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 103, 103071 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.L.

H.K. Nie, P.X. Zhang, B.T. Zhang, M. Xu, K.J. Yang, X.L. Sun, L.H. Zhang, Y. Hang, and J.L. He, “Watt-level continuous-wave and black phosphorus passive q-switching operation of Ho3+, Pr3+: LiLuF4 bulk laser at 2.95 μm,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.Y.

W.C. Yao, E.H. Li, Y.J. Shen, C.Y. Ren, Y.G. Zhao, D.Y. Tang, and D.Y. Shen, “A 142 W Ho: YAG laser single-end-pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser at 1931nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16(11), 115001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Tang, H.

B. Liu, J. Shi, Q. Wang, H. Tang, J. Liu, H. Zhao, D. Li, J. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Wang, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, polarized spectroscopy and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr:YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 196, 76–80 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tang, L.

J.T. Peng, H.P. Xia, P.Y. Wang, H.Y. Hu, L. Tang, Y.P. Zhang, H.C. Jiang, and B.J. Chen, “Optical Spectra and gain properties of Ho3+/Pr3+ Co-doped LiYF4crystal,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 30(9), 910–916 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tong, M.H.

Uhrmacher, M.

A. Bartos, K.P. Lieb, M. Uhrmacher, and D. Wiarda, “Refinement of atomic positions in bixbyite oxides using perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy,” Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci 49(2), 165–169 (1993).
[Crossref]

Veitch, P.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in Y3Al5O12 and Lu3Al5O12,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 67(7), 1567–1582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, D.H.

Wang, J.F.

Wang, J.L.

J.L. Wang, Q.S. Song, Y.G. Zhao, C.F. Shen, W.C. Yao, X.D. Xu, J. Xu, and D.Y. Shen, “Ho:YAG single-crystal fiber amplifier,” Laser Applications Conference. Optical Society of America, JM5A. 24 (2019).

Wang, P.Y.

J.T. Peng, H.P. Xia, P.Y. Wang, H.Y. Hu, L. Tang, Y.P. Zhang, H.C. Jiang, and B.J. Chen, “Optical Spectra and gain properties of Ho3+/Pr3+ Co-doped LiYF4crystal,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 30(9), 910–916 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

B. Liu, J. Shi, Q. Wang, H. Tang, J. Liu, H. Zhao, D. Li, J. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Wang, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, polarized spectroscopy and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr:YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 196, 76–80 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.G.

Wang, R.M.

J.L. Liu, X.Y. Chen, R.M. Wang, C.T. Wu, and G.Y. Jin, “A stable wavelength operation Ho: YAG laser with orthogonally polarized pump,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 36(2), 024201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Wang, Y.Z.

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “146.4 W end-pumped Ho: YAG slab laser with two crystals,” Quantum Electron. 48(8), 691–694 (2018).
[Crossref]

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “A 106W Q-switched Ho: YAG laser with single crystal,” Optik 169, 224–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, Y.L. Ju, T.Y. Dai, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “1.5 W high efficiency and tunable single-longitudinal-mode Ho:YLF ring laser based on Faraday effect,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27671–27677 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, X.M. Duan, G.L. Zhu, W. Wang, Y.L. Ju, and Y.Z. Wang, “103 W in-band dual-end-pumped Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3558–3560 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

B. Liu, J. Shi, Q. Wang, H. Tang, J. Liu, H. Zhao, D. Li, J. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Wang, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, polarized spectroscopy and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr:YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 196, 76–80 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.S.

Weber, M.J.

M.J. Weber, “Handbook of Optical Materials,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, 122–136 (2003).

Wei, C.

Wiarda, D.

A. Bartos, K.P. Lieb, M. Uhrmacher, and D. Wiarda, “Refinement of atomic positions in bixbyite oxides using perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy,” Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci 49(2), 165–169 (1993).
[Crossref]

Winings, M.J.

W.S. Rabinovich, S.R. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and M.J. Winings, “Tunable laser pumped 3 μm Ho:YAlO3 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 895–897 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.T.

J.L. Liu, X.Y. Chen, R.M. Wang, C.T. Wu, and G.Y. Jin, “A stable wavelength operation Ho: YAG laser with orthogonally polarized pump,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 36(2), 024201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

Xia, H.P.

