Abstract

An Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Ca9Y(VO4)3(PO4)4 crystal was grown by the Czochralski method and the polarized spectroscopic properties of the crystal were investigated at room temperature. The peak emission cross sections of the 4I13/24I15/2 transition of Er3+ are 1.04 ×10−20 and 0.8 × 10−20 cm2 at 1533 nm for σ and π polarizations, respectively. The full width at half the maximum of the emission band around 1.55 µm is about 50 nm for π polarization. The fluorescence lifetimes of the 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 multiplets of Er3+ in the crystal are 14.27 µs and 4.89 ms, respectively. The energy transfer efficiency from Yb3+ to Er3+ in the crystal was estimated to be about 69.3%.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped materials have been widely investigated as gain media for the eye-safe laser around 1.55 µm, which can be used in optical communication, lidar, laser ranging, and remote sensing [13]. At present, Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate glass (Er:Yb:PG) has become a main commercial material for the laser around 1.55 µm. However, due to the low thermal conductivity of about 0.8 W m−1 k−1 [2], a high power laser operation cannot be realized in the Er:Yb:PG.

Various Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped crystals with higher thermal conductivity have been investigated as 1.55 µm laser gain media, such as YAl3(BO3)4 (YAB) [3], Lu2Si2O7 [4], NaGd(WO4)2 [5], YVO4 [6], Y3Al5O12 [7] and so on. Among them, Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped borate crystals have a short fluorescence lifetime of the 4I11/2 multiplet because of the strong multiphonon non-radiative relaxation caused by the high phonon energy (approximately 1400 cm−1) of the host, which can restrain the up-conversion and make the Er3+ ions populate in the 4I13/2 multiplet efficiently. However, the strong multiphonon non-radiative relaxation also causes a short fluorescence lifetime of the 4I13/2 multiplet. For example, the fluorescence lifetime of the 4I13/2 multiplet of Er3+ in YAB crystal is only about 325 µs, which limits its energy storage capacity and causes a serious thermal loading [8]. Therefore, Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped crystals with proper phonon energy are favorable for realizing an efficient population of Er3+ ions in the 4I13/2 multiplet and a long fluorescence lifetime of the 4I13/2 multiplet (several ms).

Due to having similar phonon energy to the PG (about 1200 cm−1), some Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate crystals have a long fluorescence lifetime of the 4I13/2 multiplet and a short fluorescence lifetime of the 4I11/2 multiplet. For example, for Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:KGd(PO3)4 (KGP) crystals, the fluorescence lifetimes of the 4I11/2 multiplet are 3.5 and 1.54 µs, while those of the 4I13/2 multiplet are 4.47 and 6.91 ms, respectively [911]. Above values are comparable to those (2∼3 µs and 7.9 ms respectively) of the Er:Yb:PG [1,2]. However, all the phosphate crystals investigated up to now melt incongruently and can only be grown by the flux method with a long growth period.

At present, Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x (x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4) crystals have been grown successfully by the Czochralski (CZ) method [12,13]. The crystals with x = 0, 1, 3 possess whitlockite like polar structure, space group R3c [13]. While the Ca9Y(VO4)3(PO4)4 crystal is centrosymmetric at room temperature with space group $R\overline 3 c$, its cell parameters are: a = 10.6198 Å, c = 37.524 Å, γ = 120°, Z = 6, V = 3665.0 Å3 [13]. In the Ca9Y(VO4)3(PO4)4 crystal, Y3+ and a part of Ca2+ ions occupy the 36f Wyckoff sites with C1 symmetry [13]. The Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x crystals have good chemical and physical stability, the hardness Hv are 5.03, 4.38, 4.67, 4.67 when x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, respectively [13]. When x = 0, the Ca9Y(VO4)7 single crystals co-doped with rare earth ions have been grown and investigated as laser gain media [1417]. In the Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x system that can be grown by CZ method so far, Ca9Y(VO4)3(PO4)4 (CYVP) crystal has the highest phosphorus content. As the value of x increases, crystal growth becomes more difficult. Up to now, rare earth ions doped Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x crystals have not been investigated. In this work, an Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped CYVP (Er:Yb:CYVP) crystal was successfully grown by the CZ method for the first time and the polarized spectroscopic properties of the crystal were investigated at room temperature.

2. Crystal growth

An Er:Yb:CYVP crystal was successfully grown by the CZ method. The chemical composition expression of the raw material is Ca9Y0.505Yb0.45Er0.045(VO4)3(PO4)4 and the growth process is similar to that reported in [13] except the temperature gradient in the growth solution. However, the grown Er:Yb:CYVP crystal cracked during the growth process due to the higher temperature gradient. In order to prevent the crystal cracking and improve the crystal optical quality, a more appropriate temperature gradient and a slower cooling rate must be explored in the further experiment. The crystal shown in Fig. 1 is a part of the as-grown one, so the shape of the crystal is different from that shown in Ref. [13]. As shown in Fig. 1(a), the as-grown crystal is dark brown in color, which may originate from the absorption of color center caused by oxygen vacancy inside the crystal. In order to reduce the oxygen vacancy and improve the optical quality of the crystal, the as-grown crystal had been annealed at 1100 °C for 72 h in air. The annealed crystal became more transparent, as shown in Fig. 1(b). Above phenomenon was also observed in the Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7 crystal [18]. An orientated transparent crystal with dimensions of 4.5 × 3.5 × 3.1 mm3 was cut and polished for the polarized spectral experiments. In addition, a 4.5 at.% Er3+ doped CYVP crystal was also grown by the CZ method and then annealed in air. But it cracked severely during the growth period and was difficult for orientation. So the grown Er:CYVP crystal was only used for measuring the fluorescence decay curve.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Photographs of the (a) as-grown and (b) annealed Er:Yb:CYVP crystals.

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Using a powder diffractometer (Rigaku, Miniflex-600) equipped with CuKα radiation, the phase of the crystal was determined by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) in a range of 10–60° with a step of 0.02° and a scan speed of 5°/min. The diffraction peaks of the crystal match well with those of the CYVP crystal (ICSD card # 253848), as shown in Fig. 2(a). Because the ionic radius of P5+ (0.38 Å) is much smaller than that of V5+ (0.54 Å), the introduction of [PO4]3- makes the cell parameters smaller [13]. The ionic radii of Er3+ (0.89 Å) and Yb3+ (0.87 Å) are all very close to that of Y3+ (0.9 Å), so doping Er3+ and Yb3+ ions into the CYVP crystal hardly changes the cell parameters. The infrared spectra of the crystal was recorded by an infrared spectrometer (VERTEX 70, Bruker) and the one between 350 and 1300 cm−1 is shown in Fig. 2(b). The characteristic bands in ranges of 700–900 and 950–1150 cm−1 are originated from vibrations of VO43- and PO43- anions, respectively [15,19]. Then, it can be seen that the maximum phonon energy of the crystal is about 1110 cm−1. The concentrations of P5+, V5+, Er3+ and Yb3+ in the crystal were measured to be 63.95 at.% (4.12 × 1021 cm−3), 36.05 at.% (2.36 × 1021 cm−3), 4.86 at.% (0.75 × 1020 cm−3) and 42.96 at.% (6.68 × 1020 cm−3), respectively, by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES, Ultima2, Jobin-Yvon). Thus the chemical composition expression of the grown crystal can be described as Ca9Y0.521Yb0.43Er0.049(VO4)2.52(PO4)4.48 (Er:Yb:CYVP).

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. XRD pattern (a) and FTIR spectra (b) of the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal powder.

