Abstract

To realize a hologram that is an effective method for implementing three-dimensional display, a novel spatial light modulator (SLM) that can generate the hologram by light interference and diffraction was developed based on transmittance changes. For a high-resolution hologram, pixel size of the SLM needs to be scaled down to visible light wavelength (380∼780 nm). However, conventional liquid crystal or micro-mirror-based SLM has a limitation in scaling down; few micrometers sized unit parts are required based on its operation mechanism. Herein, an ion intercalation-based SLM utilizing nano-scale ions as the unit part was investigated. Consequently, basic operations of the SLM (light interference and diffraction) are achieved based on the gradual transmittance changes, which demonstrates the feasibility of ion intercalation-based SLM.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

To obtain realistic images, three-dimensional (3D) display technologies that have no spatial limitations are garnering attention. To implement the 3D display, stereoscopic and volumetric displays have been proposed. Among them, as one of the volumetric displays, a hologram is considered as an effective technology because it can generate the 3D display without causing additional virtual fatigue, such as eyestrain or nausea; moreover additional tools, such as glasses or screens are not required in this case [1]. The hologram can project 3D information of objects via interference and diffraction of light which are easily generated by spatial light modulators (SLMs). In addition, when diffraction angle of the SLM becomes larger, more detail 3D information of objects can be expressed. Thus, to enlarge the diffraction angle, the SLM requires smaller pixel size closed to visible light wavelength (VL-$\lambda$: 380 $\sim$ 780 nm) [2]. However, there exist a challenge when fabricating the VL-$\lambda$ sized SLM by typical fabrication technologies such as liquid crystal or micro-mirrors. It is because unit cell size of the liquid crystal and micro-mirrors requires more than few micrometers [37].

Therefore, we propose a novel approach that utilizes ion intercalation. When we consider the ion intercalation, the movement and intercalation of nano sized ion are the main operation mechanism. Based on this, the unit cell can be scaled down to nano scale. The size of unit cell limits only number of reacted ions. Thus, ratio of transmittance change could become smaller in nano scaled SLM, but the ion intercalation will be occurred as the same as the case of micro scaled cell [8,9]. To demonstrate the operation mechanism of ion intercalation based SLM, we investigated the feasibility of micro scaled SLM. In addition, by controlling applied bias, gradual transmittance changes can be obtained, which can facilitate the gradual modulation of the light intensity. To achieve the gradual transmittance changes, we optimized the fabrication conditions such as working pressure and oxygen proportion.

2. Experiments

The proposed approach was implemented by developed gradual transmittance-controllable device (GTC-device). The GTC-device has the structure: indium tin oxide (ITO, 240 nm thick)/WO$_x$ (100 nm thick)/lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON, 40 nm thick)/ITO(240 nm thick), as shown in Fig. 1(a). Through typical radio frequency sputtering system and targets (fabricated by the TAEWON SCIENTIFIC CO., LTD., Korea), solid-state thin films were fabricated as a simple square patterned metal-insulator-metal structure. Comparing to previously published tunable photonic device, the GTC-device has simple solid-state structure composed of well-known materials [1012]. The bottom ITO electrode was deposited by sputtering an ITO target on whole surface of bare glass substrate. The sputtering was carried out at 40 mTorr in Ar ambient gas which was supplied by a mass flow controller. Then, to fabricate the WO$_x$ layers as a lithium-ion reservoir, W target was sputtered in Ar and O$_2$ mixed ambient gas (O$_2$ reactive sputtering) at various working pressures (6, 28.5, and 35 mTorr). For the optimization of fabrication conditions, thickness of WO$_x$ layers in each condition was confirmed by a surface profiler. The same thickness of WO$_x$ layer was kept by controlling sputtering time during various fabrication conditions. For solid state electrolyte and source layer of lithium ion, the LiPON layer was formed by sputtering a Li$_3$PO$_4$ target in Ar and N$_2$ mixed ambient gas (N$_2$ reactive sputtering). Next, the top 240 nm thick ITO electrode was deposited in the same condition of the bottom ITO through patterned metal shadow mask (200 $\mu$m $\times$ 200 $\mu$m square patterns). Each apart square pattern (by 350 $\mu$m from each other) can be considered as one pixel of the SLM.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a) Fabrication process flow of the proposed GTC-device. For the GTC-device, Li ion intercalation was utilized. (b) Cross sectional transmission electron microscope image and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping analyses of the fabricated GTC-device.

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Figure 1(a) illustrates the fabrication process flow of the GTC-device. The fabricated GTC-device was inspected by the transmission electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, as shown in Fig. 1(b). To evaluate the developed devices, DC sweep voltages (started from 0 V to −10 V to +10 V, then went back to 0 V) were applied with 100 mV ramp voltage.

3. Results and discussion

According to previously reported researches, the WO$_x$ layer can change its transmittance when Li ion intercalates into the WO$_x$ layer. When the Li ions intercalate and form bonds with the WO$_3$, the WO$_x$ layer can be changed from transparent state (bleach state) to colored state (coloration state) [13,14]. For gradual transmittance changes, the Li ion intercalation needs to be sensitively modulated. Thus, optimization of the WO$_x$ layer is necessary to realize the GTC-device. To optimize the WO$_x$ layer, firstly, three different working pressures (6, 28.5, and 35 mTorr) were compared during deposition of the WO$_x$ layer, as summarized in Fig. 2(a). Considering that a higher working pressure leads to more porous film formation, an excessively dense (or porous) WO$_x$ films can be formed at 6 mTorr (or 35 mTorr) [15]. Therefore, in the device fabricated at 6 mTorr, insufficient Li ions permeate into the WO$_x$ layer, which leads to no changes in optical state under applied bias ($\pm$10 V). By contrast, the devices fabricated at 28.5 and 35 mTorr exhibited two optically different states. However, in rate of change respect, the device fabricated at 28.5 mTorr exhibited better performance. These results imply that a suitable working pressure which can modulate the amount of permeated Li ions is required to optimize the optical characteristics.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Optical characteristics of the GTC-device based on different (a) working pressures and (b) oxygen proportions. At optimized conditions (28.5 mTorr and 60$\%$), the GTC-device exhibited more reliable and clear optical characteristics.

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Moreover, transmittance of the WO$_x$ layer can also be affected by the phase [16]. Thus, at the optimized working pressure of 28.5 mTorr, we tried to optimize the phase of WO$_x$ layer by controlling the rate of oxygen and argon ambient gases during the deposition process. The total amount of ambient gas was fixed at 20 sccm, and the oxygen ratio was changed from 20 to 80 percent, for which cases the devices are named as 20$\%$-, 40$\%$-, 60$\%$-, and 80$\%$-devices. As presented in Fig. 2(b), the 20$\%$-device initially exhibited coloration state (dot square pattern indicates ITO top electrode), and it was not changed under the applied bias. Otherwise, other devices exhibited coloration and bleach states under the applied bias. The 40$\%$-device exhibited coloration and bleach state under positive and negative bias, respectively. However, the 60$\%$- and 80$\%$-device exhibited opposite behaviors with the 40$\%$-device; the coloration state was observed under negative bias, vice versa. To clarify the operation mechanisms, we performed X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses on as-deposited layers of the 20$\%$-, 40$\%$-, and 80$\%$- devices. Note that the tendency of oxygen rate dependence was intensively investigated (Fig. 3).

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) XPS depth profile of the 20$\%$-device. The Li ions are initially diffused into the WO$_x$ layer. For 20$\%$-, 40$\%$-, and 80$\%$-device, (b) lithium 1s XPS spectrum in the middle of WO$_x$ layer and (c) tungsten 4f XPS spectrum at interface between LiPON and WO$_x$ layers. (A and B mean more complicated WO$_x$ bindings.)

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Figure 3(a) illustrates the atomic concentration of the 20$\%$-device via XPS depth profiling; the Li ions already diffused into, and reacted with the WO$_x$ layer at the interface. Therefore, Li$_x$WO$_3$ bonds can be initially formed which can exhibit a blue color, as shown in Fig. 2(b) [6]. For detailed mechanisms, the XPS spectrum was analyzed in two regions: (i) in the middle of the WO$_x$ layer and (ii) at the interface between LiPON and WO$_x$ layers. For the region (i), chemical reaction of the Li ions with WO$_x$ was analyzed, as illustrated in Fig. 3(b). The XPS spectrum related to Li 1s is divided into two peaks at binding energies of 51.0 and 55.9 eV, indicating the existence of Li and Li-O bonds, respectively [17]. Considering that the XPS spectrum was measured at the middle of the WO$_x$ layer, the Li-O bond peak indicates Li-WO$_x$ binding that is the origin of coloration state [14,1821]. When the oxygen ratio increased, more Li-O bond peaks were observed, while Li peaks decreased. It means that more Li-WO$_x$ bonds which is an origin of coloration state can be formed as the oxygen ratio increases. Thus, more clear transmittance changes were observed in the devices having higher oxygen proportion (Fig. 2(b)).