H.K. Nie, H.P. Xia, B.N. Shi, J.X. Hu, B.T. Zhang, K.J. Yang, and J.L He, “High-efficiency watt-level continuous-wave 2.9 μm Ho, Pr: YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(24), 6109–6112 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.T. Peng, H.P. Xia, P.Y. Wang, H.Y. Hu, L. Tang, Y.P. Zhang, H.C. Jiang, and B.J. Chen, “Optical Spectra and gain properties of Ho3+/Pr3+ Co-doped LiYF4crystal,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 30(9), 910–916 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Y.Y. Xue, N. Li, Q.S. Song, X.D. Xu, X.T. Yang, T.Y. Dai, D.H. Wang, Q.G. Wang, D.Z. Li, Z.S. Wang, and J. Xu, “Spectral properties and laser performance of Ho:CNGG crystals grown by the micro-pulling-down method,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(6), 2490–2496 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Liu, J. Shi, Q. Wang, H. Tang, J. Liu, H. Zhao, D. Li, J. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Wang, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, polarized spectroscopy and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr:YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 196, 76–80 (2018).
[Crossref]

J.L. Wang, Q.S. Song, Y.G. Zhao, C.F. Shen, W.C. Yao, X.D. Xu, J. Xu, and D.Y. Shen, “Ho:YAG single-crystal fiber amplifier,” Laser Applications Conference. Optical Society of America, JM5A. 24 (2019).

Xu, M.

H.K. Nie, P.X. Zhang, B.T. Zhang, M. Xu, K.J. Yang, X.L. Sun, L.H. Zhang, Y. Hang, and J.L. He, “Watt-level continuous-wave and black phosphorus passive q-switching operation of Ho3+, Pr3+: LiLuF4 bulk laser at 2.95 μm,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

B. Liu, J. Shi, Q. Wang, H. Tang, J. Liu, H. Zhao, D. Li, J. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Wang, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, polarized spectroscopy and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr:YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 196, 76–80 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.D.

Xue, Y.Y.

Yang, K.J.

H.K. Nie, P.X. Zhang, B.T. Zhang, M. Xu, K.J. Yang, X.L. Sun, L.H. Zhang, Y. Hang, and J.L. He, “Watt-level continuous-wave and black phosphorus passive q-switching operation of Ho3+, Pr3+: LiLuF4 bulk laser at 2.95 μm,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.K. Nie, H.P. Xia, B.N. Shi, J.X. Hu, B.T. Zhang, K.J. Yang, and J.L He, “High-efficiency watt-level continuous-wave 2.9 μm Ho, Pr: YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(24), 6109–6112 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.T.

Yao, B.Q.

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “A 106W Q-switched Ho: YAG laser with single crystal,” Optik 169, 224–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “146.4 W end-pumped Ho: YAG slab laser with two crystals,” Quantum Electron. 48(8), 691–694 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, Y.L. Ju, T.Y. Dai, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “1.5 W high efficiency and tunable single-longitudinal-mode Ho:YLF ring laser based on Faraday effect,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27671–27677 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, X.M. Duan, G.L. Zhu, W. Wang, Y.L. Ju, and Y.Z. Wang, “103 W in-band dual-end-pumped Ho:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(17), 3558–3560 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, W.C.

W.C. Yao, E.H. Li, Y.J. Shen, C.Y. Ren, Y.G. Zhao, D.Y. Tang, and D.Y. Shen, “A 142 W Ho: YAG laser single-end-pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser at 1931nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16(11), 115001 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.L. Wang, Q.S. Song, Y.G. Zhao, C.F. Shen, W.C. Yao, X.D. Xu, J. Xu, and D.Y. Shen, “Ho:YAG single-crystal fiber amplifier,” Laser Applications Conference. Optical Society of America, JM5A. 24 (2019).

Zhang, B.T.

