Abstract

We present a bifunctional polarization converter based on Dirac semimetals (DSMs) and vanadium dioxide (VO2), which consists of two layers of DSMs on both sides, a metal grating and a VO2 board. The polarization converter frequency is dynamically tuned by changing the Fermi energy level of the DSMs. The result suggests that when VO2 is in an insulated state, the device behaves as a transmissive polarization converter. The dual-band transmissive polarization conversion and asymmetric transmission (AT) function of circularly polarized (CP) waves are realized at 1.99 THz and 3.46 THz, with the polarization converter ratio (PCR) reached 97.6% and 95.8%, respectively. In addition, when VO2 is in the metal state, the designed polarization converter is a reflective device, which can maintain the chirality of the reflected CP wave to the incident wave in a wide band. The polarization-maintaining ratio (PMR) in the range of 2 THz to 3.55 THz is higher than 88%. When the angle of incidence is less than 60°, the frequency band of the PMR is narrowed and the amplitude reaches more than 90%.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Polarization is one of the important properties of electromagnetic (EM) waves, and it is desirable to effectively control the polarization states of EM waves. The polarization converter controls the polarization of EM waves by designing an anisotropic structure [1] or a chiral structure [2], which have many applications in imaging [3], detection [4] and optical communication [5]. However, conventional polarization converters are usually achieved based on magneto optic effect [6] and dichroic crystal [7], which requires a long propagation distance and a large volume device. Therefore, these methods are not conducive to miniaturization and integration of equipment. Metamaterials (MMs) are sub-wavelength artificial composite materials with some special properties, such as negative refraction [8], electromagnetic coding [911], absorbers [12,13], and polarization converters [1419], which are often used to design ultrathin miniaturized polarization converters. In recent years, a lot of research has been done on the polarization conversion of MMs in terahertz band [2022]. In 2013, Chen et al. [23] proposed an ultra-thin, broadband, and highly efficient terahertz polarization converter with reflection and transmission conversion efficiency of 50% and 80%. In 2017, Jiang et al. [24] designed an ultra-wideband CP converter using metal MMs, with a conversion efficiency of 80%. Cheng et al. [25] proposed a dual-band transmission CP converter in terahertz band. Usually, after the fabrication of traditional metal MMs completed, the working frequency and amplitude cannot be changed, thus dynamic tuning cannot be completed [26,27]. So research on tunable polarization converter based on active material has become a better development direction.

In recent years, some active materials have been used to design polarization conversion devices, such as liquid crystal [28], graphene [2935], DSMs [36], and VO2 [37]. Among these active materials, DSMs and VO2 have attracted great interest because of their excellent electrical and optical properties, such as voltage tuning [38] and thermal tuning [37]. DSMs are brand-new three-dimensional topological quantum materials, which has the advantages of easy processing, low loss, and ultrahigh electron mobility [39,40]. Scientists have used DSMs to do a lot of research in electromagnetically induced transparency [41], absorbers [42] and polarization converters [43]. Dai et al. [44] designed a reflective polarization converter based on the Dirac semimetals, the polarization conversion efficiency can reach 80%. In 2019, Meng et al. [45] proposed a wideband polarization converter based on Dirac semimetals, the polarization conversion rate reaches 85% in the range from 2.072 THz to 2.428 THz. VO2 is a new type of phase change material with large modulation depth, fast response and many modulation methods [4649]. The insulator-metal phase transition of VO2 occurs by changing the temperature, and the critical temperature is 340K [5052]. Based on the insulator-metal phase transition characteristics of VO2 [53,54], the researchers designed a polarization converter. Zheng et al. [55] designed a reflective polarization converter based on VO2, with polarization conversion efficiency exceeds 90%. Liu et al. [56] proposed an active terahertz polarization converter based on VO2, and realized the switch between linear polarization (LP) state and CP state from 0.8 THz to 1.5THz. The transmission circular polarization converter converts the incident right-handed circular polarization (RCP) or left-handed circular polarization (LCP) wave to the LCP or RCP wave, which changes the chirality of the CP wave. The reflective CP converter needs to keep the chirality, right-handed or left-handed, of the CP wave, so the reflective CP converter is actually the chiral holder of the CP wave [57,58]. But these works achieve only a single reflection or transmission function, the research on bifunctional devices has not been found.

