Abstract

Infrared (IR) light photodetection based on two dimensional (2D) materials has attracted increasing attention. However, the weak IR absorption in 2D materials due to their inherent atomically thin thickness degrades their performance when used as IR photodetectors. Dielectric metasurfaces have represented fantastic functionalities in realizing high-efficiency wavefront control in the optical and infrared ranges. In this work, we design an all-dielectric phase gradient metasurface in the mid-infrared to improve the limited absorption of black phosphorous (BP). With the elaborately designed metasurface the incident infrared light in the form of plane wave is converted into surface wave, and it is guided to concentrate at the very center of the structure. Enhanced electric field is achieved at the center of the structure. With placement of thin layer BP of 5 µm×5 µm size, the absorption can be enhanced to about 3.77% at 3.6 µm, which is about 20 times larger than that of bare thin layer BP. Different sizes and thickness of the BP are also investigated to demonstrate the effectiveness and flexibility of our design. Owing to the lossless and absorption enhancement properties of our structure, our design may find applications in the upcoming highly efficient 2D photodetectors.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Infrared (IR) photodetectors are essential components in various fields, especially for telecommunications, thermal imaging, non-destructive testing, biomedical imaging, military reconnaissance and night vision imaging [1,2]. Since the very discovery of graphene, two-dimensional (2D) materials-based IR photodetection has received enormous attentions due to the unique physical properties, such as atomic-level thickness, high carrier mobility, and easy integration characteristics [35]. The light absorption capacity of the detection materials determines the quantum efficiency and affects the performance of the photodetectors. However, 2D materials have limited light absorption for their inherent atomically thin thickness. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the interaction of light and 2D materials for real and wide applications.

For this purpose, many methods have been proposed, such as integrated waveguides [6,7], diffraction gratings [8], and plasmonic nanostructures [9,10]. For instance, Wang's group demonstrated a graphene/silicon heterostructure waveguide photodetector with a high responsivity of 0.13AW−1 at a 1.5 V bias for 2.75 µm [7]. Yao et al. showed that metallic antenna structures can improve light absorption in graphene detectors [11]. Li et al. fabricated a grating-patterned nanoparticle structure to enhance optical absorption by coupling of the MoS2 to localized surface plasmons [12]. Previous researches have confirmed that optical absorption can be significantly enhanced by excited localized surface within metal nanostructure [1315]. However, the efficiency of metallic structures is limited due to the ohmic loss [16,17], and the permittivities lack active tunability at specific wavelengths [18]. Components based on one-dimensional high-contrast gratings have higher efficiencies, but cannot realize accurate phase or polarization profiles in the direction along the grating lines due to lack of necessarily high spatial resolution [19,20]. There are also researches on the method of designing nano-patterns [2123] or constructing heterojunctions [24]. For the former, an infinite periodic structure is often required; for the latter, the realization of high-quality interfaces remains a challenge.

Recently, the quick development of planar subwavelength optics provides us a new method to concentrate light into a strongly localized active volume, which is also known as metasurface. The metasurface is composed of artificially designed units, and it has arbitrarily adjustable electromagnetic parameters, ultrathin profile, and ultralight characteristics which natural materials do not possess [25]. By altering the shape and the size of each meta-unit and arranging these meta-units in a proper way, the metasurfaces can freely control the amplitude, phase, polarization mode and beam shape of electromagnetic waves in a wide range of spectrum from the visible to the terahertz band [2628]. Among them, phase gradient metasurfaces received the most research interest [2932]. Phase gradient metasurface can cause a sudden phase change of the reflected or refracted electromagnetic wave through changing the sub-wavelength sizes of the resonance units and arranging them with a continuously distributed phase shift. The additional wave vector introduced by the phase gradient offers us a chance to manipulate the incident light with control over propagation direction, wavefront form and polarization states.

Mid-infrared (MIR) contains two atmospheric transmission windows, which is also the intrinsic vibration absorption frequency band of most materials in nature. It has numerous applications in medical, military, industrial and other fields. Considering BP exhibits a thickness-tunable direct bandgap from the near infrared to the MIR [33,34] and monolithic integration with traditional electronic materials such as silicon [35], here we propose an all-dielectric gradient metasurface to demonstrate its absorption enhancement in thin layer BP in MIR. By selecting elemental meta-atoms of appropriate size and conducting reasonable arrangements, the gradient metasurface can achieve in-plane convergence. We also investigate the absorption dependence on sizes and thicknesses of BP.

2. Results and discussions

Figure 1 illustrates the proposed gradient metasurface, the structure consists of a series of periodic rings which introduces a constant phase gradient. Due to the opposite phase gradients, when the polarized light is normally incident, it will be coupled into two rows of surface waves propagating toward the center and converges to form an enhanced electric field. The BP is placed at the position where the electric field is enhanced to enhance the absorption. The designed metasurface is lossless since all the materials used in our structure have no absorption in MIR. The unit cell is shown in the inset. It consists of silicon on the top of the middle CaF2. Perfect electric condition (PEC) is applied at the very bottom. The refractive index of silicon is 3.43 at wavelength of 3.6 µm and the refractive index of CaF2 is 1.4 [36]. The imaginary part of the refractive index of the Si and CaF2 are both negligible at this wavelength. The structural parameters are: period P = 500 nm, silicon height H = 1700nm, and CaF2 thickness h = 250 nm. The length of silicon changes to realize different phase shifts. Each super cell contains five unit cells arranged with a constant phase gradient.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Schematics of the phase gradient metasurface. Inset shows the unit cell which is composed of silicon waveguide and continuous CaF2 dielectric film followed by the PEC. MIR light is vertically incident with polarization along x-axis.