In addition, in region (ii), the WO$_x$ phases were analyzed, as shown in Fig. 3(c). On comparison of the three conditions, when the oxygen ratio was low, stoichiometric WO$_x$ layer consisting of WO$_3$ and WO$_2$ was formed. However, for the 80$\%$-device, more complicated phases were observed, which means the non-stoichiometric WO$_x$ layer. These results mean that the Li-WO$_x$ bonds of 20$\%$-device can be considered as Li$_x$WO$_3$ bonds. It is because the 20$\%$-device exhibited initial coloration state and involved the stoichiometric WO$_x$ layer [1922].

Moreover, in the 80$\%$-devices, the non-stoichiometric WO$_x$ layer can have more oxygen vacancies or mobile oxygen ions, which implies that the phases of WO$_x$ can be modulated by applied bias [2326]. Based on these results, operation mechanisms of the 60$\%$- and 80$\%$-devices exhibiting coloration state under negative bias can be explained by oxygen migrations. Considering that only lithium and oxygen ions can be migrated by the applied bias, and the Li-WO$_3$ bonds are necessary for the coloration state, the oxygen ions can be migrated from WO$_x$ layer to ITO layer under the negative bias. Then, more Li-WO$_3$ bonds are generated by the phase modulation of the WO$_x$ layer. Therefore, the 60$\%$- and 80$\%$-devices exhibited coloration and bleach states under the applied negative and positive bias, respectively. In particular, among the evaluated devices (20$\%$-, 40$\%$-, 60$\%$-, and 80$\%$-devices), the 60$\%$-device exhibited clearer and consecutive optical transitions.

Based on these results, gradual transmittance changes were achieved in the optimized device (60$\%$-device), as shown in Fig. 4(a). Under higher negative bias, more oxygen ions of the WO$_x$ layer can be migrated, which leads to stronger coloration state. To demonstrate the basic SLM operations: light interference and diffraction, an optical experiment was conducted based on the GTC-device, as shown in Fig. 4(b-c). Two GTC-devices were employed as pixels for three cases: all bleach, all coloration, and bleach and coloration (named odd). Then, we prepared a dot slit on the GTC-devices, and performed irradiation using a 530 nm laser. In Fig. 4(c), interference and diffraction patterns were successfully observed when the device states changed as all bleach, odd, and all coloration. These results clearly demonstrate that the SLM based on gradual transmittance changes can cause light interference and diffraction, which also strongly supports the feasibility of the GTC-device as a micro SLM.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. (a) Achieved gradual transmittance modulation of the GTC-device under variable bias (−10 $\sim$ −5 V). (b) Simple schematic of optical dot slit experiment. (c) Light interference and diffraction patterns depending on GTC-device states: all bleach, bleach and coloration (named odd), and all coloration. These results strongly mean that the developed GTC-device can occur light interference and diffraction by the transmittance modulation.

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4. Conclusion

In this study, the gradual transmittance change based SLM (GTC-device) was developed by optimization of the Li ion intercalation. Considering that nano sized ions are the origin of transmittance change, the unit cell of SLM can be scaled down to nano-scale. The developed GTC-devices were evaluated in the dot slit experiment, and clearly showed the basic SLM operations: light interference and diffraction. These results successfully demonstrated the feasibility of GTC-device as the SLM.

Funding

National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2020R1C1C1005925); Kwangwoon University (2021).

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (NRF-2020R1C1C1005925) and partially supported by the Research Grant of Kwangwoon University in 2021.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

References

1. J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013). [CrossRef]  

2. M. Stanley, M. A. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100 mega-pixel spatial light modulator,” in Optical Design and Engineering, vol. 5249 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 297–308.

3. K. E. Lee, J. E. Kim, U. N. Maiti, J. Lim, J. O. Hwang, J. Shim, J. J. Oh, T. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Liquid crystal size selection of large-size graphene oxide for size-dependent n-doping and oxygen reduction catalysis,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9073–9080 (2014). [CrossRef]  

4. S. Ishii, A. Kildishev, V. Shalaev, and V. Drachev, “Controlling the wave focal structure of metallic nanoslit lenses with liquid crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(11), 828–832 (2011). [CrossRef]  

5. S.-Q. Li, X. Xu, R. M. Veetil, V. Valuckas, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Phase-only transmissive spatial light modulator based on tunable dielectric metasurface,” Science 364(6445), 1087–1090 (2019). [CrossRef]  

6. Y. Lee, J. Yun, M. Seo, S.-J. Kim, J. Oh, C. M. Kang, H.-J. Sun, T. D. Chung, and B. Lee, “Full-color-tunable nanophotonic device using electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin film,” Nano Lett. 20(8), 6084–6090 (2020). [CrossRef]  

7. M. Munoz-Castro, N. Walter, J. K. Prußing, W. Pernice, and H. Bracht, “Self-holding optical actuator based on a mixed ionic–electronic conductor material,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1182–1190 (2019). [CrossRef]  

8. Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014). [CrossRef]  

9. P. Poizot, S. Laruelle, S. Grugeon, L. Dupont, and J. Tarascon, “Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries,” Nature 407(6803), 496–499 (2000). [CrossRef]  

10. S. Zanotto, A. Blancato, A. Buchheit, M. Muñoz-Castro, H.-D. Wiemhöfer, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “Metasurface reconfiguration through lithium-ion intercalation in a transition metal oxide,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600732 (2017). [CrossRef]  

11. J. Peng, H.-H. Jeong, Q. Lin, S. Cormier, H.-L. Liang, M. F. De Volder, S. Vignolini, and J. J. Baumberg, “Scalable electrochromic nanopixels using plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaaw2205 (2019). [CrossRef]  

12. D. Kalaev and H. L. Tuller, “Active tuning of optical constants in the visible–UV: Praseodymium-doped ceria—a model mixed ionic–electronic conductor,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 9(6), 2001934 (2021). [CrossRef]  

13. S. Balaji, Y. Djaoued, A.-S. Albert, R. Brüning, N. Beaudoin, and J. Robichaud, “Porous orthorhombic tungsten oxide thin films: synthesis, characterization, and application in electrochromic and photochromic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3940–3948 (2011). [CrossRef]  

14. R. Deshpande, S.-H. Lee, A. Mahan, P. Parilla, K. Jones, A. Norman, B. To, J. Blackburn, S. Mitra, and A. Dillon, “Optimization of crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles for improved electrochromic applications,” Solid State Ionics 178(13-14), 895–900 (2007). [CrossRef]  

15. J. Park, C. Lee, M. Kwak, S. A. Chekol, S. Lim, M. Kim, J. Woo, H. Hwang, and D. Lee, “Microstructural engineering in interface-type synapse device for enhancing linear and symmetric conductance changes,” Nanotechnology 30(30), 305202 (2019). [CrossRef]  

16. B. Marsen, B. Cole, and E. L. Miller, “Influence of sputter oxygen partial pressure on photoelectrochemical performance of tungsten oxide films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(20), 1954–1958 (2007). [CrossRef]  

17. K. Kanamura, H. Takezawa, S. Shiraishi, and Z.-i. Takehara, “Chemical reaction of lithium surface during immersion in LiClO4 or LiPF6/DEC electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144(6), 1900–1906 (1997). [CrossRef]  

18. M. Shek, J. Hrbek, T. Sham, and G.-Q. Xu, “A soft X-ray study of the interaction of oxygen with li,” Surf. Sci. 234(3), 324–334 (1990). [CrossRef]  

19. A. Katrib, F. Hemming, P. Wehrer, L. Hilaire, and G. Maire, “The multi-surface structure and catalytic properties of partially reduced WO3, WO2 and WC + O2 or W + O2 as characterized by XPS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 76, 195–200 (1995). [CrossRef]  

20. F. Kerkhof, J. Moulijn, and A. Heeres, “The XPS spectra of the metathesis catalyst tungsten oxide on silica gel,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 14(6), 453–466 (1978). [CrossRef]  