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Specific heat (Cp) and thermal diffusion coefficients (υ) of Er:Yb:CYVP crystal were measured by a laser flash apparatus (LFA457, NETZSCH) at room temperature. The measured Cp is 0.711 Jg−1K−1, the υ values are 0.474 and 0.477 mm2s−1for a and c direction, respectively. The thermal conductivities (k) can be calculated using below formula [20]:

$$k = \upsilon \rho {C_p}$$
where ρ is the density of the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal and was measured to be 3.21 g/cm3 by Archimedes method. Therefore, the thermal conductivities were calculated to be 1.08 and 1.09 Wm−1K−1 for a and c direction at room temperature, respectively, which are slightly higher than that (0.8 Wm−1K−1 [2]) of the Er:Yb:PG.

The Er:Yb:CYVP crystal is a uniaxial crystal, but the no and ne were not obtained in this work, because the grown crystal is not large enough. But the average refractive index of the crystal was measured at room temperature by a spectroscopic ellipsometry (V-VASE, J. A. Woollam) using a unoriented crystal wafer. The values in a wavelength range from 300 to 1000 nm are shown in Fig. 3. The refractive index of the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal is smaller than that of the CYV crystal whose refractive index ranges from 1.83 to 1.92 between the wavelength of 488 and 1388 nm [14]. The experimental data of the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal were fitted to the following Sellmeier equation:

$${n_\lambda }^2 = \textrm{2}\textrm{.82431} + \frac{{\textrm{19179}\textrm{.38162}}}{{{\lambda ^2} - \textrm{32326}\textrm{.26065}}} + \textrm{8}\textrm{.20485} \times \textrm{1}{\textrm{0}^{ - 9}}{\lambda ^2}$$
where λ is wavelength in unit of nanometer. The average refractive index around 1550 nm was calculated to be about 1.688 based on the fitted Sellmeier equation. Then the measured and calculated average refractive index were used for the subsequent J-O theory calculation.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Values of refractive index of the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal in 300–1000 nm.

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3. Spectroscopic properties

Room-temperature (RT) polarized absorption spectra in 365–1700 nm of the crystal were recorded by an UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer (Lambda-950, PerkinElmer), and are shown in Fig. 4. Polarized absorption spectra from 880 to 1050 nm, which are commonly used as the pumping band for 1.55 µm laser, are shown in Fig. 4(c). The peak absorption cross sections are 1.65×10−20 and 1.03×10−20 cm2 at 978 and 974 nm for σ and π polarizations, respectively. The value for σ polarization is larger than that of the Er:Yb:PG (approximately 1×10−20 cm2 at 976 nm) [2]. The full widths at half maximum (FWHMs) of the absorption bands around 0.97 µm are 35 and 33 nm for σ and π polarizations, respectively, which are much larger than those of the Er:Yb:YAB crystal (17 nm) and the Er:Yb:PG (6 nm) [8,21]. The broad absorption band is caused by the disorder structure of the CYVP crystal, in which Y3+ and a part of Ca2+ ions occupy the same sites. Then, when the Y3+ sites are partially replaced by Er3+ and Yb3+ in the crystal, the inhomogeneous broadening occurs in the spectra. Therefore, the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal may be more suitable to be pumped by diode laser, after the shifting of emission wavelength of diode laser with the temperature and output power is taken into account.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. RT polarized absorption spectra of the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal in 365–1700nm.

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Based on the measured absorption spectra, some spectroscopic parameters, such as intensity parameters Ωλ, transition probability A, fluorescence branching ration β, and radiative lifetime τrad, can be calculated by the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory [22,23]. The calculation procedure is similar to that reported in [24]. The experimental and calculated oscillator strengths as well as the J-O intensity parameters are listed in Table 1. And the transition probability A, fluorescence branching ratio β and radiative lifetime τrad are listed in Table 2. The absorption spectra of the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal are the same as those of the Er:CYVP crystal except the absorption bands between 880 and 1050 nm, which were not taken into account during the calculation of the spectroscopic parameters. So the calculated results shown in Tables 1 and 2 are reasonable.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Experimental and calculated oscillator strengths for different transitions as well as J-O intensity parameters of Er3+ in the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Transition probability, fluorescence branching ratio, and radiative lifetime of Er3+ in the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal.

Excited at 976 nm, RT polarized emission spectra between 1450 and 1655 nm of the crystal were recorded by a spectrometer (FLS1000, Edinburgh). Based on the measured emission spectrum, the stimulated emission cross section in 1450–1655 nm can be calculated by the Füchtbauer–Ladenburg (F–L) formula [25]:

$${\sigma _{em,q}} = \frac{{{A_q}{\lambda ^5}}}{{8\pi n_{}^2c}}\frac{{{I_q}(\lambda )}}{{\int {\lambda {I_q}(\lambda )d\lambda } }}$$
where q indicates the polarized direction, Aq is the transition probability, n is the refractive index of the crystal, c is the speed of light, and Iq(λ) is the fluorescence intensity. The calculated results are shown in Fig. 5. The peak emission cross sections are 1.04 × 10−20 and 0.80 × 10−20 cm2 at 1533 nm for σ and π polarizations, respectively. The one for σ polarization is larger than that of the Er:Yb:PG (0.8 × 10−20 cm2) [2]. The FWHMs are 36 and 50 nm for σ and π polarizations, respectively, which are smaller than that (55 nm) of the Er:Yb:PG [26]. The broad emission band is also caused by the disorder structure of the crystal, and may be beneficial to realizing the ultrashort pulse and tunable lasers.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. RT polarized emission cross section spectra in 1450–1650 nm of the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal.

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Gain cross section spectrum σg, which is used to analyze the wavelength and polarization of output laser, can be calculated by [27]:

$${\sigma _g}(\lambda ) = \beta {\sigma _{em}}(\lambda ) - (1 - \beta ){\sigma _{abs}}(\lambda )$$
where β is the ratio of the number of Er3+ ions in the upper laser level 4I13/2 to the total number of Er3+ ions, σabs(λ) and σem(λ) are the absorption and emission cross sections at wavelength λ, respectively. The results are shown in Fig. 6. It can be seen that the gain cross section for σ polarization is close to that for π polarization at the same wavelength for the same β. When β is 0.5, the peak wavelengths of the gain curves are both located at about 1560 nm for σ and π polarizations.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Gain cross section spectra of the 4I13/24I15/2 transition of the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal for different β.

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In order to investigate the variation of fluorescence lifetimes of the related multiplets, the (4.5 at.%) Er3+:CYV (Er:CYV) crystalline powder was synthesized by the high temperature solid state method.

The fluorescence decay curves at 977 nm of the 4I11/2 multiplet of Er3+ in the Er:CYV crystalline powder and the Er:CYVP crystal powder were recorded by a spectrometer (FLS1000, Edinburgh) when the exciting wavelength was 524 nm. The results are shown in Fig. 7. The fluorescence lifetimes of the Er:CYV crystalline powder and the Er:CYVP crystal powder were fitted to be 48.71 and 14.27 µs, respectively. Because the phonon energy of the CYVP (1110 cm−1) is higher than that of the CYV (900 cm−1), the multiphonon relaxation from 4I11/2 to 4I13/2 multiplet of the Er:CYVP is stronger than that of the Er:CYV, when the energy gap of about 3700 cm−1 between 4I11/2 and 4I13/2 multiplets is taken into account. Therefore, compared with the Er:CYV, the Er:CYVP has a shorter fluorescence lifetime of the 4I11/2 multiplet, which is beneficial to realizing efficient energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Fluorescence decay curves at 977 nm of the Er:CYV crystalline powder (a) and the Er:CYVP crystal powder (b).