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The simulation is conducted with finite element method (COMSOL Multiphysics). Scattering boundary conditions are employed in x and y directions. The default finer meshing generation is adopted. The smallest mesh size is 50 nm. BP is set by transition boundary conditions. In the mid-infrared regime, the surface conductivity of BP can be described using the semi-classical Drude model ${\sigma _{\textrm{jj}}} = i{D_\textrm{j}}{\pi ^{ - 1}}{({\omega + i\eta {\hbar^{ - 1}}} )^{ - 1}}$ [37,38], where j = x, y represents the x and y directions, respectively. ${D_\textrm{j}}$ is the Drude weight, ω is the incident light frequency, $\eta $= 10 meV is the electron relaxation rate, ħ is the reduced Planck's constant. The parameter of ${D_\textrm{j}}$ is described by ${D_\textrm{j}} = \pi {e^2}nm_\textrm{j}^{ - 1}$, where e is the electron charge, n = 9×1013 cm−2 is the electron doping, the BP sheet is treated as a thin layer of 10 nm, mcx = 0.15 m0 and mcy = 0.7 m0 (m0 is the static electron mass) are the in-plane electron's effective mass along the x and y directions, respectively [39]. Hence, the equivalent relative permittivity of BP in three directions can be derived by ${\varepsilon _{\textrm{jj}}} = {\varepsilon _\textrm{r}} + i{\sigma _{\textrm{jj}}}{({{\varepsilon_0}\omega t} )^{ - 1}}$, where j = x, y, z represents the x, y and z directions, respectively. ${\varepsilon _\textrm{r}}$ = 5.76 is the relative permittivity of BP [4042], ${\varepsilon _0}$ is the vacuum permittivity.

The first step to design the phase gradient metasurface is to achieve the entire 2π phase coverage while maintain the transmittance by sweeping the geometric parameters of unit cell. As shown in Fig. 2(a), periodic boundary conditions are employed in x direction and scattering boundary condition is used along the direction of y-axis. The x-polarized plane wave is normally illuminated on silicon waveguide from the upper direction. With parametric optimization, it is observed that for the range of L from 200 nm to 440 nm, the full 2π phase profile can be achieved as depicted in Fig. 2(b) at the wavelength of 3.6 µm. In this work, we use rectangular silicon waveguide arrays to create a dielectric gradient metasurface, which consists of five unit cells in a super cell and the phase increment is 2π/5 (L1 = 222 nm, L2 = 272 nm, L3 = 330 nm, L4 = 380 nm, L5 = 401 nm).

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Geometry and operating principle of the structure. (a) Boundary conditions setup for the unit cell simulations. (b) The reflected phase with different length of Si structure at 3.6 µm. The blue stars represent the selected L for five unit cells with the phase step of 2π/5. (c) Simulated scattered Ex field pattern of the gradient metasurface. (d) Simulated Ex field distributions on the x-y plane for three super cells.

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With proper arrangement of the phase change unit cells, the metasurface offers a phase gradient along the x direction. Anomalous reflection is achieved with the additional phase gradient $d\phi /dx = 2\pi /{L_\textrm{x}}$, where Lx denotes the period of a super cell of the metasurface, $d\phi$ and $dx$ are the phase difference and the distance between adjacent units in a super cell, respectively. According to generalized Snell's law $\sin ({{\theta_\textrm{r}}} )- \sin ({{\theta_\textrm{i}}} )= {\lambda _0}{({2\pi {n_\textrm{i}}} )^{ - 1}}({d\phi /dx})$ [43], where ${\theta _{\textrm{r}}}$ is the reflected light, ${\theta _{\textrm{i}}}$ is the angle of incidence which is 0 degree in our simulation, ${n_\textrm{i}}$ is reflective indices of media which is 1 in our simulation and ${\lambda _0}$ is the operational wavelength, respectively. If the phase gradient $d\phi /dx$ is larger than the wave vector of the incident wave ($2\mathrm{\pi }/{\lambda _0}$), the normally incident light can be converted to surface wave that propagates along the interface. In other word, for subwavelength super period ${L_\textrm{x}} \le {\lambda _0}$, the metasurface introduces an additional wave vector which is larger than that of light in free space along x-axis and compensates the condition for the existence of surface wave. Specifically, we consider a normally incident light at wavelength ${\lambda _0}$ = 3.6 µm and the periodicity of a super cell is Lx = 2500 nm, as shown in Fig. 2(c). To confirm the performance of designed gradient metasurface, a gradient metasurface with three super-cells is simulated using full wave simulation. Figure 2(d) illustrates the x-components of electric field Ex in x-y plane, which clearly shows the existence of surface wave.