21. P. Biloen and G. Pott, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of supported tungsten oxide,” J. Catal. 30(2), 169–174 (1973). [CrossRef]  

22. B. Chowdari, K. Tan, and W. Chia, “Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of lithium phosphotungstate glasses,” Solid State Ionics 53-56, 1172–1178 (1992). [CrossRef]  

23. V. Nefedov, M. Firsov, and I. Shaplygin, “Electronic structures of MRhO2, MRh2O4, RHMO4 and Rh2MO6 on the basis of X-ray spectroscopy and ESCA data,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 26(1), 65–78 (1982). [CrossRef]  

24. M. Peignon, C. Cardinaud, and G. Turban, “A kinetic study of reactive ion etching of tungsten in SF6/O2 RF plasmas,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(2), 505–512 (1993). [CrossRef]  

25. K. Ng and D. Hercules, “XPS studies of oxides of row transition metals of W,” J. Phys. Chem. C 80, 2095 (1976).

26. Y. Jugnet, N. Prakash, L. Porte, T. M. Duc, T. Nguyen, R. Cinti, H. Poon, and G. Grenet, “Photoelectron diffraction on clean w (110) surface and bulk 4f core levels,” Phys. Rev. B 37(14), 8066–8071 (1988). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. M. Stanley, M. A. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100 mega-pixel spatial light modulator,” in Optical Design and Engineering, vol. 5249 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 297–308.
  3. K. E. Lee, J. E. Kim, U. N. Maiti, J. Lim, J. O. Hwang, J. Shim, J. J. Oh, T. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Liquid crystal size selection of large-size graphene oxide for size-dependent n-doping and oxygen reduction catalysis,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9073–9080 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Ishii, A. Kildishev, V. Shalaev, and V. Drachev, “Controlling the wave focal structure of metallic nanoslit lenses with liquid crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(11), 828–832 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. S.-Q. Li, X. Xu, R. M. Veetil, V. Valuckas, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Phase-only transmissive spatial light modulator based on tunable dielectric metasurface,” Science 364(6445), 1087–1090 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Lee, J. Yun, M. Seo, S.-J. Kim, J. Oh, C. M. Kang, H.-J. Sun, T. D. Chung, and B. Lee, “Full-color-tunable nanophotonic device using electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin film,” Nano Lett. 20(8), 6084–6090 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Munoz-Castro, N. Walter, J. K. Prußing, W. Pernice, and H. Bracht, “Self-holding optical actuator based on a mixed ionic–electronic conductor material,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1182–1190 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Poizot, S. Laruelle, S. Grugeon, L. Dupont, and J. Tarascon, “Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries,” Nature 407(6803), 496–499 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Zanotto, A. Blancato, A. Buchheit, M. Muñoz-Castro, H.-D. Wiemhöfer, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “Metasurface reconfiguration through lithium-ion intercalation in a transition metal oxide,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600732 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  11. J. Peng, H.-H. Jeong, Q. Lin, S. Cormier, H.-L. Liang, M. F. De Volder, S. Vignolini, and J. J. Baumberg, “Scalable electrochromic nanopixels using plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaaw2205 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. Kalaev and H. L. Tuller, “Active tuning of optical constants in the visible–UV: Praseodymium-doped ceria—a model mixed ionic–electronic conductor,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 9(6), 2001934 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Balaji, Y. Djaoued, A.-S. Albert, R. Brüning, N. Beaudoin, and J. Robichaud, “Porous orthorhombic tungsten oxide thin films: synthesis, characterization, and application in electrochromic and photochromic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3940–3948 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  14. R. Deshpande, S.-H. Lee, A. Mahan, P. Parilla, K. Jones, A. Norman, B. To, J. Blackburn, S. Mitra, and A. Dillon, “Optimization of crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles for improved electrochromic applications,” Solid State Ionics 178(13-14), 895–900 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Park, C. Lee, M. Kwak, S. A. Chekol, S. Lim, M. Kim, J. Woo, H. Hwang, and D. Lee, “Microstructural engineering in interface-type synapse device for enhancing linear and symmetric conductance changes,” Nanotechnology 30(30), 305202 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  16. B. Marsen, B. Cole, and E. L. Miller, “Influence of sputter oxygen partial pressure on photoelectrochemical performance of tungsten oxide films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(20), 1954–1958 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. Kanamura, H. Takezawa, S. Shiraishi, and Z.-i. Takehara, “Chemical reaction of lithium surface during immersion in LiClO4 or LiPF6/DEC electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144(6), 1900–1906 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Shek, J. Hrbek, T. Sham, and G.-Q. Xu, “A soft X-ray study of the interaction of oxygen with li,” Surf. Sci. 234(3), 324–334 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Katrib, F. Hemming, P. Wehrer, L. Hilaire, and G. Maire, “The multi-surface structure and catalytic properties of partially reduced WO3, WO2 and WC + O2 or W + O2 as characterized by XPS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 76, 195–200 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  20. F. Kerkhof, J. Moulijn, and A. Heeres, “The XPS spectra of the metathesis catalyst tungsten oxide on silica gel,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 14(6), 453–466 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  21. P. Biloen and G. Pott, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of supported tungsten oxide,” J. Catal. 30(2), 169–174 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  22. B. Chowdari, K. Tan, and W. Chia, “Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of lithium phosphotungstate glasses,” Solid State Ionics 53-56, 1172–1178 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  23. V. Nefedov, M. Firsov, and I. Shaplygin, “Electronic structures of MRhO2, MRh2O4, RHMO4 and Rh2MO6 on the basis of X-ray spectroscopy and ESCA data,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 26(1), 65–78 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Peignon, C. Cardinaud, and G. Turban, “A kinetic study of reactive ion etching of tungsten in SF6/O2 RF plasmas,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(2), 505–512 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  25. K. Ng and D. Hercules, “XPS studies of oxides of row transition metals of W,” J. Phys. Chem. C 80, 2095 (1976).
  26. Y. Jugnet, N. Prakash, L. Porte, T. M. Duc, T. Nguyen, R. Cinti, H. Poon, and G. Grenet, “Photoelectron diffraction on clean w (110) surface and bulk 4f core levels,” Phys. Rev. B 37(14), 8066–8071 (1988).
    [Crossref]

2021 (1)

D. Kalaev and H. L. Tuller, “Active tuning of optical constants in the visible–UV: Praseodymium-doped ceria—a model mixed ionic–electronic conductor,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 9(6), 2001934 (2021).
[Crossref]

2020 (1)

Y. Lee, J. Yun, M. Seo, S.-J. Kim, J. Oh, C. M. Kang, H.-J. Sun, T. D. Chung, and B. Lee, “Full-color-tunable nanophotonic device using electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin film,” Nano Lett. 20(8), 6084–6090 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (4)

M. Munoz-Castro, N. Walter, J. K. Prußing, W. Pernice, and H. Bracht, “Self-holding optical actuator based on a mixed ionic–electronic conductor material,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1182–1190 (2019).
[Crossref]

S.-Q. Li, X. Xu, R. M. Veetil, V. Valuckas, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Phase-only transmissive spatial light modulator based on tunable dielectric metasurface,” Science 364(6445), 1087–1090 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Peng, H.-H. Jeong, Q. Lin, S. Cormier, H.-L. Liang, M. F. De Volder, S. Vignolini, and J. J. Baumberg, “Scalable electrochromic nanopixels using plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaaw2205 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Park, C. Lee, M. Kwak, S. A. Chekol, S. Lim, M. Kim, J. Woo, H. Hwang, and D. Lee, “Microstructural engineering in interface-type synapse device for enhancing linear and symmetric conductance changes,” Nanotechnology 30(30), 305202 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

S. Zanotto, A. Blancato, A. Buchheit, M. Muñoz-Castro, H.-D. Wiemhöfer, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “Metasurface reconfiguration through lithium-ion intercalation in a transition metal oxide,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600732 (2017).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

K. E. Lee, J. E. Kim, U. N. Maiti, J. Lim, J. O. Hwang, J. Shim, J. J. Oh, T. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Liquid crystal size selection of large-size graphene oxide for size-dependent n-doping and oxygen reduction catalysis,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9073–9080 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

S. Ishii, A. Kildishev, V. Shalaev, and V. Drachev, “Controlling the wave focal structure of metallic nanoslit lenses with liquid crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(11), 828–832 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Balaji, Y. Djaoued, A.-S. Albert, R. Brüning, N. Beaudoin, and J. Robichaud, “Porous orthorhombic tungsten oxide thin films: synthesis, characterization, and application in electrochromic and photochromic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3940–3948 (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