H.K. Nie, H.P. Xia, B.N. Shi, J.X. Hu, B.T. Zhang, K.J. Yang, and J.L He, “High-efficiency watt-level continuous-wave 2.9 μm Ho, Pr: YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 43(24), 6109–6112 (2018).
[Crossref]

H.K. Nie, P.X. Zhang, B.T. Zhang, M. Xu, K.J. Yang, X.L. Sun, L.H. Zhang, Y. Hang, and J.L. He, “Watt-level continuous-wave and black phosphorus passive q-switching operation of Ho3+, Pr3+: LiLuF4 bulk laser at 2.95 μm,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.N.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, L.H.

H.K. Nie, P.X. Zhang, B.T. Zhang, M. Xu, K.J. Yang, X.L. Sun, L.H. Zhang, Y. Hang, and J.L. He, “Watt-level continuous-wave and black phosphorus passive q-switching operation of Ho3+, Pr3+: LiLuF4 bulk laser at 2.95 μm,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P.

Zhang, P.X.

H.K. Nie, P.X. Zhang, B.T. Zhang, M. Xu, K.J. Yang, X.L. Sun, L.H. Zhang, Y. Hang, and J.L. He, “Watt-level continuous-wave and black phosphorus passive q-switching operation of Ho3+, Pr3+: LiLuF4 bulk laser at 2.95 μm,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.P.

J.T. Peng, H.P. Xia, P.Y. Wang, H.Y. Hu, L. Tang, Y.P. Zhang, H.C. Jiang, and B.J. Chen, “Optical Spectra and gain properties of Ho3+/Pr3+ Co-doped LiYF4crystal,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 30(9), 910–916 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.S.

F. Chen, M. Cai, Y.S. Zhang, and B. Li, “A high power Q-switched Ho YAG laser pumped by two Tm-fiber lasers,” Fifth Symposium on Novel Optoelectronic Detection Technology and Application. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 11023, 110233P (2019).

Zhang, Z.

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, Z. Zhang, L.B. Su, and T.Y. Dai, “A passively Q-switching of diode-pumped 2.08-µm Ho: CaF2 laser,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 103, 103071 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

B. Liu, J. Shi, Q. Wang, H. Tang, J. Liu, H. Zhao, D. Li, J. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Wang, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, polarized spectroscopy and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr:YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 196, 76–80 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.G.

W.C. Yao, E.H. Li, Y.J. Shen, C.Y. Ren, Y.G. Zhao, D.Y. Tang, and D.Y. Shen, “A 142 W Ho: YAG laser single-end-pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser at 1931nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16(11), 115001 (2019).
[Crossref]

J.L. Wang, Q.S. Song, Y.G. Zhao, C.F. Shen, W.C. Yao, X.D. Xu, J. Xu, and D.Y. Shen, “Ho:YAG single-crystal fiber amplifier,” Laser Applications Conference. Optical Society of America, JM5A. 24 (2019).

Zhu, G.L.

Zhu, G.W.

Zhu, X.S.

Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci (1)

A. Bartos, K.P. Lieb, M. Uhrmacher, and D. Wiarda, “Refinement of atomic positions in bixbyite oxides using perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy,” Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci 49(2), 165–169 (1993).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Schellhorn, “A comparison of resonantly pumped Ho: YLF and Ho: LLF lasers in CW and Q-switched operation under identical pump conditions,” Appl. Phys. B 103(4), 777–788 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chinese Phys. Lett. (1)

J.L. Liu, X.Y. Chen, R.M. Wang, C.T. Wu, and G.Y. Jin, “A stable wavelength operation Ho: YAG laser with orthogonally polarized pump,” Chinese Phys. Lett. 36(2), 024201 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

L. Fornasiero, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Peterman, and G. Huber, “New oxide crystals for solid state lasers,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 34(2), 255–260 (1999).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S.R. Bowman, W.S. Rabinovich, A.P. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and G.H. Rosenblatt, “3 μm laser performance of Ho:YAlO3 and Nd,Ho:YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(3), 403–406 (1990).
[Crossref]

W.S. Rabinovich, S.R. Bowman, B.J. Feldman, and M.J. Winings, “Tunable laser pumped 3 μm Ho:YAlO3 laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(4), 895–897 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

H.K. Nie, P.X. Zhang, B.T. Zhang, M. Xu, K.J. Yang, X.L. Sun, L.H. Zhang, Y. Hang, and J.L. He, “Watt-level continuous-wave and black phosphorus passive q-switching operation of Ho3+, Pr3+: LiLuF4 bulk laser at 2.95 μm,” IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–5 (2018).
[Crossref]