Based on the grating structure, we further optimized the structure as circular rings which can induce opposite phase gradients along the x-direction when a linearly polarized plane wave is normally incident on the metasurface. The laws of reflection in dielectric gradient metasurface can be written as:

$$\left\{ {\begin{array}{l} {{k_0}\sin ({{\theta_{r1}}} )- {k_0}\sin ({{\theta_i}} )= {k_{m1}}\; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; {k_{m1}}\; > 0}\\ {{k_0}\sin ({{\theta_{r2}}} )- {k_0}\sin ({{\theta_i}} )= {k_{m2}}\; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; \; {k_{m2}}\; < 0} \end{array}} \right.$$

Where ${\theta _\textrm{i}}$ is the incident angle, ${\theta _{\textrm{r}1,2}}$ is reflection angles, ${k_0} = 2\pi /{\lambda _0}$ is the wave vector in the free space and ${k_{\textrm{m}1,2}} = d\phi /dx$ indicates the gradient of the phase discontinuity along the interface of dielectric structure. Here it should be noted that the reflect angle has opposite sign for the left and right parts.

With the dielectric rings structure, the coupled surface waves propagate along the interface of metasurface in opposite directions from the left and right side, and finally converge at the center of the device. We define N as the number of super cells. In order to confirm the electric field enhancement, Fig. 3(a) presents the simulated electric field distribution on x-y plane at the wavelength of 3.6 µm (N=15), x-polarized light is incident along the negative direction of the z-axis. It shows that the metasurface can achieve the convergence of incident electromagnetic wave with high intensity spots at the center of the structure. Electric field distribution on x-z plane shown in Fig. 3(b) further verifies the convergence. Figure 3(c) illustrates the corresponding horizontal cuts of x-y cross section. The distance between the two largest peaks is 3 µm which indicates the position of the strongest electric field intensity in the structure.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Simulated results for the electric field intensity distribution on the gradient metasurface. (a) Electric field distribution of x-y cross section on top of silicon ring structures. (b) Electric field distribution of the cross section on x-z plane. The slice is along the direction of ring diameter. (c) The corresponding normalized electric field intensity along the line at the center of cross section in Fig. 3(a).

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To have a direct look at the absorption enhancement of the all-dielectric metasurface on the BP, a 5 µm×5 µm thin layer BP is placed on top of the metasurface. The absorption is calculated by recording the time-average power flow in the z direction near the structure. As shown in Fig. 4(b), the absorption with metasurface has much higher absorptance 3.77% at 3.6 µm which is nearly 20 times larger than that of BP suspended in air. There is a certain reflection loss in the structure. Multiple reflections are responsible for the energy-loss of higher order diffraction. The number of propagation of multiple reflections and the number of unit cells affect the order of diffraction [4446]. It is possible to further increase the absorption of BP by increasing the number of unit cells in a period due to the improved diffraction efficiency of the higher-order diffracted beam [47,48]. Besides, more unit cells in a fixed period also mean more accurate phase approximations.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Simulation results for the integration of BP and gradient metasurface. (a) Distributions of the electric field on the (x, y) cross sections of the silicon ring structure with 5 µm×5 µm monolayer BP. (b) Absorption of BP with gradient metasurface and without gradient metasurface, aBP=5 µm. (c) Absorption of different side length of BP. (d) Absorption of different simulated thickness of BP.

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We also investigated the absorption dependence on the size of the BP. Nine side lengths from 1µm to 9 µm are calculated and shown in Fig. 4(c). As the side length of BP becomes larger, the absorptance increases. However, it gradually saturates as the length reaches 5 µm. Because the peak value of the electric field intensity is contained in the range of 5 µm and the electric field intensity at the edges of the structure decreases. The absorptance is also dependent on the thickness of BP. With fixed side length 5 µm, different thickness from 10 nm to 100 nm is simulated and shown in Fig. 4(d). The parameters of BP for different thickness are derived from the Ref. [33]. As the thickness becomes larger, the absorptance increases monotonically and reaches its maximum 28.57% at hBP = 80 nm. Further increasing the thickness leads to reduced absorptance. We attribute this to the intensity decrease of surface waves on the normal direction of the metasurface. In experiments, the stability of BP can be effectively improved to a certain extent by covering the surface of BP with a protective layer, surface chemical modification, surface etching, or incorporation of appropriate elements [4952].

3. Conclusion

In summary, we propose an all-dielectric gradient metasurface design for improving the MIR absorption of thin layer BP by surface wave coupling. The metasurface is demonstrated to converge the incidence into a reduced photosensitive area. By changing the side length and thickness of BP, we have found the optimized structural parameters which can maximize the absorption up to 20 times larger. Such dielectric metasurfaces are compatible with existing semiconductor technologies and are easy to be fabricated, which makes this methodology promising in developing next-generation low-loss and miniaturized infrared detector devices.

Funding

Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (2017285); Key Project of Frontier Science Research of Chinese Academy of Sciences (QYZDJSSWJSC007); Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (18JC1420401, 20JC1416000); Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (2019SHZDZX01); Shanghai Rising-Star Program (20QA1410400); Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB43010200); National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFA0205800, 2018YFA0306200); National Natural Science Foundation of China (61521005, 61705249, 61874126, 61875218, 61991440, 91850208).