R. Deshpande, S.-H. Lee, A. Mahan, P. Parilla, K. Jones, A. Norman, B. To, J. Blackburn, S. Mitra, and A. Dillon, “Optimization of crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles for improved electrochromic applications,” Solid State Ionics 178(13-14), 895–900 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Marsen, B. Cole, and E. L. Miller, “Influence of sputter oxygen partial pressure on photoelectrochemical performance of tungsten oxide films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(20), 1954–1958 (2007).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Poizot, S. Laruelle, S. Grugeon, L. Dupont, and J. Tarascon, “Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries,” Nature 407(6803), 496–499 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

K. Kanamura, H. Takezawa, S. Shiraishi, and Z.-i. Takehara, “Chemical reaction of lithium surface during immersion in LiClO4 or LiPF6/DEC electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144(6), 1900–1906 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

A. Katrib, F. Hemming, P. Wehrer, L. Hilaire, and G. Maire, “The multi-surface structure and catalytic properties of partially reduced WO3, WO2 and WC + O2 or W + O2 as characterized by XPS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 76, 195–200 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

M. Peignon, C. Cardinaud, and G. Turban, “A kinetic study of reactive ion etching of tungsten in SF6/O2 RF plasmas,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(2), 505–512 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

B. Chowdari, K. Tan, and W. Chia, “Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of lithium phosphotungstate glasses,” Solid State Ionics 53-56, 1172–1178 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Shek, J. Hrbek, T. Sham, and G.-Q. Xu, “A soft X-ray study of the interaction of oxygen with li,” Surf. Sci. 234(3), 324–334 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

Y. Jugnet, N. Prakash, L. Porte, T. M. Duc, T. Nguyen, R. Cinti, H. Poon, and G. Grenet, “Photoelectron diffraction on clean w (110) surface and bulk 4f core levels,” Phys. Rev. B 37(14), 8066–8071 (1988).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

V. Nefedov, M. Firsov, and I. Shaplygin, “Electronic structures of MRhO2, MRh2O4, RHMO4 and Rh2MO6 on the basis of X-ray spectroscopy and ESCA data,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 26(1), 65–78 (1982).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

F. Kerkhof, J. Moulijn, and A. Heeres, “The XPS spectra of the metathesis catalyst tungsten oxide on silica gel,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 14(6), 453–466 (1978).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

K. Ng and D. Hercules, “XPS studies of oxides of row transition metals of W,” J. Phys. Chem. C 80, 2095 (1976).

1973 (1)

P. Biloen and G. Pott, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of supported tungsten oxide,” J. Catal. 30(2), 169–174 (1973).
[Crossref]

Albert, A.-S.

S. Balaji, Y. Djaoued, A.-S. Albert, R. Brüning, N. Beaudoin, and J. Robichaud, “Porous orthorhombic tungsten oxide thin films: synthesis, characterization, and application in electrochromic and photochromic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3940–3948 (2011).
[Crossref]

Balaji, S.

S. Balaji, Y. Djaoued, A.-S. Albert, R. Brüning, N. Beaudoin, and J. Robichaud, “Porous orthorhombic tungsten oxide thin films: synthesis, characterization, and application in electrochromic and photochromic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3940–3948 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J. J.

J. Peng, H.-H. Jeong, Q. Lin, S. Cormier, H.-L. Liang, M. F. De Volder, S. Vignolini, and J. J. Baumberg, “Scalable electrochromic nanopixels using plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaaw2205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Beaudoin, N.

S. Balaji, Y. Djaoued, A.-S. Albert, R. Brüning, N. Beaudoin, and J. Robichaud, “Porous orthorhombic tungsten oxide thin films: synthesis, characterization, and application in electrochromic and photochromic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3940–3948 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biloen, P.

P. Biloen and G. Pott, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of supported tungsten oxide,” J. Catal. 30(2), 169–174 (1973).
[Crossref]

Blackburn, J.

R. Deshpande, S.-H. Lee, A. Mahan, P. Parilla, K. Jones, A. Norman, B. To, J. Blackburn, S. Mitra, and A. Dillon, “Optimization of crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles for improved electrochromic applications,” Solid State Ionics 178(13-14), 895–900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Blancato, A.

S. Zanotto, A. Blancato, A. Buchheit, M. Muñoz-Castro, H.-D. Wiemhöfer, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “Metasurface reconfiguration through lithium-ion intercalation in a transition metal oxide,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600732 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bracht, H.

M. Munoz-Castro, N. Walter, J. K. Prußing, W. Pernice, and H. Bracht, “Self-holding optical actuator based on a mixed ionic–electronic conductor material,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1182–1190 (2019).
[Crossref]

Brüning, R.

S. Balaji, Y. Djaoued, A.-S. Albert, R. Brüning, N. Beaudoin, and J. Robichaud, “Porous orthorhombic tungsten oxide thin films: synthesis, characterization, and application in electrochromic and photochromic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3940–3948 (2011).
[Crossref]

Buchheit, A.

S. Zanotto, A. Blancato, A. Buchheit, M. Muñoz-Castro, H.-D. Wiemhöfer, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “Metasurface reconfiguration through lithium-ion intercalation in a transition metal oxide,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600732 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cameron, C. D.

M. Stanley, M. A. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100 mega-pixel spatial light modulator,” in Optical Design and Engineering, vol. 5249 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 297–308.

Cardinaud, C.

M. Peignon, C. Cardinaud, and G. Turban, “A kinetic study of reactive ion etching of tungsten in SF6/O2 RF plasmas,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(2), 505–512 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chekol, S. A.

J. Park, C. Lee, M. Kwak, S. A. Chekol, S. Lim, M. Kim, J. Woo, H. Hwang, and D. Lee, “Microstructural engineering in interface-type synapse device for enhancing linear and symmetric conductance changes,” Nanotechnology 30(30), 305202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chia, W.

B. Chowdari, K. Tan, and W. Chia, “Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of lithium phosphotungstate glasses,” Solid State Ionics 53-56, 1172–1178 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chowdari, B.

B. Chowdari, K. Tan, and W. Chia, “Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of lithium phosphotungstate glasses,” Solid State Ionics 53-56, 1172–1178 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chung, T. D.

Y. Lee, J. Yun, M. Seo, S.-J. Kim, J. Oh, C. M. Kang, H.-J. Sun, T. D. Chung, and B. Lee, “Full-color-tunable nanophotonic device using electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin film,” Nano Lett. 20(8), 6084–6090 (2020).
[Crossref]

Cinti, R.

Y. Jugnet, N. Prakash, L. Porte, T. M. Duc, T. Nguyen, R. Cinti, H. Poon, and G. Grenet, “Photoelectron diffraction on clean w (110) surface and bulk 4f core levels,” Phys. Rev. B 37(14), 8066–8071 (1988).
[Crossref]

Cole, B.

B. Marsen, B. Cole, and E. L. Miller, “Influence of sputter oxygen partial pressure on photoelectrochemical performance of tungsten oxide films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(20), 1954–1958 (2007).
[Crossref]

Coomber, S. D.

M. Stanley, M. A. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100 mega-pixel spatial light modulator,” in Optical Design and Engineering, vol. 5249 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 297–308.

Cormier, S.

J. Peng, H.-H. Jeong, Q. Lin, S. Cormier, H.-L. Liang, M. F. De Volder, S. Vignolini, and J. J. Baumberg, “Scalable electrochromic nanopixels using plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaaw2205 (2019).
[Crossref]

De Volder, M. F.

J. Peng, H.-H. Jeong, Q. Lin, S. Cormier, H.-L. Liang, M. F. De Volder, S. Vignolini, and J. J. Baumberg, “Scalable electrochromic nanopixels using plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaaw2205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Deshpande, R.

R. Deshpande, S.-H. Lee, A. Mahan, P. Parilla, K. Jones, A. Norman, B. To, J. Blackburn, S. Mitra, and A. Dillon, “Optimization of crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles for improved electrochromic applications,” Solid State Ionics 178(13-14), 895–900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dillon, A.

R. Deshpande, S.-H. Lee, A. Mahan, P. Parilla, K. Jones, A. Norman, B. To, J. Blackburn, S. Mitra, and A. Dillon, “Optimization of crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles for improved electrochromic applications,” Solid State Ionics 178(13-14), 895–900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Djaoued, Y.