In this paper, a bifunctional CP wave converter is designed on the terahertz frequency. It consists of two layers of DSMs strips on both sides, and two layers in the middle which is a metal grating and a VO2 board. When VO2 is in an insulating state, the structure behaves as a transmission CP converter, which converts RCP or LCP into LCP or RCP at two frequencies. When VO2 is in metal state, it behaves as a reflective device, and achieves high efficiency CP wave chirality maintenance in a wide range. It has wide application prospects in the fields of wireless communication, imaging and detection, and opens a new way for designing new terahertz functional devices.

2. Structure design and method

The designed polarization converter based on DSMs is shown in Fig. 1. It consists of four parts: two lays of DSMs, a dielectric layer, a metal grating, and a VO2 board. The front and back strips are DSMs; with the direction tilted 45° relative to the x axis. There are two layers in the middle, which are metal grating and VO2 plate. The relative permittivity of copper can be described by the Drude model with the plasma frequency$\; \; {\omega _p} = 1.12 \times {10^{15}}\; rad/s$, the damping rate$\; \gamma = 1.38 \times {10^{13}}\; rad/s$. The dielectric layer filled in the middle is loss-free benzocyclobutene (BCB) with permittivity of 2.67. The optimized geometric parameters are$\; p = 30\mathrm{\mu}\textrm{m},\; \; {L_1} = 30\mathrm{\mu}\textrm{m},{\; \; }{L_2} = 3\mathrm{\mu}\textrm{m},{\; \; }{L_3} = 15\mathrm{\mu}\textrm{m},{\; }w = 2\mathrm{\mu}\textrm{m},{\; \; }g = 3\mathrm{\mu}\textrm{m},\; h = 0.2\mathrm{\mu}\textrm{m},{\; }t = 0.2\mathrm{\mu}\textrm{m},{\; }{t_m} = 2\mathrm{\mu}\textrm{m},{\; }{t_s} = 15\mathrm{\mu}\textrm{m}, {\; }d = 2\mathrm{\mu}\textrm{m}.{\; \; \; \; }$The frequency domain solver of the commercial simulation software CST Microwave Studio was used to simulate the polarization converter. The finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) is adopted, the periodic boundary conditions are set in x- and y- directions, while the open boundary condition is set in z- direction. In the simulation, the dynamic conductivity of the DSMs can be written as [42]:

$$\textrm{Re}\mathrm{\sigma }(\Omega)= \frac{{{e^2}}}{\hbar }\frac{{\textrm{g}{k_F}}}{{24\pi }}\Omega \textrm{G}({{\Omega}/2} )$$
$$\textrm{Im}\mathrm{\sigma }(\Omega )= \frac{{{e^2}}}{\hbar }\frac{{\textrm{g}{k_F}}}{{24{\pi ^2}}}\left[ {\frac{4}{\Omega}\left( {1 + \frac{{{\pi^2}}}{3}{{\left( {\frac{T}{{{E_F}}}} \right)}^2}} \right) + 8\Omega\mathop \smallint \nolimits_0^{{\varepsilon_c}} \left( {\frac{{G(\varepsilon )- G({\Omega /2} )}}{{{\Omega ^2} - 4{\varepsilon^2}}}\varepsilon d{\varepsilon }} \right)} \right]$$
where$\; G(E )= n({ - E} )- n(E )$with$\; n(E )$being the Fermi distribution function,$\; {E_F}\; $is the Fermi energy, ${k_F} = {E_F}/\hbar {\nu _F}$ is the Fermi momentum, where$\; {\nu _F} = {10^6}{\; m}/{s^{ - 1}}$ as the Fermi velocity,$\; \varepsilon = \textrm{E}/{E_F}$,$\; \Omega = \hbar \omega /{E_F} + i\hbar {\tau ^{ - 1}}/{E_F}$,$\; {\varepsilon _c} = {E_c}/{E_F}$,$\; {E_c} = 3$ is the cutoff energy, $\textrm{g} = 40$ is the degeneracy factor. Then, the permittivity of the DSMs can be expressed as$\; \varepsilon = {\varepsilon _b} + i\sigma /\omega {\varepsilon _0}$, where$\; {\varepsilon _b} = 1$ is the effective background dielectric constant and$\; {\varepsilon _0}\; $is the permittivity of vacuum.