Disclosures

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

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51. J. J. Pei, X. Gai, J. Yang, X. B. Wang, Z. F. Yu, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. R. Lu, “Producing air-stable monolayer of phosphorene and their defect engineering,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10450 (2016). [CrossRef]  

52. B. C. Yang, B. S. Wan, Q. H. Zhou, Y. Wang, W. T. Hu, W. M. Lv, Q. Chen, Z. M. Zeng, F. S. Wen, J. Y. Xiang, S. J. Yuan, J. L. Wang, B. S. Zhang, W. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Xu, Z. S. Zhao, Y. J. Tian, and Z. Y. Liu, “Te-doped black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Adv. Mater. 28(42), 9408–9415 (2016). [CrossRef]  

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  52. B. C. Yang, B. S. Wan, Q. H. Zhou, Y. Wang, W. T. Hu, W. M. Lv, Q. Chen, Z. M. Zeng, F. S. Wen, J. Y. Xiang, S. J. Yuan, J. L. Wang, B. S. Zhang, W. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Xu, Z. S. Zhao, Y. J. Tian, and Z. Y. Liu, “Te-doped black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Adv. Mater. 28(42), 9408–9415 (2016).
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2020 (8)

J. L. Li, C. B. Nie, F. Y. Sun, L. L. Tang, Z. J. Zhang, J. D. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Shen, S. L. Feng, H. F. Shi, and X. Z. Wei, “Enhancement of the photoresponse of monolayer mos2 photodetectors induced by a nanoparticle grating,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(7), 8429–8436 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. X. Xia, X. Zhai, L. L. Wang, and S. C. Wen, “Plasmonically induced transparency in in-plane isotropic and anisotropic 2d materials,” Opt. Express 28(6), 7980–8002 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, Y. Liu, C. Z. Fang, Y. Shao, G. Q. Han, J. C. Zhang, and Y. Hao, “Active tuning of the hybridization effects of mid-infrared surface plasmon resonance in a black phosphorus sheet array and a metal grating slit,” Opt. Mater. Express 10(1), 14–28 (2020).
[Crossref]

B. Z. Yan, G. R. Li, B. N. Shi, J. T. Liu, H. K. Nie, K. J. Yang, B. T. Zhang, and J. L. He, “2D tellurene/black phosphorus heterojunctions based broadband nonlinear saturable absorber,” Nanophotonics 9(8), 2593–2602 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Fu, C. Shen, X. H. Zhu, J. F. Li, Y. W. Liu, S. A. Cummer, and Y. D. Xu, “Sound vortex diffraction via topological charge in phase gradient metagratings,” Sci. Adv. 6(40), eaba9876 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Zhu, Y. Y. Cao, Y. Y. Fu, X. C. Li, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, and Y. D. Xu, “Switchable bifunctional metasurfaces: nearly perfect retroreflection and absorption at the terahertz regime,” Opt. Lett. 45(14), 3989–3992 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Q. Wang, S. L. Li, Y. G. Zhou, J. P. Huang, Q. Ren, J. M. Zhuo, and Y. J. Cai, “Enhanced terahertz modulation using a plasmonic perfect absorber based on black phosphorus,” Appl. Opt. 59(29), 9279 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Fu, J. Q. Tao, A. L. Song, Y. W. Liu, and Y. D. Xu, “Controllably asymmetric beam splitting via gap-induced diffraction channel transition in dual-layer binary metagratings,” Front. Phys. 15(5), 52502 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (7)

Y. Y. Cao, Y. Y. Fu, Q. J. Zhou, X. Ou, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, and Y. D. Xu, “Mechanism behind angularly asymmetric diffraction in phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(2), 024006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Fu, C. Shen, Y. Y. Cao, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, C. T. Chan, S. A. Cummer, and Y. D. Xu, “Reversal of transmission and reflection based on acoustic metagratings with integer parity design,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2326 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Fu, Y. Y. Cao, and Y. D. Xu, “Multifunctional reflection in acoustic metagratings with simplified design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(5), 053502 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Han, L. Wang, H. Z. Xing, and X. S. Chen, “Anisotropic plasmon induced transparency in black phosphorus nanostrip trimer,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(2), 352–361 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. P. Zhou, L. Chen, F. Shen, K. Guo, and Z. Y. Guo, “Broadband achromatic metalens in the midinfrared range,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(2), 024066 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. T. Liu, X. Y. Jiang, C. B. Zhou, and S. Y. Xiao, “Black phosphorus-based anisotropic absorption structure in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 27(20), 27618–27627 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. K. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Gao, P. Luo, J. W. Su, W. Han, K. L. Liu, H. Q. Li, and T. Y. Zhai, “2D metal chalcogenides for IR photodetection,” Small 15(30), 1901347 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