S. Balaji, Y. Djaoued, A.-S. Albert, R. Brüning, N. Beaudoin, and J. Robichaud, “Porous orthorhombic tungsten oxide thin films: synthesis, characterization, and application in electrochromic and photochromic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3940–3948 (2011).
[Crossref]

Drachev, V.

S. Ishii, A. Kildishev, V. Shalaev, and V. Drachev, “Controlling the wave focal structure of metallic nanoslit lenses with liquid crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(11), 828–832 (2011).
[Crossref]

Duc, T. M.

Y. Jugnet, N. Prakash, L. Porte, T. M. Duc, T. Nguyen, R. Cinti, H. Poon, and G. Grenet, “Photoelectron diffraction on clean w (110) surface and bulk 4f core levels,” Phys. Rev. B 37(14), 8066–8071 (1988).
[Crossref]

Dupont, L.

P. Poizot, S. Laruelle, S. Grugeon, L. Dupont, and J. Tarascon, “Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries,” Nature 407(6803), 496–499 (2000).
[Crossref]

Firsov, M.

V. Nefedov, M. Firsov, and I. Shaplygin, “Electronic structures of MRhO2, MRh2O4, RHMO4 and Rh2MO6 on the basis of X-ray spectroscopy and ESCA data,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 26(1), 65–78 (1982).
[Crossref]

Geng, J.

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref]

Grenet, G.

Y. Jugnet, N. Prakash, L. Porte, T. M. Duc, T. Nguyen, R. Cinti, H. Poon, and G. Grenet, “Photoelectron diffraction on clean w (110) surface and bulk 4f core levels,” Phys. Rev. B 37(14), 8066–8071 (1988).
[Crossref]

Grugeon, S.

P. Poizot, S. Laruelle, S. Grugeon, L. Dupont, and J. Tarascon, “Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries,” Nature 407(6803), 496–499 (2000).
[Crossref]

Heeres, A.

F. Kerkhof, J. Moulijn, and A. Heeres, “The XPS spectra of the metathesis catalyst tungsten oxide on silica gel,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 14(6), 453–466 (1978).
[Crossref]

Hemming, F.

A. Katrib, F. Hemming, P. Wehrer, L. Hilaire, and G. Maire, “The multi-surface structure and catalytic properties of partially reduced WO3, WO2 and WC + O2 or W + O2 as characterized by XPS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 76, 195–200 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hercules, D.

K. Ng and D. Hercules, “XPS studies of oxides of row transition metals of W,” J. Phys. Chem. C 80, 2095 (1976).

Hilaire, L.

A. Katrib, F. Hemming, P. Wehrer, L. Hilaire, and G. Maire, “The multi-surface structure and catalytic properties of partially reduced WO3, WO2 and WC + O2 or W + O2 as characterized by XPS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 76, 195–200 (1995).
[Crossref]

Hrbek, J.

M. Shek, J. Hrbek, T. Sham, and G.-Q. Xu, “A soft X-ray study of the interaction of oxygen with li,” Surf. Sci. 234(3), 324–334 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hwang, H.

J. Park, C. Lee, M. Kwak, S. A. Chekol, S. Lim, M. Kim, J. Woo, H. Hwang, and D. Lee, “Microstructural engineering in interface-type synapse device for enhancing linear and symmetric conductance changes,” Nanotechnology 30(30), 305202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J. O.

K. E. Lee, J. E. Kim, U. N. Maiti, J. Lim, J. O. Hwang, J. Shim, J. J. Oh, T. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Liquid crystal size selection of large-size graphene oxide for size-dependent n-doping and oxygen reduction catalysis,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9073–9080 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ino, K.

Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014).
[Crossref]

Inomata, H.

Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ishii, S.

S. Ishii, A. Kildishev, V. Shalaev, and V. Drachev, “Controlling the wave focal structure of metallic nanoslit lenses with liquid crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(11), 828–832 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ito, K.

Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.-H.

J. Peng, H.-H. Jeong, Q. Lin, S. Cormier, H.-L. Liang, M. F. De Volder, S. Vignolini, and J. J. Baumberg, “Scalable electrochromic nanopixels using plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaaw2205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jones, K.

R. Deshpande, S.-H. Lee, A. Mahan, P. Parilla, K. Jones, A. Norman, B. To, J. Blackburn, S. Mitra, and A. Dillon, “Optimization of crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles for improved electrochromic applications,” Solid State Ionics 178(13-14), 895–900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jugnet, Y.

Y. Jugnet, N. Prakash, L. Porte, T. M. Duc, T. Nguyen, R. Cinti, H. Poon, and G. Grenet, “Photoelectron diffraction on clean w (110) surface and bulk 4f core levels,” Phys. Rev. B 37(14), 8066–8071 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kalaev, D.

D. Kalaev and H. L. Tuller, “Active tuning of optical constants in the visible–UV: Praseodymium-doped ceria—a model mixed ionic–electronic conductor,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 9(6), 2001934 (2021).
[Crossref]

Kanamura, K.

Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Kanamura, H. Takezawa, S. Shiraishi, and Z.-i. Takehara, “Chemical reaction of lithium surface during immersion in LiClO4 or LiPF6/DEC electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144(6), 1900–1906 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kang, C. M.

Y. Lee, J. Yun, M. Seo, S.-J. Kim, J. Oh, C. M. Kang, H.-J. Sun, T. D. Chung, and B. Lee, “Full-color-tunable nanophotonic device using electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin film,” Nano Lett. 20(8), 6084–6090 (2020).
[Crossref]

Katrib, A.

A. Katrib, F. Hemming, P. Wehrer, L. Hilaire, and G. Maire, “The multi-surface structure and catalytic properties of partially reduced WO3, WO2 and WC + O2 or W + O2 as characterized by XPS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 76, 195–200 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kerkhof, F.

F. Kerkhof, J. Moulijn, and A. Heeres, “The XPS spectra of the metathesis catalyst tungsten oxide on silica gel,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 14(6), 453–466 (1978).
[Crossref]

Kildishev, A.

S. Ishii, A. Kildishev, V. Shalaev, and V. Drachev, “Controlling the wave focal structure of metallic nanoslit lenses with liquid crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(11), 828–832 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. E.

K. E. Lee, J. E. Kim, U. N. Maiti, J. Lim, J. O. Hwang, J. Shim, J. J. Oh, T. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Liquid crystal size selection of large-size graphene oxide for size-dependent n-doping and oxygen reduction catalysis,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9073–9080 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

J. Park, C. Lee, M. Kwak, S. A. Chekol, S. Lim, M. Kim, J. Woo, H. Hwang, and D. Lee, “Microstructural engineering in interface-type synapse device for enhancing linear and symmetric conductance changes,” Nanotechnology 30(30), 305202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. O.

K. E. Lee, J. E. Kim, U. N. Maiti, J. Lim, J. O. Hwang, J. Shim, J. J. Oh, T. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Liquid crystal size selection of large-size graphene oxide for size-dependent n-doping and oxygen reduction catalysis,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9073–9080 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-J.

Y. Lee, J. Yun, M. Seo, S.-J. Kim, J. Oh, C. M. Kang, H.-J. Sun, T. D. Chung, and B. Lee, “Full-color-tunable nanophotonic device using electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin film,” Nano Lett. 20(8), 6084–6090 (2020).
[Crossref]

Korchev, Y. E.

Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kumatani, A.

Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kuznetsov, A. I.

S.-Q. Li, X. Xu, R. M. Veetil, V. Valuckas, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Phase-only transmissive spatial light modulator based on tunable dielectric metasurface,” Science 364(6445), 1087–1090 (2019).
[Crossref]

Kwak, M.

J. Park, C. Lee, M. Kwak, S. A. Chekol, S. Lim, M. Kim, J. Woo, H. Hwang, and D. Lee, “Microstructural engineering in interface-type synapse device for enhancing linear and symmetric conductance changes,” Nanotechnology 30(30), 305202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Laruelle, S.

P. Poizot, S. Laruelle, S. Grugeon, L. Dupont, and J. Tarascon, “Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries,” Nature 407(6803), 496–499 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Y. Lee, J. Yun, M. Seo, S.-J. Kim, J. Oh, C. M. Kang, H.-J. Sun, T. D. Chung, and B. Lee, “Full-color-tunable nanophotonic device using electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin film,” Nano Lett. 20(8), 6084–6090 (2020).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

J. Park, C. Lee, M. Kwak, S. A. Chekol, S. Lim, M. Kim, J. Woo, H. Hwang, and D. Lee, “Microstructural engineering in interface-type synapse device for enhancing linear and symmetric conductance changes,” Nanotechnology 30(30), 305202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.