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The fluorescence decay curves at 1534 nm of the 4I13/2 multiplet of Er3+ in the Er:CYVP crystal powder and Er:CYV crystalline powder were also measured at the same exciting wavelength of 524 nm. In order to reduce the effect of radiation trapping, the powder samples were dispersed in the bromobenzen with a refractive index of 1.55 in the experiment. The results are shown in Fig. 8. The fitted fluorescence lifetime of the Er:CYV is close to that of the reported Er:CYV crystal (3.84 ms) and longer than the radiative lifetime (3.27 ms) [17]. The fluorescence lifetime of the Er:CYVP crystal was fitted to be 4.89 ms and is also longer than the radiative lifetime (4.30 ms), which may be caused by the calculation error based on the J-O theory and the residual radiation trapping in the powder sample [28]. And it may also indicate that the nonradiative relaxation from 4I13/2 to 4I15/2 multiplet is very weak. As we can see, the introduction of PO43- is beneficial to lengthening the fluorescence lifetime of 4I13/2 multiplet. The energy gap between 4I13/2 and 4I15/2 multiplets is about 6500 cm−1, and about 6–7 phonons are needed for the multiphonon nonradiative relaxation in the phosphate and vanadate crystals. Therefore, the multiphonon nonradiative relaxation from 4I13/2 to 4I15/2 multiplet can be ignored in the above materials. In addition, the concentration-dependent fluorescence quenching of the 4I13/2 multiplet of Er3+ is negligible for the materials with Er3+ concentration below 1 × 1020 cm−3 [29]. Therefore, the fluorescence lifetime of the 4I13/2 multiplet may be close to the radiative lifetime for the above materials. In theory, the radiative lifetime is related to the refractive index of the crystal and J-O intensity parameters [30]. By measuring the impact of the refractive index and J-O intensity parameters of the Er:CYV and Er:CYVP, the radiative lifetime mainly depends on the refractive index and it is negatively correlated with the refractive index. Thus, due to the smaller refractive index of the CYVP, the radiative lifetime of 4I13/2 multiplet of the Er:CYVP (4.30 ms) is longer than that of the Er:CYV (3.27 ms) [17].

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. Fluorescence decay curves at 1534 nm of the Er:CYV crystalline powder (a) and the Er:CYVP crystal powder (b).

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The efficiency of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ can be estimated by ${\eta _{ET}}\textrm{ = }1\textrm{ - }{\tau _f}/{\tau _0}$ [31], where τ0 and τf are the fluorescence lifetimes of the 2F5/2 multiplet of Yb3+ in the Yb3+ singly-doped and Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped crystals, respectively. The fluorescence decay curves at 1050 nm of the 2F5/2 multiplet of Yb3+ were measured at exciting wavelength of 950 nm from the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal powder and the (45 at.%) Yb3+:CYVP (Yb:CYVP) crystalline powder which was prepared by the high temperature solid state method. The fluorescence lifetimes of the 2F5/2 multiplet of Yb3+ in the Er:Yb:CYVP and Yb:CYVP were fitted to be 132.5 and 431 µs, respectively, as shown in Fig. 9. Then, the efficiency of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ was estimated to be 69.3% in the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal.

 figure: Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. Fluorescence decay curves at 1050 nm in the Er:Yb:CYVP (a) and Yb:CYVP powders (b).

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Table 3 shows the spectroscopic parameters related to 1.55 µm laser of some Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped phosphate glass and crystals as well as vanadate crystals. Compared with the Er:Yb:PG, the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal has larger absorption and emission cross sections, but a shorter fluorescence lifetime of the 4I13/2 multiplet and a lower energy transfer efficiency, which can be improved by optimizing the concentrations of Er3+ and Yb3+. Compared with the Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped LuPO4 and KGP crystals, the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal has a larger emission cross section, but a shorter fluorescence lifetime of the 4I13/2 multiplet and a longer one of the 4I11/2 multiplet. More importantly, for the above phosphate crystals, only the CYVP crystal can be grown easily by the CZ method with a short growth period. But at present, the optical quality of the as-grown Er:Yb:CYVP crystal is not high enough to realize the laser operation. So in the further experiments, optimizing the optical property of the crystal is necessary.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Comparison of some spectroscopic parameters related to 1.55 µm laser of the Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped crystals and glass.

4. Conclusions

An Er:Yb:CYVP crystal was grown successfully by the CZ method. The crystal has comparable spectroscopic parameters and higher thermal conductivity than those of the commercial Er:Yb:PG.Combined with the broad emission band with a FWHM of 50 nm, the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal may be a promising gain medium for the tunable and ultrashort pulse 1.55 µm lasers.

Funding

Fujian Science & Technology Innovation Laboratory for Optoelectronic Information of China (2021ZR119, 2021ZZ118); Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB20000000); Science and Technology Service Network Initiative of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KFJ–STS–QYZX–069); Scientific Instrument Developing Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (YZLY202001).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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26. S. Jiang, M. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 143–148 (1998). [CrossRef]  

27. Y. Chen, Y. Lin, J. Huang, X. Gong, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Er3+:Yb3+:LuAl3(BO3)4 crystal at 1.5-1.6µm,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13700–13707 (2010). [CrossRef]  

28. D. Zhou, X. Xu, C. Xia, D. Shen, S. Cheng, D. Li, J. Di, Z. Zhao, F. Wu, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic analysis and lasing of Er:Lu1.5Y1.5Al5O12 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(10), 2543 (2011). [CrossRef]  

29. D. Pugliese, N. Boetti, J. Lousteau, E. Ceci-Ginistrelli, E. Bertone, F. Geobaldo, and D. Milanese, “Concentration quenching in an Er-doped phosphate glass for compact optical lasers and amplifiers,” J. Alloys Compd. 657, 678–683 (2016). [CrossRef]  

30. M. J. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968). [CrossRef]  

31. W. Ryba-Romanowski, Z. Mazurak, and B. Jeżowska-Trzebiatowska, “Energy transfer between ytterbium and erbium in phosphorous oxychloride,” J. Mol. Struct. 46, 349–354 (1978). [CrossRef]  

32. R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Luminescence spectroscopy of Er3+ -doped and Er3+, Yb3+ -codoped LaPO4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 129(5), 521–525 (2009). [CrossRef]  