S. Bang, N. T. Duong, J. Lee, Y. H. Cho, H. M. Oh, H. Kim, S. J. Yun, C. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, J. Kim, and M. S. Jeong, “Augmented Quantum Yield of a 2D Monolayer Photodetector by Surface Plasmon Coupling,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2316–2323 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhou, J. J. Wang, K. Guo, F. Shen, Q. F. Zhou, Z. P. Yin, and Z. Y. Guo, “GuoHigh-efficiency terahertz polarization devices based on the dielectric metasurface,” Superlattices Microstruct. 114, 75–81 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Han, L. Wang, H. Z. Xing, and X. S. Chen, “Active tuning of mid-infrared surface plasmon resonance and its hybridization in black phosphorus sheet array,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3828–3837 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Z. Fang, Y. Liu, G. Q. Han, Y. Shao, J. C. Zhang, and Y. Hao, “Localized plasmon resonances for black phosphorus bowtie nanoantennas at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27683–27693 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Gwanho, D. Dasol, K. Nam, and J. Rho, “Geometric metasurface enabling polarization independent beam splitting,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9468 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

F. Xiong, J. F. Zhang, Z. H. Zhu, X. D. Yuan, and S. Q. Qin, “Strong anisotropic perfect absorption in monolayer black phosphorous and its application as tunable polarizer,” J. Opt. 19(7), 075002 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Guo, L. Zhu, F. Shen, H. P. Zhou, and R. K. Gao, “Dielectric metasurface based high-efficiency polarization splitters,” RSC Adv. 7(16), 9872–9879 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. W. Zhuge, Z. Zheng, P. Luo, L. Lv, Y. Huang, H. Q. Li, and T. Y. Zhai, “Nanostructured materials and architectures for advanced infrared photodetection,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 2(8), 1700005 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

Y. D. Xu, Y. Y. Fu, and H. Y. Chen, “Planar gradient metamaterials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(12), 16067 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized surface plasmons in nanostructured monolayer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. J. Pei, X. Gai, J. Yang, X. B. Wang, Z. F. Yu, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. R. Lu, “Producing air-stable monolayer of phosphorene and their defect engineering,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10450 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. C. Yang, B. S. Wan, Q. H. Zhou, Y. Wang, W. T. Hu, W. M. Lv, Q. Chen, Z. M. Zeng, F. S. Wen, J. Y. Xiang, S. J. Yuan, J. L. Wang, B. S. Zhang, W. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Xu, Z. S. Zhao, Y. J. Tian, and Z. Y. Liu, “Te-doped black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Adv. Mater. 28(42), 9408–9415 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

J. S. Kim, Y. N. Liu, W. N. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Xu, Y. Y. Fu, and H. Y. Chen, “Steering light by a sub-wavelength metallic grating from transformation optics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 12219 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. R. Zhang, Z. Y. Guo, C. W. Ge, W. Wang, R. Z. Li, Y. X. Sun, F. Shen, S. L. Qu, and J. Gao, “Plasmonic focusing lens based on single-turn nano-pinholes array,” Opt. Express 23(14), 17883–17891 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 247–252 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. C. J. Lee, Y. H. Chen, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Cheng, P. Y. Chen, T. Y. Wu, M. H. Shih, K. H. Wei, L. J. Li, and C. W. Chang, “Plasmonic Gold Nanorods Coverage Influence on Enhancement of the Photoluminescence of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Monolayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16374 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. S. Asadchy, Y. Ra’Di, J. Vehmas, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Functional metamirrors using bianisotropic elements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(9), 095503 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (9)

A. Sobhani, A. Lauchner, S. Najmaei, C. Ayala-Orozco, F. F. Wen, J. Lou, and N. J. Halas, “Enhancing the photocurrent and photoluminescence of single crystal monolayer MoS2 with resonant plasmonic nanoshells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031112 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chou and F. C. Chen, “Plasmonic nanostructures for light trapping in organic photovoltaic devices,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8444–8458 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, P. Rauter, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “High-responsivity mid-infrared graphene detectors with antenna-enhanced photocarrier generation and collection,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3749–3754 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Jariwala, V. K. Sangwan, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Emerging device applications for semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1102–1120 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. N. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. S. Qiao, X. H. Kong, Z. X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4475 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. J. Jiang, H. Wang, F. N. Xia, and A. H. C. Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Low, R. Roldan, H. Wang, F. N. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K. S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. L. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. M. Wang, Z. Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J. B. Xu, “High responsivity graphene/silicon heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y. J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Metamaterial huygens’ surfaces: tailoring wave fronts with reflectionless sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(19), 197401 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

B. Chitara, L. S. Panchakarla, S. B. Krupanidhi, and C. N. R. Rao, “Infrared photodetectors based on reduced graphene oxide and graphene nanoribbons,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5419–5424 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

N. I. Zheludev, “The road ahead for metamaterials,” Science 328(5978), 582–583 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

C. Cocoyer, L. Rocha, L. Sicot, B. Geffroy, R. de Bettignies, C. Sentein, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, and P. Raimond, “Implementation of submicrometric periodic surface structures toward improvement of organic-solar-cell performances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akinwande, D.

J. S. Kim, Y. N. Liu, W. N. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
[Crossref]

Asadchy, V. S.

V. S. Asadchy, Y. Ra’Di, J. Vehmas, and S. A. Tretyakov, “Functional metamirrors using bianisotropic elements,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(9), 095503 (2015).
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Assefa, S.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

T. Low, R. Roldan, H. Wang, F. N. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
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Ayala-Orozco, C.

A. Sobhani, A. Lauchner, S. Najmaei, C. Ayala-Orozco, F. F. Wen, J. Lou, and N. J. Halas, “Enhancing the photocurrent and photoluminescence of single crystal monolayer MoS2 with resonant plasmonic nanoshells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(3), 031112 (2014).
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Aydin, K.