J. Park, C. Lee, M. Kwak, S. A. Chekol, S. Lim, M. Kim, J. Woo, H. Hwang, and D. Lee, “Microstructural engineering in interface-type synapse device for enhancing linear and symmetric conductance changes,” Nanotechnology 30(30), 305202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. E.

K. E. Lee, J. E. Kim, U. N. Maiti, J. Lim, J. O. Hwang, J. Shim, J. J. Oh, T. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Liquid crystal size selection of large-size graphene oxide for size-dependent n-doping and oxygen reduction catalysis,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9073–9080 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-H.

R. Deshpande, S.-H. Lee, A. Mahan, P. Parilla, K. Jones, A. Norman, B. To, J. Blackburn, S. Mitra, and A. Dillon, “Optimization of crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles for improved electrochromic applications,” Solid State Ionics 178(13-14), 895–900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

Y. Lee, J. Yun, M. Seo, S.-J. Kim, J. Oh, C. M. Kang, H.-J. Sun, T. D. Chung, and B. Lee, “Full-color-tunable nanophotonic device using electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin film,” Nano Lett. 20(8), 6084–6090 (2020).
[Crossref]

Li, S.-Q.

S.-Q. Li, X. Xu, R. M. Veetil, V. Valuckas, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Phase-only transmissive spatial light modulator based on tunable dielectric metasurface,” Science 364(6445), 1087–1090 (2019).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.-L.

J. Peng, H.-H. Jeong, Q. Lin, S. Cormier, H.-L. Liang, M. F. De Volder, S. Vignolini, and J. J. Baumberg, “Scalable electrochromic nanopixels using plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaaw2205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.

K. E. Lee, J. E. Kim, U. N. Maiti, J. Lim, J. O. Hwang, J. Shim, J. J. Oh, T. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Liquid crystal size selection of large-size graphene oxide for size-dependent n-doping and oxygen reduction catalysis,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9073–9080 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, S.

J. Park, C. Lee, M. Kwak, S. A. Chekol, S. Lim, M. Kim, J. Woo, H. Hwang, and D. Lee, “Microstructural engineering in interface-type synapse device for enhancing linear and symmetric conductance changes,” Nanotechnology 30(30), 305202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lin, Q.

J. Peng, H.-H. Jeong, Q. Lin, S. Cormier, H.-L. Liang, M. F. De Volder, S. Vignolini, and J. J. Baumberg, “Scalable electrochromic nanopixels using plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaaw2205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Mahan, A.

R. Deshpande, S.-H. Lee, A. Mahan, P. Parilla, K. Jones, A. Norman, B. To, J. Blackburn, S. Mitra, and A. Dillon, “Optimization of crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles for improved electrochromic applications,” Solid State Ionics 178(13-14), 895–900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Maire, G.

A. Katrib, F. Hemming, P. Wehrer, L. Hilaire, and G. Maire, “The multi-surface structure and catalytic properties of partially reduced WO3, WO2 and WC + O2 or W + O2 as characterized by XPS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 76, 195–200 (1995).
[Crossref]

Maiti, U. N.

K. E. Lee, J. E. Kim, U. N. Maiti, J. Lim, J. O. Hwang, J. Shim, J. J. Oh, T. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Liquid crystal size selection of large-size graphene oxide for size-dependent n-doping and oxygen reduction catalysis,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9073–9080 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marsen, B.

B. Marsen, B. Cole, and E. L. Miller, “Influence of sputter oxygen partial pressure on photoelectrochemical performance of tungsten oxide films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(20), 1954–1958 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matsue, T.

Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014).
[Crossref]

Melloni, A.

S. Zanotto, A. Blancato, A. Buchheit, M. Muñoz-Castro, H.-D. Wiemhöfer, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “Metasurface reconfiguration through lithium-ion intercalation in a transition metal oxide,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600732 (2017).
[Crossref]

Miller, E. L.

B. Marsen, B. Cole, and E. L. Miller, “Influence of sputter oxygen partial pressure on photoelectrochemical performance of tungsten oxide films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(20), 1954–1958 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mitra, S.

R. Deshpande, S.-H. Lee, A. Mahan, P. Parilla, K. Jones, A. Norman, B. To, J. Blackburn, S. Mitra, and A. Dillon, “Optimization of crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles for improved electrochromic applications,” Solid State Ionics 178(13-14), 895–900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Morichetti, F.

S. Zanotto, A. Blancato, A. Buchheit, M. Muñoz-Castro, H.-D. Wiemhöfer, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “Metasurface reconfiguration through lithium-ion intercalation in a transition metal oxide,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600732 (2017).
[Crossref]

Moulijn, J.

F. Kerkhof, J. Moulijn, and A. Heeres, “The XPS spectra of the metathesis catalyst tungsten oxide on silica gel,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 14(6), 453–466 (1978).
[Crossref]

Munakata, H.

Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014).
[Crossref]

Munoz-Castro, M.

M. Munoz-Castro, N. Walter, J. K. Prußing, W. Pernice, and H. Bracht, “Self-holding optical actuator based on a mixed ionic–electronic conductor material,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1182–1190 (2019).
[Crossref]

Muñoz-Castro, M.

S. Zanotto, A. Blancato, A. Buchheit, M. Muñoz-Castro, H.-D. Wiemhöfer, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “Metasurface reconfiguration through lithium-ion intercalation in a transition metal oxide,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600732 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nefedov, V.

V. Nefedov, M. Firsov, and I. Shaplygin, “Electronic structures of MRhO2, MRh2O4, RHMO4 and Rh2MO6 on the basis of X-ray spectroscopy and ESCA data,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 26(1), 65–78 (1982).
[Crossref]

Ng, K.

K. Ng and D. Hercules, “XPS studies of oxides of row transition metals of W,” J. Phys. Chem. C 80, 2095 (1976).

Nguyen, T.

Y. Jugnet, N. Prakash, L. Porte, T. M. Duc, T. Nguyen, R. Cinti, H. Poon, and G. Grenet, “Photoelectron diffraction on clean w (110) surface and bulk 4f core levels,” Phys. Rev. B 37(14), 8066–8071 (1988).
[Crossref]

Norman, A.

R. Deshpande, S.-H. Lee, A. Mahan, P. Parilla, K. Jones, A. Norman, B. To, J. Blackburn, S. Mitra, and A. Dillon, “Optimization of crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles for improved electrochromic applications,” Solid State Ionics 178(13-14), 895–900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oh, J.

Y. Lee, J. Yun, M. Seo, S.-J. Kim, J. Oh, C. M. Kang, H.-J. Sun, T. D. Chung, and B. Lee, “Full-color-tunable nanophotonic device using electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin film,” Nano Lett. 20(8), 6084–6090 (2020).
[Crossref]

Oh, J. J.

K. E. Lee, J. E. Kim, U. N. Maiti, J. Lim, J. O. Hwang, J. Shim, J. J. Oh, T. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Liquid crystal size selection of large-size graphene oxide for size-dependent n-doping and oxygen reduction catalysis,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9073–9080 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paniagua-Domínguez, R.

S.-Q. Li, X. Xu, R. M. Veetil, V. Valuckas, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Phase-only transmissive spatial light modulator based on tunable dielectric metasurface,” Science 364(6445), 1087–1090 (2019).
[Crossref]

Parilla, P.

R. Deshpande, S.-H. Lee, A. Mahan, P. Parilla, K. Jones, A. Norman, B. To, J. Blackburn, S. Mitra, and A. Dillon, “Optimization of crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles for improved electrochromic applications,” Solid State Ionics 178(13-14), 895–900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Park, J.

J. Park, C. Lee, M. Kwak, S. A. Chekol, S. Lim, M. Kim, J. Woo, H. Hwang, and D. Lee, “Microstructural engineering in interface-type synapse device for enhancing linear and symmetric conductance changes,” Nanotechnology 30(30), 305202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Peignon, M.

M. Peignon, C. Cardinaud, and G. Turban, “A kinetic study of reactive ion etching of tungsten in SF6/O2 RF plasmas,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(2), 505–512 (1993).
[Crossref]

Peng, J.

J. Peng, H.-H. Jeong, Q. Lin, S. Cormier, H.-L. Liang, M. F. De Volder, S. Vignolini, and J. J. Baumberg, “Scalable electrochromic nanopixels using plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaaw2205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pernice, W.