33. N. Tolstik, A. Troshin, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Matrosov, T. Matrosova, and M. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. B. Denker, B. Galagan, S. Sverchkov, and A. Prokhorov, “Erbium (Er) glass lasers,” in Handbook of Solid-StateLasers, B. Denker and E. Shklovsky, eds. (Woodhead, 2013), pp. 341–358.
  2. P. Laporta, S. Taccheo, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Erbium–ytterbium microlasers: optical properties and lasing characteristics,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 269–288 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. Tolstik, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, O. Pilipenko, E. Koporulina, and N. Leonyuk, “Efficient 1 W continuous-wave diode-pumped Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3233–3235 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Huang, Y. Chen, H. Wang, Y. Lin, X. Gong, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Efficient 1620 nm continuous-wave laser operation of Czochralski grown Er:Yb:Lu2Si2O7 crystal,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24001–24006 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Huang, Y. Chen, Y. Lin, X. Gong, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Enhanced efficiency of Er:Yb:Ce:NaGd(WO4)2 laser at 1.5-1.6 µm by the introduction of high-doping Ce3+ ions,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2548–2550 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. I. Sokólska, E. Heumann, S. Kück, and T. Lukasiewicz, “Laser oscillation of Er3+:YVO4 and Er3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals in the spectral range around 1.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 893–896 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and diode-pumped 1.6 µm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118(5-6), 557–561 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  8. N. Tolstik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, and N. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 µm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Rapaport, V. David, M. Bass, C. Deka, and L. Boatner, “Optical spectroscopy of erbium-doped lutetium orthophosphate,” J. Lumin. 85(1-3), 155–161 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Gong, Y. Chen, Y. Lin, J. Huang, X. Gong, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:KGd(PO3)4 crystal as a promising 1.55 µm laser gain medium,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(11), 3518–3526 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. V. Baumer, M. Kosmyna, P. Mateichenko, B. Nazarenko, V. Puzikov, I. Ogorodnyk, N. Slobodyamk, A. Shekhovtsov, N. Strutynska, and I. Zatovsky, “Growth, structure and characterization of solid solution Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x single crystals,” Proceeding of International Conference on Oxide Materials for Electronic Engineering (OMEE-2014), Lviv, Ukriane, 22–23 (2014).
  13. M. Kosmyna, P. Mateychenko, B. Nazarenko, A. Shekhovtsov, S. Aksenov, D. Spassky, A. Mosunov, and S. Stefanovich, “Novel laser crystals in Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x mixed system,” J. Alloys Compd. 708, 285–293 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  14. Z. Lin, F. Yuan, S. Sun, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, “Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+:YCa9(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 372, 78–81 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Cao, Y. Ma, C. Quan, W. Zhu, K. Yang, W. Yin, G. Zheng, M. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of Ca9Y(VO4)7 and Ca9Y0.95Ln0.05(VO4)7 (Ln3+ = Eu3+, Sm3+, Pr3+),” J. Alloys Compd. 487(1-2), 346–350 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. Wu, F. Yuan, S. Sun, Y. Huang, L. Zhang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Growth and spectral characteristics of a new promising stoichiometric laser crystal: Ca9Yb(VO4)7,” J. Rare Earths. 33(3), 239–243 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. Yuan, W. Zhao, S. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Er3+:Ca9Y(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Lumin. 154, 241–245 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Jillavenkatesa and R. Condrate Sr, “The infrared and raman spectra of β-and α-tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2),” Spectrosc. Lett. 31(8), 1619–1634 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. Klein and W. Croft, “Thermal conductivity diffusivity and expansion of Y2O3 Y3Al5O12 and LaF3 in range 77 degrees-300 degrees K,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(4), 1603–1607 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. Jaroslaw, K. Krzysztof, and M. Zygmunt, “Generation investigation of eye-safe microchip lasers pumped by 974 nm and 939 nm wavelength,” Opt. Appl. 38(4), 657–668 (2008).
  22. B. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  23. G. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. Jiang, J. Wang, X. Hu, H. Liu, and X. Liu, “Optical transition properties of Er3+ions in YAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 365(3-4), 279–284 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  25. B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Jiang, M. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 143–148 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  27. Y. Chen, Y. Lin, J. Huang, X. Gong, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Spectroscopic and laser properties of Er3+:Yb3+:LuAl3(BO3)4 crystal at 1.5-1.6µm,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13700–13707 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. Zhou, X. Xu, C. Xia, D. Shen, S. Cheng, D. Li, J. Di, Z. Zhao, F. Wu, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic analysis and lasing of Er:Lu1.5Y1.5Al5O12 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 28(10), 2543 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  29. D. Pugliese, N. Boetti, J. Lousteau, E. Ceci-Ginistrelli, E. Bertone, F. Geobaldo, and D. Milanese, “Concentration quenching in an Er-doped phosphate glass for compact optical lasers and amplifiers,” J. Alloys Compd. 657, 678–683 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. J. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
    [Crossref]
  31. W. Ryba-Romanowski, Z. Mazurak, and B. Jeżowska-Trzebiatowska, “Energy transfer between ytterbium and erbium in phosphorous oxychloride,” J. Mol. Struct. 46, 349–354 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  32. R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Luminescence spectroscopy of Er3+ -doped and Er3+, Yb3+ -codoped LaPO4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 129(5), 521–525 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  33. N. Tolstik, A. Troshin, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Matrosov, T. Matrosova, and M. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

M. Kosmyna, P. Mateychenko, B. Nazarenko, A. Shekhovtsov, S. Aksenov, D. Spassky, A. Mosunov, and S. Stefanovich, “Novel laser crystals in Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x mixed system,” J. Alloys Compd. 708, 285–293 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Huang, Y. Chen, H. Wang, Y. Lin, X. Gong, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Efficient 1620 nm continuous-wave laser operation of Czochralski grown Er:Yb:Lu2Si2O7 crystal,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24001–24006 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

G. Gong, Y. Chen, Y. Lin, J. Huang, X. Gong, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:KGd(PO3)4 crystal as a promising 1.55 µm laser gain medium,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(11), 3518–3526 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Pugliese, N. Boetti, J. Lousteau, E. Ceci-Ginistrelli, E. Bertone, F. Geobaldo, and D. Milanese, “Concentration quenching in an Er-doped phosphate glass for compact optical lasers and amplifiers,” J. Alloys Compd. 657, 678–683 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

H. Wu, F. Yuan, S. Sun, Y. Huang, L. Zhang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Growth and spectral characteristics of a new promising stoichiometric laser crystal: Ca9Yb(VO4)7,” J. Rare Earths. 33(3), 239–243 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

F. Yuan, W. Zhao, S. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Er3+:Ca9Y(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Lumin. 154, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Z. Lin, F. Yuan, S. Sun, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, “Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+:YCa9(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 372, 78–81 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Luminescence spectroscopy of Er3+ -doped and Er3+, Yb3+ -codoped LaPO4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 129(5), 521–525 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Cao, Y. Ma, C. Quan, W. Zhu, K. Yang, W. Yin, G. Zheng, M. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of Ca9Y(VO4)7 and Ca9Y0.95Ln0.05(VO4)7 (Ln3+ = Eu3+, Sm3+, Pr3+),” J. Alloys Compd. 487(1-2), 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Tolstik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, and N. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 µm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

J. Huang, Y. Chen, Y. Lin, X. Gong, Z. Luo, and Y. Huang, “Enhanced efficiency of Er:Yb:Ce:NaGd(WO4)2 laser at 1.5-1.6 µm by the introduction of high-doping Ce3+ ions,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2548–2550 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Jaroslaw, K. Krzysztof, and M. Zygmunt, “Generation investigation of eye-safe microchip lasers pumped by 974 nm and 939 nm wavelength,” Opt. Appl. 38(4), 657–668 (2008).

2007 (2)

N. Tolstik, A. Troshin, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Matrosov, T. Matrosova, and M. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Tolstik, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, O. Pilipenko, E. Koporulina, and N. Leonyuk, “Efficient 1 W continuous-wave diode-pumped Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3233–3235 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. Jiang, J. Wang, X. Hu, H. Liu, and X. Liu, “Optical transition properties of Er3+ions in YAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 365(3-4), 279–284 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

I. Sokólska, E. Heumann, S. Kück, and T. Lukasiewicz, “Laser oscillation of Er3+:YVO4 and Er3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals in the spectral range around 1.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 893–896 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

P. Laporta, S. Taccheo, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Erbium–ytterbium microlasers: optical properties and lasing characteristics,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 269–288 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Rapaport, V. David, M. Bass, C. Deka, and L. Boatner, “Optical spectroscopy of erbium-doped lutetium orthophosphate,” J. Lumin. 85(1-3), 155–161 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

A. Jillavenkatesa and R. Condrate Sr, “The infrared and raman spectra of β-and α-tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2),” Spectrosc. Lett. 31(8), 1619–1634 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Jiang, M. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 143–148 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and diode-pumped 1.6 µm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118(5-6), 557–561 (1995).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

W. Ryba-Romanowski, Z. Mazurak, and B. Jeżowska-Trzebiatowska, “Energy transfer between ytterbium and erbium in phosphorous oxychloride,” J. Mol. Struct. 46, 349–354 (1978).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

P. Klein and W. Croft, “Thermal conductivity diffusivity and expansion of Y2O3 Y3Al5O12 and LaF3 in range 77 degrees-300 degrees K,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(4), 1603–1607 (1967).
[Crossref]

1962 (2)

B. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

G. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

AguilÓ, M.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aksenov, S.