 

Fig. 1. (a) 3D schematic of the structure, (b) front view, (c) metal grating, (d) side view.

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In the terahertz band, the Drude model is used to describe the frequency dependent complex permittivity of VO2 [46], it can be expressed as:

$${\varepsilon _\omega } = {\varepsilon _\infty } - \frac{{\omega _p^2(\sigma )}}{{{\omega ^2} + i\gamma \omega }}$$
where ${{\varepsilon }_\infty } = 12$ is the permittivity at high frequencies, and ${\omega _p}(\sigma )$ is the plasma frequency, which depends on the conductivity$\; \sigma $.$\; \gamma = 5.75 \times {10^{13}}\; rad/s$is the collision frequency.$\; \omega _p^2(\sigma )\; $and$\; \sigma \; $are proportional to the free carrier density, with$\; \omega _p^2(\sigma )= \frac{\sigma }{{{\sigma _0}}}\omega _p^2({{\sigma_0}} )$,$\; {\sigma _0} = 3 \times {10^5}\; S/m$,$\; {\omega _p}({{\sigma_0}} )= 1.4 \times {10^{15}}\; rad/s$, respectively. During the insulation-metal phase transition of VO2, the electrical conductivity and dielectric constant change dramatically. In the simulation, the electrical conductivity of VO2 is selected to be$\; \sigma = 2000{\; }S/m\; $and$\; \sigma = 3 \times {10^5}\; S/m$, which correspond to the insulation state and the metal state, respectively.

At the Cartesian coordinates of x-y-z, the incident EM wave propagates along the z-axis direction and the transmission coefficient is expressed as$\; {{\boldsymbol T}_{\boldsymbol{ij}}} = {\boldsymbol E}_i^t/{\boldsymbol E}_{\boldsymbol{j}}^{\boldsymbol i}$, where the subscripts$\; i\; $and$\; j\; $correspond to the polarization states of the transmitted and incident fields, respectively. And using the Jones matrix, the corresponding transmission coefficient matrix of LP wave is denoted as [31]:

$${{\boldsymbol T}_{{\boldsymbol {LP}}}} = \left( {\begin{array}{{cc}} {{{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{xx}}}}}&{{{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{xy}}}}}\\ {{{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{yx}}}}}&{{{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{yy}}}}} \end{array}} \right)$$
here, x and y in$\; {{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{xy}}}}\; $represent horizontal and vertical LP components, and when T and t are replaced by R and r, it represents the reflection coefficient matrix of LP wave. The transmission coefficient matrix of CP waves can be express as [29]:
$${{\boldsymbol T}_{{\boldsymbol{cp}}}} = \left( {\begin{array}{{cc}} {{{\boldsymbol t}_{ +{+} }}}&{{{\boldsymbol t}_{ +{-} }}}\\ {{{\boldsymbol t}_{ -{+} }}}&{{{\boldsymbol t}_{ -{-} }}} \end{array}} \right) = \frac{1}{2}\left( {\begin{array}{{cc}} {{{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{xx}}}} + {{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{yy}}}} + {\boldsymbol i}({{{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{xy}}}} - {{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{yx}}}}} )}&{{{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{xx}}}} - {{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{yy}}}} - {\boldsymbol i}({{{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{xy}}}} + {{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{yx}}}}} )}\\ {{{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{xx}}}} - {{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{yy}}}} + {\boldsymbol i}({{{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{xy}}}} + {{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{yx}}}}} )}&{{{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{xx}}}} + {{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{yy}}}} - {\boldsymbol i}({{{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{xy}}}} - {{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{yx}}}}} )} \end{array}} \right)$$
where + and - denote RCP wave and LCP wave respectively, and the reflection coefficient matrix representation of CP waves is as follows [57]:
$${{\boldsymbol R}_{{\boldsymbol{cp}}}} = \left( {\begin{array}{{cc}} {{{\boldsymbol r}_{ +{+} }}}&{{{\boldsymbol r}_{ +{-} }}}\\ {{{\boldsymbol r}_{ -{+} }}}&{{{\boldsymbol r}_{ -{-} }}} \end{array}} \right) = \frac{1}{2}\left( {\begin{array}{{cc}} {{{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{xx}}}} - {{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{yy}}}} - {\boldsymbol i}({{{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{xy}}}} + {{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{yx}}}}} )}&{{{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{xx}}}} + {{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{yy}}}} + {\boldsymbol i}({{{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{xy}}}} - {{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{yx}}}}} )}\\ {{{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{xx}}}} + {{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{yy}}}} - {\boldsymbol i}({{{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{xy}}}} - {{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{yx}}}}} )}&{{{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{xx}}}} - {{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{yy}}}} + {\boldsymbol i}({{{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{xy}}}} + {{\boldsymbol r}_{{\boldsymbol{yx}}}}} )} \end{array}} \right)$$