Infrared Phys. Techn. (1)

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, Z. Zhang, L.B. Su, and T.Y. Dai, “A passively Q-switching of diode-pumped 2.08-µm Ho: CaF2 laser,” Infrared Phys. Techn. 103, 103071 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

B. Liu, J. Shi, Q. Wang, H. Tang, J. Liu, H. Zhao, D. Li, J. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Wang, and J. Xu, “Crystal growth, polarized spectroscopy and Judd-Ofelt analysis of Pr:YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 196, 76–80 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. Technol. (1)

J.T. Peng, H.P. Xia, P.Y. Wang, H.Y. Hu, L. Tang, Y.P. Zhang, H.C. Jiang, and B.J. Chen, “Optical Spectra and gain properties of Ho3+/Pr3+ Co-doped LiYF4crystal,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 30(9), 910–916 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in Y3Al5O12 and Lu3Al5O12,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 67(7), 1567–1582 (2006).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

D. D. Arslanov, M. Spunei, J. Mandon, S. M. Cristescu, S. T. Persijn, and F. J. M. Harren, “Continuous-waveoptical parametric oscillator based infrared spectroscopy for sensitive molecular gas sensing,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(2), 188–206 (2013).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

W.C. Yao, E.H. Li, Y.J. Shen, C.Y. Ren, Y.G. Zhao, D.Y. Tang, and D.Y. Shen, “A 142 W Ho: YAG laser single-end-pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser at 1931nm,” Laser Phys. Lett. 16(11), 115001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Optik (1)

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “A 106W Q-switched Ho: YAG laser with single crystal,” Optik 169, 224–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

J. Kwiatkowski, “Highly efficient high power CW and Q-switched Ho:YLF laser,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 23(2), 165–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

B.R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

Quantum Electron. (1)

X.M. Duan, Y.J. Shen, B.Q. Yao, and Y.Z. Wang, “146.4 W end-pumped Ho: YAG slab laser with two crystals,” Quantum Electron. 48(8), 691–694 (2018).
[Crossref]

The Journal of Chemical Physics (2)

G.S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

W.T. Carnall, P.R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Spectral intensities of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides in solution. II. Pm3+, Sm3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+, and Ho3+,” The Journal of Chemical Physics 49(10), 4412–4423 (1968).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

M.J. Weber, “Handbook of Optical Materials,” CRC Press, Boca Raton, 122–136 (2003).

J.L. Wang, Q.S. Song, Y.G. Zhao, C.F. Shen, W.C. Yao, X.D. Xu, J. Xu, and D.Y. Shen, “Ho:YAG single-crystal fiber amplifier,” Laser Applications Conference. Optical Society of America, JM5A. 24 (2019).

F. Chen, M. Cai, Y.S. Zhang, and B. Li, “A high power Q-switched Ho YAG laser pumped by two Tm-fiber lasers,” Fifth Symposium on Novel Optoelectronic Detection Technology and Application. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 11023, 110233P (2019).

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal sample with the size of 20mm*8mm*3mm
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) XRD pattern of the Sc2O3:Ho3+/Pr3+; (b) standard line pattern of the orthorhombic phase Sc2O3 (PDF#43-1028).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Absorption spectra of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Emission spectra of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Fluorescence decay time of the 5I7 and 5I6 of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Schematic diagram of energy transfer between Ho3+ and Pr3+

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The calculated average wavelength λ ¯ , absorption line strength Sed(J,J′) and calculated line strength Scal(J,J′) of Ho3+ in Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal.

Tables Icon

Table 2. The J-O intensity parameters of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped in different crystals.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Radiative transition rates A(J-J′), branching ratios βJJ′ and radiative lifetime τrad of Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped crystal

Tables Icon

Table 4. The emission peak wavelength λ, FWHM and emission cross section σem corresponding to Ho3+/Pr3+ co-doped Sc2O3 crystal.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ e m ( λ ) J J = A ( J , J ) λ 5 I ( λ ) 8 π n 2 c λ I ( λ ) d λ