M. Kosmyna, P. Mateychenko, B. Nazarenko, A. Shekhovtsov, S. Aksenov, D. Spassky, A. Mosunov, and S. Stefanovich, “Novel laser crystals in Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x mixed system,” J. Alloys Compd. 708, 285–293 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aull, B.

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Elect. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bass, M.

A. Rapaport, V. David, M. Bass, C. Deka, and L. Boatner, “Optical spectroscopy of erbium-doped lutetium orthophosphate,” J. Lumin. 85(1-3), 155–161 (1999).
[Crossref]

Baumer, V.

V. Baumer, M. Kosmyna, P. Mateichenko, B. Nazarenko, V. Puzikov, I. Ogorodnyk, N. Slobodyamk, A. Shekhovtsov, N. Strutynska, and I. Zatovsky, “Growth, structure and characterization of solid solution Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x single crystals,” Proceeding of International Conference on Oxide Materials for Electronic Engineering (OMEE-2014), Lviv, Ukriane, 22–23 (2014).

Bertone, E.

D. Pugliese, N. Boetti, J. Lousteau, E. Ceci-Ginistrelli, E. Bertone, F. Geobaldo, and D. Milanese, “Concentration quenching in an Er-doped phosphate glass for compact optical lasers and amplifiers,” J. Alloys Compd. 657, 678–683 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bettinelli, M.

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Luminescence spectroscopy of Er3+ -doped and Er3+, Yb3+ -codoped LaPO4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 129(5), 521–525 (2009).
[Crossref]

Boatner, L.

A. Rapaport, V. David, M. Bass, C. Deka, and L. Boatner, “Optical spectroscopy of erbium-doped lutetium orthophosphate,” J. Lumin. 85(1-3), 155–161 (1999).
[Crossref]

Boetti, N.

D. Pugliese, N. Boetti, J. Lousteau, E. Ceci-Ginistrelli, E. Bertone, F. Geobaldo, and D. Milanese, “Concentration quenching in an Er-doped phosphate glass for compact optical lasers and amplifiers,” J. Alloys Compd. 657, 678–683 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, S.

S. Cao, Y. Ma, C. Quan, W. Zhu, K. Yang, W. Yin, G. Zheng, M. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of Ca9Y(VO4)7 and Ca9Y0.95Ln0.05(VO4)7 (Ln3+ = Eu3+, Sm3+, Pr3+),” J. Alloys Compd. 487(1-2), 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ceci-Ginistrelli, E.

D. Pugliese, N. Boetti, J. Lousteau, E. Ceci-Ginistrelli, E. Bertone, F. Geobaldo, and D. Milanese, “Concentration quenching in an Er-doped phosphate glass for compact optical lasers and amplifiers,” J. Alloys Compd. 657, 678–683 (2016).
[Crossref]

Che, Y.

J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, S.

Condrate Sr, R.

A. Jillavenkatesa and R. Condrate Sr, “The infrared and raman spectra of β-and α-tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2),” Spectrosc. Lett. 31(8), 1619–1634 (1998).
[Crossref]

Croft, W.

P. Klein and W. Croft, “Thermal conductivity diffusivity and expansion of Y2O3 Y3Al5O12 and LaF3 in range 77 degrees-300 degrees K,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(4), 1603–1607 (1967).
[Crossref]

David, V.

A. Rapaport, V. David, M. Bass, C. Deka, and L. Boatner, “Optical spectroscopy of erbium-doped lutetium orthophosphate,” J. Lumin. 85(1-3), 155–161 (1999).
[Crossref]

Deka, C.

A. Rapaport, V. David, M. Bass, C. Deka, and L. Boatner, “Optical spectroscopy of erbium-doped lutetium orthophosphate,” J. Lumin. 85(1-3), 155–161 (1999).
[Crossref]

Denker, B.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, S. Sverchkov, and A. Prokhorov, “Erbium (Er) glass lasers,” in Handbook of Solid-StateLasers, B. Denker and E. Shklovsky, eds. (Woodhead, 2013), pp. 341–358.

Di, J.

DÍaz, F.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fan, M.

J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

Galagan, B.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, S. Sverchkov, and A. Prokhorov, “Erbium (Er) glass lasers,” in Handbook of Solid-StateLasers, B. Denker and E. Shklovsky, eds. (Woodhead, 2013), pp. 341–358.

Geobaldo, F.

D. Pugliese, N. Boetti, J. Lousteau, E. Ceci-Ginistrelli, E. Bertone, F. Geobaldo, and D. Milanese, “Concentration quenching in an Er-doped phosphate glass for compact optical lasers and amplifiers,” J. Alloys Compd. 657, 678–683 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gong, G.

Gong, X.

Griebner, U.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
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T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and diode-pumped 1.6 µm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118(5-6), 557–561 (1995).
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H. Jiang, J. Wang, X. Hu, H. Liu, and X. Liu, “Optical transition properties of Er3+ions in YAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 365(3-4), 279–284 (2002).
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Huang, Y.

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T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and diode-pumped 1.6 µm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118(5-6), 557–561 (1995).
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M. Jaroslaw, K. Krzysztof, and M. Zygmunt, “Generation investigation of eye-safe microchip lasers pumped by 974 nm and 939 nm wavelength,” Opt. Appl. 38(4), 657–668 (2008).

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T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and diode-pumped 1.6 µm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118(5-6), 557–561 (1995).
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H. Jiang, J. Wang, X. Hu, H. Liu, and X. Liu, “Optical transition properties of Er3+ions in YAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 365(3-4), 279–284 (2002).
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S. Jiang, M. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 143–148 (1998).
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N. Tolstik, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, O. Pilipenko, E. Koporulina, and N. Leonyuk, “Efficient 1 W continuous-wave diode-pumped Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3233–3235 (2007).
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N. Tolstik, A. Troshin, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Matrosov, T. Matrosova, and M. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
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[Crossref]

V. Baumer, M. Kosmyna, P. Mateichenko, B. Nazarenko, V. Puzikov, I. Ogorodnyk, N. Slobodyamk, A. Shekhovtsov, N. Strutynska, and I. Zatovsky, “Growth, structure and characterization of solid solution Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x single crystals,” Proceeding of International Conference on Oxide Materials for Electronic Engineering (OMEE-2014), Lviv, Ukriane, 22–23 (2014).

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M. Jaroslaw, K. Krzysztof, and M. Zygmunt, “Generation investigation of eye-safe microchip lasers pumped by 974 nm and 939 nm wavelength,” Opt. Appl. 38(4), 657–668 (2008).

Kück, S.