Z. Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized surface plasmons in nanostructured monolayer black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016).
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Bai, B. F.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bang, S.

S. Bang, N. T. Duong, J. Lee, Y. H. Cho, H. M. Oh, H. Kim, S. J. Yun, C. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, J. Kim, and M. S. Jeong, “Augmented Quantum Yield of a 2D Monolayer Photodetector by Surface Plasmon Coupling,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2316–2323 (2018).
[Crossref]

Belle, B. D.

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y. J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref]

Britnell, L.

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y. J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y. J.

Cao, Y. Y.

S. Zhu, Y. Y. Cao, Y. Y. Fu, X. C. Li, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, and Y. D. Xu, “Switchable bifunctional metasurfaces: nearly perfect retroreflection and absorption at the terahertz regime,” Opt. Lett. 45(14), 3989–3992 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Fu, Y. Y. Cao, and Y. D. Xu, “Multifunctional reflection in acoustic metagratings with simplified design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(5), 053502 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Fu, C. Shen, Y. Y. Cao, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, C. T. Chan, S. A. Cummer, and Y. D. Xu, “Reversal of transmission and reflection based on acoustic metagratings with integer parity design,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2326 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Cao, Y. Y. Fu, Q. J. Zhou, X. Ou, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, and Y. D. Xu, “Mechanism behind angularly asymmetric diffraction in phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(2), 024006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, P. Rauter, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “High-responsivity mid-infrared graphene detectors with antenna-enhanced photocarrier generation and collection,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 3749–3754 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Carvalho, A.

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. J. Jiang, H. Wang, F. N. Xia, and A. H. C. Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 90(7), 075434 (2014).
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Casiraghi, C.

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y. J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Castro Neto, A. H.

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y. J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chan, C. T.

Y. Y. Fu, C. Shen, Y. Y. Cao, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, C. T. Chan, S. A. Cummer, and Y. D. Xu, “Reversal of transmission and reflection based on acoustic metagratings with integer parity design,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2326 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. W.

K. C. J. Lee, Y. H. Chen, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Cheng, P. Y. Chen, T. Y. Wu, M. H. Shih, K. H. Wei, L. J. Li, and C. W. Chang, “Plasmonic Gold Nanorods Coverage Influence on Enhancement of the Photoluminescence of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Monolayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16374 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 247–252 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, F. C.

C. H. Chou and F. C. Chen, “Plasmonic nanostructures for light trapping in organic photovoltaic devices,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8444–8458 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. Y.

S. Zhu, Y. Y. Cao, Y. Y. Fu, X. C. Li, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, and Y. D. Xu, “Switchable bifunctional metasurfaces: nearly perfect retroreflection and absorption at the terahertz regime,” Opt. Lett. 45(14), 3989–3992 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Fu, C. Shen, Y. Y. Cao, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, C. T. Chan, S. A. Cummer, and Y. D. Xu, “Reversal of transmission and reflection based on acoustic metagratings with integer parity design,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2326 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Cao, Y. Y. Fu, Q. J. Zhou, X. Ou, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, and Y. D. Xu, “Mechanism behind angularly asymmetric diffraction in phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(2), 024006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Xu, Y. Y. Fu, and H. Y. Chen, “Planar gradient metamaterials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(12), 16067 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Xu, Y. Y. Fu, and H. Y. Chen, “Steering light by a sub-wavelength metallic grating from transformation optics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 12219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. S.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K. S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. L. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

H. P. Zhou, L. Chen, F. Shen, K. Guo, and Z. Y. Guo, “Broadband achromatic metalens in the midinfrared range,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(2), 024066 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. Y.

K. C. J. Lee, Y. H. Chen, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Cheng, P. Y. Chen, T. Y. Wu, M. H. Shih, K. H. Wei, L. J. Li, and C. W. Chang, “Plasmonic Gold Nanorods Coverage Influence on Enhancement of the Photoluminescence of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Monolayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16374 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

B. C. Yang, B. S. Wan, Q. H. Zhou, Y. Wang, W. T. Hu, W. M. Lv, Q. Chen, Z. M. Zeng, F. S. Wen, J. Y. Xiang, S. J. Yuan, J. L. Wang, B. S. Zhang, W. H. Wang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Xu, Z. S. Zhao, Y. J. Tian, and Z. Y. Liu, “Te-doped black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Adv. Mater. 28(42), 9408–9415 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. S.

L. Han, L. Wang, H. Z. Xing, and X. S. Chen, “Anisotropic plasmon induced transparency in black phosphorus nanostrip trimer,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(2), 352–361 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Han, L. Wang, H. Z. Xing, and X. S. Chen, “Active tuning of mid-infrared surface plasmon resonance and its hybridization in black phosphorus sheet array,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3828–3837 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. Z.

L. L. Huang, X. Z. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. X. Li, B. F. Bai, Q. F. Tan, G. F. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. H.

K. C. J. Lee, Y. H. Chen, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Cheng, P. Y. Chen, T. Y. Wu, M. H. Shih, K. H. Wei, L. J. Li, and C. W. Chang, “Plasmonic Gold Nanorods Coverage Influence on Enhancement of the Photoluminescence of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Monolayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16374 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. C.