M. Munoz-Castro, N. Walter, J. K. Prußing, W. Pernice, and H. Bracht, “Self-holding optical actuator based on a mixed ionic–electronic conductor material,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1182–1190 (2019).
[Crossref]

Poizot, P.

P. Poizot, S. Laruelle, S. Grugeon, L. Dupont, and J. Tarascon, “Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries,” Nature 407(6803), 496–499 (2000).
[Crossref]

Poon, H.

Y. Jugnet, N. Prakash, L. Porte, T. M. Duc, T. Nguyen, R. Cinti, H. Poon, and G. Grenet, “Photoelectron diffraction on clean w (110) surface and bulk 4f core levels,” Phys. Rev. B 37(14), 8066–8071 (1988).
[Crossref]

Porte, L.

Y. Jugnet, N. Prakash, L. Porte, T. M. Duc, T. Nguyen, R. Cinti, H. Poon, and G. Grenet, “Photoelectron diffraction on clean w (110) surface and bulk 4f core levels,” Phys. Rev. B 37(14), 8066–8071 (1988).
[Crossref]

Pott, G.

P. Biloen and G. Pott, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of supported tungsten oxide,” J. Catal. 30(2), 169–174 (1973).
[Crossref]

Prakash, N.

Y. Jugnet, N. Prakash, L. Porte, T. M. Duc, T. Nguyen, R. Cinti, H. Poon, and G. Grenet, “Photoelectron diffraction on clean w (110) surface and bulk 4f core levels,” Phys. Rev. B 37(14), 8066–8071 (1988).
[Crossref]

Prußing, J. K.

M. Munoz-Castro, N. Walter, J. K. Prußing, W. Pernice, and H. Bracht, “Self-holding optical actuator based on a mixed ionic–electronic conductor material,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1182–1190 (2019).
[Crossref]

Robichaud, J.

S. Balaji, Y. Djaoued, A.-S. Albert, R. Brüning, N. Beaudoin, and J. Robichaud, “Porous orthorhombic tungsten oxide thin films: synthesis, characterization, and application in electrochromic and photochromic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3940–3948 (2011).
[Crossref]

Seo, M.

Y. Lee, J. Yun, M. Seo, S.-J. Kim, J. Oh, C. M. Kang, H.-J. Sun, T. D. Chung, and B. Lee, “Full-color-tunable nanophotonic device using electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin film,” Nano Lett. 20(8), 6084–6090 (2020).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V.

S. Ishii, A. Kildishev, V. Shalaev, and V. Drachev, “Controlling the wave focal structure of metallic nanoslit lenses with liquid crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(11), 828–832 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sham, T.

M. Shek, J. Hrbek, T. Sham, and G.-Q. Xu, “A soft X-ray study of the interaction of oxygen with li,” Surf. Sci. 234(3), 324–334 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shaplygin, I.

V. Nefedov, M. Firsov, and I. Shaplygin, “Electronic structures of MRhO2, MRh2O4, RHMO4 and Rh2MO6 on the basis of X-ray spectroscopy and ESCA data,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 26(1), 65–78 (1982).
[Crossref]

Shek, M.

M. Shek, J. Hrbek, T. Sham, and G.-Q. Xu, “A soft X-ray study of the interaction of oxygen with li,” Surf. Sci. 234(3), 324–334 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shiku, H.

Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shim, J.

K. E. Lee, J. E. Kim, U. N. Maiti, J. Lim, J. O. Hwang, J. Shim, J. J. Oh, T. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Liquid crystal size selection of large-size graphene oxide for size-dependent n-doping and oxygen reduction catalysis,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9073–9080 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shiraishi, S.

K. Kanamura, H. Takezawa, S. Shiraishi, and Z.-i. Takehara, “Chemical reaction of lithium surface during immersion in LiClO4 or LiPF6/DEC electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144(6), 1900–1906 (1997).
[Crossref]

Slinger, C. W.

M. Stanley, M. A. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100 mega-pixel spatial light modulator,” in Optical Design and Engineering, vol. 5249 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 297–308.

Smith, A. P.

M. Stanley, M. A. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100 mega-pixel spatial light modulator,” in Optical Design and Engineering, vol. 5249 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 297–308.

Smith, M. A.

M. Stanley, M. A. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100 mega-pixel spatial light modulator,” in Optical Design and Engineering, vol. 5249 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 297–308.

Stanley, M.

M. Stanley, M. A. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100 mega-pixel spatial light modulator,” in Optical Design and Engineering, vol. 5249 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 297–308.

Sun, H.-J.

Y. Lee, J. Yun, M. Seo, S.-J. Kim, J. Oh, C. M. Kang, H.-J. Sun, T. D. Chung, and B. Lee, “Full-color-tunable nanophotonic device using electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin film,” Nano Lett. 20(8), 6084–6090 (2020).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, Y.

Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014).
[Crossref]

Takehara, Z.-i.

K. Kanamura, H. Takezawa, S. Shiraishi, and Z.-i. Takehara, “Chemical reaction of lithium surface during immersion in LiClO4 or LiPF6/DEC electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144(6), 1900–1906 (1997).
[Crossref]

Takezawa, H.

K. Kanamura, H. Takezawa, S. Shiraishi, and Z.-i. Takehara, “Chemical reaction of lithium surface during immersion in LiClO4 or LiPF6/DEC electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144(6), 1900–1906 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tan, K.

B. Chowdari, K. Tan, and W. Chia, “Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of lithium phosphotungstate glasses,” Solid State Ionics 53-56, 1172–1178 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tarascon, J.

P. Poizot, S. Laruelle, S. Grugeon, L. Dupont, and J. Tarascon, “Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries,” Nature 407(6803), 496–499 (2000).
[Crossref]

To, B.

R. Deshpande, S.-H. Lee, A. Mahan, P. Parilla, K. Jones, A. Norman, B. To, J. Blackburn, S. Mitra, and A. Dillon, “Optimization of crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles for improved electrochromic applications,” Solid State Ionics 178(13-14), 895–900 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tuller, H. L.

D. Kalaev and H. L. Tuller, “Active tuning of optical constants in the visible–UV: Praseodymium-doped ceria—a model mixed ionic–electronic conductor,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 9(6), 2001934 (2021).
[Crossref]

Turban, G.

M. Peignon, C. Cardinaud, and G. Turban, “A kinetic study of reactive ion etching of tungsten in SF6/O2 RF plasmas,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(2), 505–512 (1993).
[Crossref]

Unwin, P. R.

Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014).
[Crossref]

Valuckas, V.

S.-Q. Li, X. Xu, R. M. Veetil, V. Valuckas, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Phase-only transmissive spatial light modulator based on tunable dielectric metasurface,” Science 364(6445), 1087–1090 (2019).
[Crossref]

Veetil, R. M.

S.-Q. Li, X. Xu, R. M. Veetil, V. Valuckas, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Phase-only transmissive spatial light modulator based on tunable dielectric metasurface,” Science 364(6445), 1087–1090 (2019).
[Crossref]

Vignolini, S.

J. Peng, H.-H. Jeong, Q. Lin, S. Cormier, H.-L. Liang, M. F. De Volder, S. Vignolini, and J. J. Baumberg, “Scalable electrochromic nanopixels using plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaaw2205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Walter, N.

M. Munoz-Castro, N. Walter, J. K. Prußing, W. Pernice, and H. Bracht, “Self-holding optical actuator based on a mixed ionic–electronic conductor material,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1182–1190 (2019).
[Crossref]

Watson, P. J.

M. Stanley, M. A. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100 mega-pixel spatial light modulator,” in Optical Design and Engineering, vol. 5249 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 297–308.

Wehrer, P.

A. Katrib, F. Hemming, P. Wehrer, L. Hilaire, and G. Maire, “The multi-surface structure and catalytic properties of partially reduced WO3, WO2 and WC + O2 or W + O2 as characterized by XPS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 76, 195–200 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wiemhöfer, H.-D.

S. Zanotto, A. Blancato, A. Buchheit, M. Muñoz-Castro, H.-D. Wiemhöfer, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “Metasurface reconfiguration through lithium-ion intercalation in a transition metal oxide,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600732 (2017).
[Crossref]

Woo, J.

J. Park, C. Lee, M. Kwak, S. A. Chekol, S. Lim, M. Kim, J. Woo, H. Hwang, and D. Lee, “Microstructural engineering in interface-type synapse device for enhancing linear and symmetric conductance changes,” Nanotechnology 30(30), 305202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wood, A.