I. Sokólska, E. Heumann, S. Kück, and T. Lukasiewicz, “Laser oscillation of Er3+:YVO4 and Er3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals in the spectral range around 1.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 893–896 (2000).
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N. Tolstik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, and N. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 µm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Tolstik, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, O. Pilipenko, E. Koporulina, and N. Leonyuk, “Efficient 1 W continuous-wave diode-pumped Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3233–3235 (2007).
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N. Tolstik, A. Troshin, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Matrosov, T. Matrosova, and M. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kupchenko, M.

N. Tolstik, A. Troshin, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Matrosov, T. Matrosova, and M. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

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N. Tolstik, A. Troshin, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Matrosov, T. Matrosova, and M. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Tolstik, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, O. Pilipenko, E. Koporulina, and N. Leonyuk, “Efficient 1 W continuous-wave diode-pumped Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3233–3235 (2007).
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N. Tolstik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, and N. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 µm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Tolstik, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, O. Pilipenko, E. Koporulina, and N. Leonyuk, “Efficient 1 W continuous-wave diode-pumped Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3233–3235 (2007).
[Crossref]

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Lin, H.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

Lin, Z.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, F. Yuan, S. Sun, Y. Huang, L. Zhang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Growth and spectral characteristics of a new promising stoichiometric laser crystal: Ca9Yb(VO4)7,” J. Rare Earths. 33(3), 239–243 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Yuan, W. Zhao, S. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Er3+:Ca9Y(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Lumin. 154, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, F. Yuan, S. Sun, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, “Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+:YCa9(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 372, 78–81 (2013).
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R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Luminescence spectroscopy of Er3+ -doped and Er3+, Yb3+ -codoped LaPO4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 129(5), 521–525 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

H. Jiang, J. Wang, X. Hu, H. Liu, and X. Liu, “Optical transition properties of Er3+ions in YAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 365(3-4), 279–284 (2002).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

H. Jiang, J. Wang, X. Hu, H. Liu, and X. Liu, “Optical transition properties of Er3+ions in YAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 365(3-4), 279–284 (2002).
[Crossref]

Loiko, P.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Longhi, S.

P. Laporta, S. Taccheo, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Erbium–ytterbium microlasers: optical properties and lasing characteristics,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 269–288 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lousteau, J.

D. Pugliese, N. Boetti, J. Lousteau, E. Ceci-Ginistrelli, E. Bertone, F. Geobaldo, and D. Milanese, “Concentration quenching in an Er-doped phosphate glass for compact optical lasers and amplifiers,” J. Alloys Compd. 657, 678–683 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lukasiewicz, T.

I. Sokólska, E. Heumann, S. Kück, and T. Lukasiewicz, “Laser oscillation of Er3+:YVO4 and Er3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals in the spectral range around 1.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 893–896 (2000).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

Ma, Y.

S. Cao, Y. Ma, C. Quan, W. Zhu, K. Yang, W. Yin, G. Zheng, M. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of Ca9Y(VO4)7 and Ca9Y0.95Ln0.05(VO4)7 (Ln3+ = Eu3+, Sm3+, Pr3+),” J. Alloys Compd. 487(1-2), 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Maltsev, V.

N. Tolstik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, and N. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 µm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Tolstik, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, O. Pilipenko, E. Koporulina, and N. Leonyuk, “Efficient 1 W continuous-wave diode-pumped Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3233–3235 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mateichenko, P.

V. Baumer, M. Kosmyna, P. Mateichenko, B. Nazarenko, V. Puzikov, I. Ogorodnyk, N. Slobodyamk, A. Shekhovtsov, N. Strutynska, and I. Zatovsky, “Growth, structure and characterization of solid solution Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x single crystals,” Proceeding of International Conference on Oxide Materials for Electronic Engineering (OMEE-2014), Lviv, Ukriane, 22–23 (2014).

Mateos, X.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mateychenko, P.

M. Kosmyna, P. Mateychenko, B. Nazarenko, A. Shekhovtsov, S. Aksenov, D. Spassky, A. Mosunov, and S. Stefanovich, “Novel laser crystals in Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x mixed system,” J. Alloys Compd. 708, 285–293 (2017).
[Crossref]

Matrosov, V.

N. Tolstik, A. Troshin, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Matrosov, T. Matrosova, and M. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matrosova, T.

N. Tolstik, A. Troshin, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Matrosov, T. Matrosova, and M. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mazurak, Z.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, Z. Mazurak, and B. Jeżowska-Trzebiatowska, “Energy transfer between ytterbium and erbium in phosphorous oxychloride,” J. Mol. Struct. 46, 349–354 (1978).
[Crossref]

Meng, Y.

J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

Milanese, D.

D. Pugliese, N. Boetti, J. Lousteau, E. Ceci-Ginistrelli, E. Bertone, F. Geobaldo, and D. Milanese, “Concentration quenching in an Er-doped phosphate glass for compact optical lasers and amplifiers,” J. Alloys Compd. 657, 678–683 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mosunov, A.

M. Kosmyna, P. Mateychenko, B. Nazarenko, A. Shekhovtsov, S. Aksenov, D. Spassky, A. Mosunov, and S. Stefanovich, “Novel laser crystals in Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x mixed system,” J. Alloys Compd. 708, 285–293 (2017).
[Crossref]

Myers, M.

S. Jiang, M. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 143–148 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nazarenko, B.

M. Kosmyna, P. Mateychenko, B. Nazarenko, A. Shekhovtsov, S. Aksenov, D. Spassky, A. Mosunov, and S. Stefanovich, “Novel laser crystals in Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x mixed system,” J. Alloys Compd. 708, 285–293 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Baumer, M. Kosmyna, P. Mateichenko, B. Nazarenko, V. Puzikov, I. Ogorodnyk, N. Slobodyamk, A. Shekhovtsov, N. Strutynska, and I. Zatovsky, “Growth, structure and characterization of solid solution Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x single crystals,” Proceeding of International Conference on Oxide Materials for Electronic Engineering (OMEE-2014), Lviv, Ukriane, 22–23 (2014).

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V. Baumer, M. Kosmyna, P. Mateichenko, B. Nazarenko, V. Puzikov, I. Ogorodnyk, N. Slobodyamk, A. Shekhovtsov, N. Strutynska, and I. Zatovsky, “Growth, structure and characterization of solid solution Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x single crystals,” Proceeding of International Conference on Oxide Materials for Electronic Engineering (OMEE-2014), Lviv, Ukriane, 22–23 (2014).

Petrov, V.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

S. Jiang, M. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 143–148 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pilipenko, O.

Prokhorov, A.

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Pugliese, D.

D. Pugliese, N. Boetti, J. Lousteau, E. Ceci-Ginistrelli, E. Bertone, F. Geobaldo, and D. Milanese, “Concentration quenching in an Er-doped phosphate glass for compact optical lasers and amplifiers,” J. Alloys Compd. 657, 678–683 (2016).
[Crossref]

Puzikov, V.

V. Baumer, M. Kosmyna, P. Mateichenko, B. Nazarenko, V. Puzikov, I. Ogorodnyk, N. Slobodyamk, A. Shekhovtsov, N. Strutynska, and I. Zatovsky, “Growth, structure and characterization of solid solution Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x single crystals,” Proceeding of International Conference on Oxide Materials for Electronic Engineering (OMEE-2014), Lviv, Ukriane, 22–23 (2014).

Quan, C.

S. Cao, Y. Ma, C. Quan, W. Zhu, K. Yang, W. Yin, G. Zheng, M. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of Ca9Y(VO4)7 and Ca9Y0.95Ln0.05(VO4)7 (Ln3+ = Eu3+, Sm3+, Pr3+),” J. Alloys Compd. 487(1-2), 346–350 (2009).
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Rapaport, A.