K. C. J. Lee, Y. H. Chen, H. Y. Lin, C. C. Cheng, P. Y. Chen, T. Y. Wu, M. H. Shih, K. H. Wei, L. J. Li, and C. W. Chang, “Plasmonic Gold Nanorods Coverage Influence on Enhancement of the Photoluminescence of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Monolayer,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16374 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Z. Z.

X. M. Wang, Z. Z. Cheng, K. Xu, H. K. Tsang, and J. B. Xu, “High responsivity graphene/silicon heterostructure waveguide photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 888–891 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chitara, B.

B. Chitara, L. S. Panchakarla, S. B. Krupanidhi, and C. N. R. Rao, “Infrared photodetectors based on reduced graphene oxide and graphene nanoribbons,” Adv. Mater. 23(45), 5419–5424 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cho, E.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K. S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. L. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cho, Y. H.

S. Bang, N. T. Duong, J. Lee, Y. H. Cho, H. M. Oh, H. Kim, S. J. Yun, C. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, J. Kim, and M. S. Jeong, “Augmented Quantum Yield of a 2D Monolayer Photodetector by Surface Plasmon Coupling,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2316–2323 (2018).
[Crossref]

Choi, D. Y.

J. J. Pei, X. Gai, J. Yang, X. B. Wang, Z. F. Yu, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. R. Lu, “Producing air-stable monolayer of phosphorene and their defect engineering,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10450 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chou, C. H.

C. H. Chou and F. C. Chen, “Plasmonic nanostructures for light trapping in organic photovoltaic devices,” Nanoscale 6(15), 8444–8458 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cocoyer, C.

C. Cocoyer, L. Rocha, L. Sicot, B. Geffroy, R. de Bettignies, C. Sentein, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, and P. Raimond, “Implementation of submicrometric periodic surface structures toward improvement of organic-solar-cell performances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cummer, S. A.

Y. Y. Fu, C. Shen, X. H. Zhu, J. F. Li, Y. W. Liu, S. A. Cummer, and Y. D. Xu, “Sound vortex diffraction via topological charge in phase gradient metagratings,” Sci. Adv. 6(40), eaba9876 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Fu, C. Shen, Y. Y. Cao, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, C. T. Chan, S. A. Cummer, and Y. D. Xu, “Reversal of transmission and reflection based on acoustic metagratings with integer parity design,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2326 (2019).
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Dasol, D.

Y. Gwanho, D. Dasol, K. Nam, and J. Rho, “Geometric metasurface enabling polarization independent beam splitting,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 9468 (2018).
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de Bettignies, R.

C. Cocoyer, L. Rocha, L. Sicot, B. Geffroy, R. de Bettignies, C. Sentein, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, and P. Raimond, “Implementation of submicrometric periodic surface structures toward improvement of organic-solar-cell performances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dodabalapur, A.

J. S. Kim, Y. N. Liu, W. N. Zhu, S. Kim, D. Wu, L. Tao, A. Dodabalapur, K. Lai, and D. Akinwande, “Toward air-stable multilayer phosphorene thin-films and transistors,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8989 (2015).
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Dubey, M.

F. N. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
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Duong, N. T.

S. Bang, N. T. Duong, J. Lee, Y. H. Cho, H. M. Oh, H. Kim, S. J. Yun, C. Park, M. K. Kwon, J. Y. Kim, J. Kim, and M. S. Jeong, “Augmented Quantum Yield of a 2D Monolayer Photodetector by Surface Plasmon Coupling,” Nano Lett. 18(4), 2316–2323 (2018).
[Crossref]

Eckmann, A.

L. Britnell, R. M. Ribeiro, A. Eckmann, R. Jalil, B. D. Belle, A. Mishchenko, Y. J. Kim, R. V. Gorbachev, T. Georgiou, S. V. Morozov, A. N. Grigorenko, A. K. Geim, C. Casiraghi, A. H. Castro Neto, and K. S. Novoselov, “Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films,” Science 340(6138), 1311–1314 (2013).
[Crossref]

Englund, D.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Eriksen, R. L.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, R. L. Eriksen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Broadband focusing flat mirrors based on plasmonic gradient metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 829–834 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fang, C. Z.

Feng, S. L.

J. L. Li, C. B. Nie, F. Y. Sun, L. L. Tang, Z. J. Zhang, J. D. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Shen, S. L. Feng, H. F. Shi, and X. Z. Wei, “Enhancement of the photoresponse of monolayer mos2 photodetectors induced by a nanoparticle grating,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 12(7), 8429–8436 (2020).
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Fiorini-Debuisschert, C.

C. Cocoyer, L. Rocha, L. Sicot, B. Geffroy, R. de Bettignies, C. Sentein, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, and P. Raimond, “Implementation of submicrometric periodic surface structures toward improvement of organic-solar-cell performances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133108 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y. Y.