M. Stanley, M. A. Smith, A. P. Smith, P. J. Watson, S. D. Coomber, C. D. Cameron, C. W. Slinger, and A. Wood, “3D electronic holography display system using a 100 mega-pixel spatial light modulator,” in Optical Design and Engineering, vol. 5249 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2004), pp. 297–308.

Xu, G.-Q.

M. Shek, J. Hrbek, T. Sham, and G.-Q. Xu, “A soft X-ray study of the interaction of oxygen with li,” Surf. Sci. 234(3), 324–334 (1990).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

S.-Q. Li, X. Xu, R. M. Veetil, V. Valuckas, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Phase-only transmissive spatial light modulator based on tunable dielectric metasurface,” Science 364(6445), 1087–1090 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yun, J.

Y. Lee, J. Yun, M. Seo, S.-J. Kim, J. Oh, C. M. Kang, H.-J. Sun, T. D. Chung, and B. Lee, “Full-color-tunable nanophotonic device using electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin film,” Nano Lett. 20(8), 6084–6090 (2020).
[Crossref]

Yun, T.

K. E. Lee, J. E. Kim, U. N. Maiti, J. Lim, J. O. Hwang, J. Shim, J. J. Oh, T. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Liquid crystal size selection of large-size graphene oxide for size-dependent n-doping and oxygen reduction catalysis,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9073–9080 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zanotto, S.

S. Zanotto, A. Blancato, A. Buchheit, M. Muñoz-Castro, H.-D. Wiemhöfer, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “Metasurface reconfiguration through lithium-ion intercalation in a transition metal oxide,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600732 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

K. E. Lee, J. E. Kim, U. N. Maiti, J. Lim, J. O. Hwang, J. Shim, J. J. Oh, T. Yun, and S. O. Kim, “Liquid crystal size selection of large-size graphene oxide for size-dependent n-doping and oxygen reduction catalysis,” ACS Nano 8(9), 9073–9080 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

M. Munoz-Castro, N. Walter, J. K. Prußing, W. Pernice, and H. Bracht, “Self-holding optical actuator based on a mixed ionic–electronic conductor material,” ACS Photonics 6(5), 1182–1190 (2019).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

S. Zanotto, A. Blancato, A. Buchheit, M. Muñoz-Castro, H.-D. Wiemhöfer, F. Morichetti, and A. Melloni, “Metasurface reconfiguration through lithium-ion intercalation in a transition metal oxide,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(2), 1600732 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Kalaev and H. L. Tuller, “Active tuning of optical constants in the visible–UV: Praseodymium-doped ceria—a model mixed ionic–electronic conductor,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 9(6), 2001934 (2021).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

J. Geng, “Three-dimensional display technologies,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 5(4), 456–535 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Catal. (1)

P. Biloen and G. Pott, “X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of supported tungsten oxide,” J. Catal. 30(2), 169–174 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (2)

M. Peignon, C. Cardinaud, and G. Turban, “A kinetic study of reactive ion etching of tungsten in SF6/O2 RF plasmas,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 140(2), 505–512 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. Kanamura, H. Takezawa, S. Shiraishi, and Z.-i. Takehara, “Chemical reaction of lithium surface during immersion in LiClO4 or LiPF6/DEC electrolyte,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144(6), 1900–1906 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (3)

A. Katrib, F. Hemming, P. Wehrer, L. Hilaire, and G. Maire, “The multi-surface structure and catalytic properties of partially reduced WO3, WO2 and WC + O2 or W + O2 as characterized by XPS,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 76, 195–200 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. Kerkhof, J. Moulijn, and A. Heeres, “The XPS spectra of the metathesis catalyst tungsten oxide on silica gel,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 14(6), 453–466 (1978).
[Crossref]

V. Nefedov, M. Firsov, and I. Shaplygin, “Electronic structures of MRhO2, MRh2O4, RHMO4 and Rh2MO6 on the basis of X-ray spectroscopy and ESCA data,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 26(1), 65–78 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

S. Balaji, Y. Djaoued, A.-S. Albert, R. Brüning, N. Beaudoin, and J. Robichaud, “Porous orthorhombic tungsten oxide thin films: synthesis, characterization, and application in electrochromic and photochromic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(11), 3940–3948 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

K. Ng and D. Hercules, “XPS studies of oxides of row transition metals of W,” J. Phys. Chem. C 80, 2095 (1976).

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Ishii, A. Kildishev, V. Shalaev, and V. Drachev, “Controlling the wave focal structure of metallic nanoslit lenses with liquid crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 8(11), 828–832 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

Y. Lee, J. Yun, M. Seo, S.-J. Kim, J. Oh, C. M. Kang, H.-J. Sun, T. D. Chung, and B. Lee, “Full-color-tunable nanophotonic device using electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin film,” Nano Lett. 20(8), 6084–6090 (2020).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

J. Park, C. Lee, M. Kwak, S. A. Chekol, S. Lim, M. Kim, J. Woo, H. Hwang, and D. Lee, “Microstructural engineering in interface-type synapse device for enhancing linear and symmetric conductance changes,” Nanotechnology 30(30), 305202 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Y. Takahashi, A. Kumatani, H. Munakata, H. Inomata, K. Ito, K. Ino, H. Shiku, P. R. Unwin, Y. E. Korchev, K. Kanamura, and T. Matsue, “Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5450 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

P. Poizot, S. Laruelle, S. Grugeon, L. Dupont, and J. Tarascon, “Nano-sized transition-metal oxides as negative-electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries,” Nature 407(6803), 496–499 (2000).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Jugnet, N. Prakash, L. Porte, T. M. Duc, T. Nguyen, R. Cinti, H. Poon, and G. Grenet, “Photoelectron diffraction on clean w (110) surface and bulk 4f core levels,” Phys. Rev. B 37(14), 8066–8071 (1988).
[Crossref]

Sci. Adv. (1)

J. Peng, H.-H. Jeong, Q. Lin, S. Cormier, H.-L. Liang, M. F. De Volder, S. Vignolini, and J. J. Baumberg, “Scalable electrochromic nanopixels using plasmonics,” Sci. Adv. 5(5), eaaw2205 (2019).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S.-Q. Li, X. Xu, R. M. Veetil, V. Valuckas, R. Paniagua-Domínguez, and A. I. Kuznetsov, “Phase-only transmissive spatial light modulator based on tunable dielectric metasurface,” Science 364(6445), 1087–1090 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

B. Marsen, B. Cole, and E. L. Miller, “Influence of sputter oxygen partial pressure on photoelectrochemical performance of tungsten oxide films,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91(20), 1954–1958 (2007).
[Crossref]

Solid State Ionics (2)

R. Deshpande, S.-H. Lee, A. Mahan, P. Parilla, K. Jones, A. Norman, B. To, J. Blackburn, S. Mitra, and A. Dillon, “Optimization of crystalline tungsten oxide nanoparticles for improved electrochromic applications,” Solid State Ionics 178(13-14), 895–900 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Chowdari, K. Tan, and W. Chia, “Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of lithium phosphotungstate glasses,” Solid State Ionics 53-56, 1172–1178 (1992).
[Crossref]

Surf. Sci. (1)

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[Crossref]

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Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Fabrication process flow of the proposed GTC-device. For the GTC-device, Li ion intercalation was utilized. (b) Cross sectional transmission electron microscope image and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping analyses of the fabricated GTC-device.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Optical characteristics of the GTC-device based on different (a) working pressures and (b) oxygen proportions. At optimized conditions (28.5 mTorr and 60$\%$), the GTC-device exhibited more reliable and clear optical characteristics.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) XPS depth profile of the 20$\%$-device. The Li ions are initially diffused into the WO$_x$ layer. For 20$\%$-, 40$\%$-, and 80$\%$-device, (b) lithium 1s XPS spectrum in the middle of WO$_x$ layer and (c) tungsten 4f XPS spectrum at interface between LiPON and WO$_x$ layers. (A and B mean more complicated WO$_x$ bindings.)
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Achieved gradual transmittance modulation of the GTC-device under variable bias (−10 $\sim$ −5 V). (b) Simple schematic of optical dot slit experiment. (c) Light interference and diffraction patterns depending on GTC-device states: all bleach, bleach and coloration (named odd), and all coloration. These results strongly mean that the developed GTC-device can occur light interference and diffraction by the transmittance modulation.