A. Rapaport, V. David, M. Bass, C. Deka, and L. Boatner, “Optical spectroscopy of erbium-doped lutetium orthophosphate,” J. Lumin. 85(1-3), 155–161 (1999).
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Ryba-Romanowski, W.

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Luminescence spectroscopy of Er3+ -doped and Er3+, Yb3+ -codoped LaPO4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 129(5), 521–525 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Ryba-Romanowski, Z. Mazurak, and B. Jeżowska-Trzebiatowska, “Energy transfer between ytterbium and erbium in phosphorous oxychloride,” J. Mol. Struct. 46, 349–354 (1978).
[Crossref]

Schweizer, T.

T. Schweizer, T. Jensen, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and diode-pumped 1.6 µm laser performance in Yb-codoped Er:Y3Al5O12 and Er:Y2SiO5,” Opt. Commun. 118(5-6), 557–561 (1995).
[Crossref]

Serres, J.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shekhovtsov, A.

M. Kosmyna, P. Mateychenko, B. Nazarenko, A. Shekhovtsov, S. Aksenov, D. Spassky, A. Mosunov, and S. Stefanovich, “Novel laser crystals in Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x mixed system,” J. Alloys Compd. 708, 285–293 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Baumer, M. Kosmyna, P. Mateichenko, B. Nazarenko, V. Puzikov, I. Ogorodnyk, N. Slobodyamk, A. Shekhovtsov, N. Strutynska, and I. Zatovsky, “Growth, structure and characterization of solid solution Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x single crystals,” Proceeding of International Conference on Oxide Materials for Electronic Engineering (OMEE-2014), Lviv, Ukriane, 22–23 (2014).

Shen, D.

Slobodyamk, N.

V. Baumer, M. Kosmyna, P. Mateichenko, B. Nazarenko, V. Puzikov, I. Ogorodnyk, N. Slobodyamk, A. Shekhovtsov, N. Strutynska, and I. Zatovsky, “Growth, structure and characterization of solid solution Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x single crystals,” Proceeding of International Conference on Oxide Materials for Electronic Engineering (OMEE-2014), Lviv, Ukriane, 22–23 (2014).

Sokólska, I.

I. Sokólska, E. Heumann, S. Kück, and T. Lukasiewicz, “Laser oscillation of Er3+:YVO4 and Er3+, Yb3+:YVO4 crystals in the spectral range around 1.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 71(6), 893–896 (2000).
[Crossref]

Spassky, D.

M. Kosmyna, P. Mateychenko, B. Nazarenko, A. Shekhovtsov, S. Aksenov, D. Spassky, A. Mosunov, and S. Stefanovich, “Novel laser crystals in Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x mixed system,” J. Alloys Compd. 708, 285–293 (2017).
[Crossref]

Speghini, A.

R. Lisiecki, W. Ryba-Romanowski, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Luminescence spectroscopy of Er3+ -doped and Er3+, Yb3+ -codoped LaPO4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 129(5), 521–525 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stefanovich, S.

M. Kosmyna, P. Mateychenko, B. Nazarenko, A. Shekhovtsov, S. Aksenov, D. Spassky, A. Mosunov, and S. Stefanovich, “Novel laser crystals in Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x mixed system,” J. Alloys Compd. 708, 285–293 (2017).
[Crossref]

Strutynska, N.

V. Baumer, M. Kosmyna, P. Mateichenko, B. Nazarenko, V. Puzikov, I. Ogorodnyk, N. Slobodyamk, A. Shekhovtsov, N. Strutynska, and I. Zatovsky, “Growth, structure and characterization of solid solution Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x single crystals,” Proceeding of International Conference on Oxide Materials for Electronic Engineering (OMEE-2014), Lviv, Ukriane, 22–23 (2014).

Sun, S.

H. Wu, F. Yuan, S. Sun, Y. Huang, L. Zhang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Growth and spectral characteristics of a new promising stoichiometric laser crystal: Ca9Yb(VO4)7,” J. Rare Earths. 33(3), 239–243 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Yuan, W. Zhao, S. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Er3+:Ca9Y(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Lumin. 154, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, F. Yuan, S. Sun, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, “Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+:YCa9(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 372, 78–81 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

S. Cao, Y. Ma, C. Quan, W. Zhu, K. Yang, W. Yin, G. Zheng, M. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of Ca9Y(VO4)7 and Ca9Y0.95Ln0.05(VO4)7 (Ln3+ = Eu3+, Sm3+, Pr3+),” J. Alloys Compd. 487(1-2), 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Svelto, C.

P. Laporta, S. Taccheo, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Erbium–ytterbium microlasers: optical properties and lasing characteristics,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 269–288 (1999).
[Crossref]

Svelto, O.

P. Laporta, S. Taccheo, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Erbium–ytterbium microlasers: optical properties and lasing characteristics,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 269–288 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sverchkov, S.

B. Denker, B. Galagan, S. Sverchkov, and A. Prokhorov, “Erbium (Er) glass lasers,” in Handbook of Solid-StateLasers, B. Denker and E. Shklovsky, eds. (Woodhead, 2013), pp. 341–358.

Taccheo, S.

P. Laporta, S. Taccheo, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Erbium–ytterbium microlasers: optical properties and lasing characteristics,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 269–288 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.

J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

Teng, B.

J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tolstik, N.

N. Tolstik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, and N. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 µm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Tolstik, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, O. Pilipenko, E. Koporulina, and N. Leonyuk, “Efficient 1 W continuous-wave diode-pumped Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4 laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3233–3235 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. Tolstik, A. Troshin, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Matrosov, T. Matrosova, and M. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Troshin, A.

N. Tolstik, A. Troshin, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Matrosov, T. Matrosova, and M. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vilejshikova, E.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

H. Wu, F. Yuan, S. Sun, Y. Huang, L. Zhang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Growth and spectral characteristics of a new promising stoichiometric laser crystal: Ca9Yb(VO4)7,” J. Rare Earths. 33(3), 239–243 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Yuan, W. Zhao, S. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Er3+:Ca9Y(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Lumin. 154, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, F. Yuan, S. Sun, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, “Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+:YCa9(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 372, 78–81 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wang, J.

H. Jiang, J. Wang, X. Hu, H. Liu, and X. Liu, “Optical transition properties of Er3+ions in YAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 365(3-4), 279–284 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Radiative and multiphonon relaxation of rare-earth ions in Y2O3,” Phys. Rev. 171(2), 283–291 (1968).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

Wu, H.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, F. Yuan, S. Sun, Y. Huang, L. Zhang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Growth and spectral characteristics of a new promising stoichiometric laser crystal: Ca9Yb(VO4)7,” J. Rare Earths. 33(3), 239–243 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, M.

S. Cao, Y. Ma, C. Quan, W. Zhu, K. Yang, W. Yin, G. Zheng, M. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of Ca9Y(VO4)7 and Ca9Y0.95Ln0.05(VO4)7 (Ln3+ = Eu3+, Sm3+, Pr3+),” J. Alloys Compd. 487(1-2), 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xia, C.

Xu, J.

Xu, X.

Xu, Y.

J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

S. Cao, Y. Ma, C. Quan, W. Zhu, K. Yang, W. Yin, G. Zheng, M. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of Ca9Y(VO4)7 and Ca9Y0.95Ln0.05(VO4)7 (Ln3+ = Eu3+, Sm3+, Pr3+),” J. Alloys Compd. 487(1-2), 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yin, W.

S. Cao, Y. Ma, C. Quan, W. Zhu, K. Yang, W. Yin, G. Zheng, M. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of Ca9Y(VO4)7 and Ca9Y0.95Ln0.05(VO4)7 (Ln3+ = Eu3+, Sm3+, Pr3+),” J. Alloys Compd. 487(1-2), 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yuan, F.