S. Zhu, Y. Y. Cao, Y. Y. Fu, X. C. Li, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, and Y. D. Xu, “Switchable bifunctional metasurfaces: nearly perfect retroreflection and absorption at the terahertz regime,” Opt. Lett. 45(14), 3989–3992 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Fu, C. Shen, X. H. Zhu, J. F. Li, Y. W. Liu, S. A. Cummer, and Y. D. Xu, “Sound vortex diffraction via topological charge in phase gradient metagratings,” Sci. Adv. 6(40), eaba9876 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Fu, J. Q. Tao, A. L. Song, Y. W. Liu, and Y. D. Xu, “Controllably asymmetric beam splitting via gap-induced diffraction channel transition in dual-layer binary metagratings,” Front. Phys. 15(5), 52502 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Fu, C. Shen, Y. Y. Cao, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, C. T. Chan, S. A. Cummer, and Y. D. Xu, “Reversal of transmission and reflection based on acoustic metagratings with integer parity design,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2326 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Fu, Y. Y. Cao, and Y. D. Xu, “Multifunctional reflection in acoustic metagratings with simplified design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(5), 053502 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Cao, Y. Y. Fu, Q. J. Zhou, X. Ou, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, and Y. D. Xu, “Mechanism behind angularly asymmetric diffraction in phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(2), 024006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Xu, Y. Y. Fu, and H. Y. Chen, “Planar gradient metamaterials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1(12), 16067 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. D. Xu, Y. Y. Fu, and H. Y. Chen, “Steering light by a sub-wavelength metallic grating from transformation optics,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 12219 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gai, X.

J. J. Pei, X. Gai, J. Yang, X. B. Wang, Z. F. Yu, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. R. Lu, “Producing air-stable monolayer of phosphorene and their defect engineering,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10450 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gan, X. T.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, J.

Gao, L.

S. Zhu, Y. Y. Cao, Y. Y. Fu, X. C. Li, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, and Y. D. Xu, “Switchable bifunctional metasurfaces: nearly perfect retroreflection and absorption at the terahertz regime,” Opt. Lett. 45(14), 3989–3992 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Fu, C. Shen, Y. Y. Cao, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, C. T. Chan, S. A. Cummer, and Y. D. Xu, “Reversal of transmission and reflection based on acoustic metagratings with integer parity design,” Nat. Commun. 10(1), 2326 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Cao, Y. Y. Fu, Q. J. Zhou, X. Ou, L. Gao, H. Y. Chen, and Y. D. Xu, “Mechanism behind angularly asymmetric diffraction in phase-gradient metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 12(2), 024006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gao, R. K.

Z. Y. Guo, L. Zhu, F. Shen, H. P. Zhou, and R. K. Gao, “Dielectric metasurface based high-efficiency polarization splitters,” RSC Adv. 7(16), 9872–9879 (2017).
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Gao, Y.

F. K. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Gao, P. Luo, J. W. Su, W. Han, K. L. Liu, H. Q. Li, and T. Y. Zhai, “2D metal chalcogenides for IR photodetection,” Small 15(30), 1901347 (2019).
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Gao, Y. D.

X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ge, C. W.

Geffroy, B.

C. Cocoyer, L. Rocha, L. Sicot, B. Geffroy, R. de Bettignies, C. Sentein, C. Fiorini-Debuisschert, and P. Raimond, “Implementation of submicrometric periodic surface structures toward improvement of organic-solar-cell performances,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(13), 133108 (2006).
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Nat. Photonics (4)

N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 247–252 (2015).
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X. T. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. D. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepard, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englund, “Chip-integrated ultrafast graphene photodetector with high responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
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Nat. Rev. Mater. (1)

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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Appl. (2)

H. P. Zhou, L. Chen, F. Shen, K. Guo, and Z. Y. Guo, “Broadband achromatic metalens in the midinfrared range,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(2), 024066 (2019).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

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RSC Adv. (1)

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Sci. Adv. (1)

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Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

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[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematics of the phase gradient metasurface. Inset shows the unit cell which is composed of silicon waveguide and continuous CaF2 dielectric film followed by the PEC. MIR light is vertically incident with polarization along x-axis.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Geometry and operating principle of the structure. (a) Boundary conditions setup for the unit cell simulations. (b) The reflected phase with different length of Si structure at 3.6 µm. The blue stars represent the selected L for five unit cells with the phase step of 2π/5. (c) Simulated scattered Ex field pattern of the gradient metasurface. (d) Simulated Ex field distributions on the x-y plane for three super cells.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Simulated results for the electric field intensity distribution on the gradient metasurface. (a) Electric field distribution of x-y cross section on top of silicon ring structures. (b) Electric field distribution of the cross section on x-z plane. The slice is along the direction of ring diameter. (c) The corresponding normalized electric field intensity along the line at the center of cross section in Fig. 3(a).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Simulation results for the integration of BP and gradient metasurface. (a) Distributions of the electric field on the (x, y) cross sections of the silicon ring structure with 5 µm×5 µm monolayer BP. (b) Absorption of BP with gradient metasurface and without gradient metasurface, aBP=5 µm. (c) Absorption of different side length of BP. (d) Absorption of different simulated thickness of BP.

Equations (1)

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{ k 0 sin ( θ r 1 ) k 0 sin ( θ i ) = k m 1 k m 1 > 0 k 0 sin ( θ r 2 ) k 0 sin ( θ i ) = k m 2 k m 2 < 0

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