J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, F. Yuan, S. Sun, Y. Huang, L. Zhang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Growth and spectral characteristics of a new promising stoichiometric laser crystal: Ca9Yb(VO4)7,” J. Rare Earths. 33(3), 239–243 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Yuan, W. Zhao, S. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Er3+:Ca9Y(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Lumin. 154, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, F. Yuan, S. Sun, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, “Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+:YCa9(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 372, 78–81 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yumashev, K.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zatovsky, I.

V. Baumer, M. Kosmyna, P. Mateichenko, B. Nazarenko, V. Puzikov, I. Ogorodnyk, N. Slobodyamk, A. Shekhovtsov, N. Strutynska, and I. Zatovsky, “Growth, structure and characterization of solid solution Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x single crystals,” Proceeding of International Conference on Oxide Materials for Electronic Engineering (OMEE-2014), Lviv, Ukriane, 22–23 (2014).

Zhang, G.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Wu, F. Yuan, S. Sun, Y. Huang, L. Zhang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Growth and spectral characteristics of a new promising stoichiometric laser crystal: Ca9Yb(VO4)7,” J. Rare Earths. 33(3), 239–243 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Yuan, W. Zhao, S. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Er3+:Ca9Y(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Lumin. 154, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, F. Yuan, S. Sun, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, “Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+:YCa9(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 372, 78–81 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

F. Yuan, W. Zhao, S. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Er3+:Ca9Y(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Lumin. 154, 241–245 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Lin, F. Yuan, S. Sun, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, “Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+:YCa9(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 372, 78–81 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Zheng, G.

S. Cao, Y. Ma, C. Quan, W. Zhu, K. Yang, W. Yin, G. Zheng, M. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of Ca9Y(VO4)7 and Ca9Y0.95Ln0.05(VO4)7 (Ln3+ = Eu3+, Sm3+, Pr3+),” J. Alloys Compd. 487(1-2), 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhong, D.

J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D.

Zhu, M.

J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

S. Cao, Y. Ma, C. Quan, W. Zhu, K. Yang, W. Yin, G. Zheng, M. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of Ca9Y(VO4)7 and Ca9Y0.95Ln0.05(VO4)7 (Ln3+ = Eu3+, Sm3+, Pr3+),” J. Alloys Compd. 487(1-2), 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zygmunt, M.

M. Jaroslaw, K. Krzysztof, and M. Zygmunt, “Generation investigation of eye-safe microchip lasers pumped by 974 nm and 939 nm wavelength,” Opt. Appl. 38(4), 657–668 (2008).

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[Crossref]

N. Tolstik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Maltsev, and N. Leonyuk, “Er,Yb:YAl3(BO3)4-efficient 1.5 µm laser crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Tolstik, A. Troshin, S. Kurilchik, V. Kisel, N. Kuleshov, V. Matrosov, T. Matrosova, and M. Kupchenko, “Spectroscopy, continuous-wave and Q-switched diode-pumped laser operation of Er3+,Yb3+:YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 275–278 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Jiang, J. Wang, X. Hu, H. Liu, and X. Liu, “Optical transition properties of Er3+ions in YAl3(BO3)4 crystal,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 365(3-4), 279–284 (2002).
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[Crossref]

S. Cao, Y. Ma, C. Quan, W. Zhu, K. Yang, W. Yin, G. Zheng, M. Wu, and Z. Sun, “Photoluminescence properties of Ca9Y(VO4)7 and Ca9Y0.95Ln0.05(VO4)7 (Ln3+ = Eu3+, Sm3+, Pr3+),” J. Alloys Compd. 487(1-2), 346–350 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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Z. Lin, F. Yuan, S. Sun, W. Zhao, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, and G. Wang, “Growth, thermal and spectral properties of Nd3+:YCa9(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 372, 78–81 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. He, B. Teng, D. Zhong, L. Yang, Y. Xu, M. Zhu, Y. Meng, L. Liu, F. Yuan, M. Fan, X. Wu, Y. Che, and J. Tang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er:Yb:LuPO4 and Er:Yb:Ce:LuPO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 484, 31–36 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (3)

F. Yuan, W. Zhao, S. Sun, L. Zhang, Y. Huang, Z. Lin, and G. Wang, “Polarized spectroscopic properties of Er3+:Ca9Y(VO4)7 crystal,” J. Lumin. 154, 241–245 (2014).
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[Crossref]

Opt. Appl. (1)

M. Jaroslaw, K. Krzysztof, and M. Zygmunt, “Generation investigation of eye-safe microchip lasers pumped by 974 nm and 939 nm wavelength,” Opt. Appl. 38(4), 657–668 (2008).

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Opt. Express (2)

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P. Laporta, S. Taccheo, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Erbium–ytterbium microlasers: optical properties and lasing characteristics,” Opt. Mater. 11(2-3), 269–288 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express. (1)

Z. Zhang, P. Loiko, H. Wu, X. Mateos, J. Serres, H. Lin, W. Chen, G. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. DÍaz, M. AguilÓ, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, Y. Wang, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, and Z. Lin, “Disordered Tm:Ca9La(VO4)7: a novel crystal with potential for broadband tunable lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express. 7(2), 484–493 (2017).
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V. Baumer, M. Kosmyna, P. Mateichenko, B. Nazarenko, V. Puzikov, I. Ogorodnyk, N. Slobodyamk, A. Shekhovtsov, N. Strutynska, and I. Zatovsky, “Growth, structure and characterization of solid solution Ca9Y(VO4)7-x(PO4)x single crystals,” Proceeding of International Conference on Oxide Materials for Electronic Engineering (OMEE-2014), Lviv, Ukriane, 22–23 (2014).

B. Denker, B. Galagan, S. Sverchkov, and A. Prokhorov, “Erbium (Er) glass lasers,” in Handbook of Solid-StateLasers, B. Denker and E. Shklovsky, eds. (Woodhead, 2013), pp. 341–358.

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Photographs of the (a) as-grown and (b) annealed Er:Yb:CYVP crystals.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. XRD pattern (a) and FTIR spectra (b) of the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal powder.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Values of refractive index of the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal in 300–1000 nm.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. RT polarized absorption spectra of the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal in 365–1700nm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. RT polarized emission cross section spectra in 1450–1650 nm of the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Gain cross section spectra of the 4I13/24I15/2 transition of the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal for different β.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Fluorescence decay curves at 977 nm of the Er:CYV crystalline powder (a) and the Er:CYVP crystal powder (b).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Fluorescence decay curves at 1534 nm of the Er:CYV crystalline powder (a) and the Er:CYVP crystal powder (b).
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Fluorescence decay curves at 1050 nm in the Er:Yb:CYVP (a) and Yb:CYVP powders (b).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Experimental and calculated oscillator strengths for different transitions as well as J-O intensity parameters of Er3+ in the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Transition probability, fluorescence branching ratio, and radiative lifetime of Er3+ in the Er:Yb:CYVP crystal.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Comparison of some spectroscopic parameters related to 1.55 µm laser of the Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped crystals and glass.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k = υ ρ C p
n λ 2 = 2 .82431 + 19179 .38162 λ 2 32326 .26065 + 8 .20485 × 1 0 9 λ 2
σ e m , q = A q λ 5 8 π n 2 c I q ( λ ) λ I q ( λ ) d λ
σ g ( λ ) = β σ e m ( λ ) ( 1 β ) σ a b s ( λ )