AT is the novel phenomenon that occurs when EM waves pass through a medium in different directions [34]. In the polarization conversion MMs structure, the giant AT effect mainly comes from the combination of polarization conversion effect and Fabry-Perot-like cavity enhancement effect. In order to ensure the giant AT effect of the LP wave and the CP wave, the AT effect occurs only when$\; {t_{yx}} \ne {t_{xy}},{t_{xx}} = {t_{yy}},{t_{ -{+} }} \ne {t_{ +{-} }},{t_{ +{+} }} = {t_{ -{-} }}\; $are satisfied at the same time. The AT need to satisfy the equation [29]:

$$\Delta _{lin}^{(x )} = {|{{{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{yx}}}}} |^2} - {|{{{\boldsymbol t}_{{\boldsymbol{xy}}}}} |^2} ={-} \Delta _{lin}^{(y )}$$
$$\Delta _{cir}^{(+ )} = {|{{{\boldsymbol t}_{ -{+} }}} |^2} - {|{{{\boldsymbol t}_{ +{-} }}} |^2} ={-} \Delta _{cir}^{(- )}$$

3. Results and discussions

3.1 Transmission circular polarization converter

Firstly, we verified the polarization conversion characteristics of the transmission CP converter when VO2 was used as the insulating dielectric layer. As shown in Fig. 2(a) and (b), we simulated the transmission coefficient when the CP wave is incident along the backward (-z) directions, and the Fermi level of DSMs is 90 meV. The co-polarization transmission coefficient t++=t--, and the minimum values are 0.13 and 0.15 at 1.92 THz and 3.46 THz, respectively. At 1.92 THz, the maximum amplitude of the cross-polarization transmission coefficient t-+ is 0.87, and the minimum value of t+- is 0.01. Figure 2(b) adds more information by showing the PCR, where$\; \textrm{PC}{\textrm{R}_ + } = {t_{ -{+} }}^2/({{t_{ +{+} }}^2 + {t_{ -{+} }}^2} )$,${\; PC}{\textrm{R}_ - } = {t_{ +{-} }}^2/({{t_{ -{-} }}^2 + {t_{ +{-} }}^2} )$. PCR+ reached 98%, which means that the incident RCP wave is almost completely converted to LCP wave. At 3.46 THz, the maximum value of the amplitude of t+- is 0.70, the amplitude of t-+ is only 0.06, and the PCR- is about 95%, which also indicates that the incident LCP is converted into an RCP wave. Therefore, this structure can realize efficient CP wave conversion.

 

Fig. 2. The co-polarization transmission coefficients t++, t-- and the cross-polarization transmission coefficients t+-, t-+ when CP waves illuminate in the backward (-z) directions.

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In Fig. 3, we verify the AT function of the transmission device. It can be seen in Fig. 3(a) that the total transmission coefficient t+ of RCP waves propagating in the + z and -z directions is significantly different, where$\; {t_ + } = {|{{t_{ +{+} }}} |^2} + {|{{t_{ -{+} }}} |^2}$. At 1.92 THz, the amplitude of t+ along the -z direction reaches 0.79, and decreases to 0.01 in the + z direction. At 3.46 THz, the value of t+ in the -z direction decreases to 0.03, while the value of t+ in the + z direction increases to 0.54 which indicates that a great diode-like effect is realized when RCP wave illuminates. As shown in Fig. 3(b), the$\; \Delta _{cir}^ + \; $is 0.75,$\; \Delta _{cir}^ - \; $is -0.75 at 1.92 THz, and at 3.46 THz,$\; \Delta _{cir}^ + \; $and$\; \Delta _{cir}^ - \; $are -0.49 and 0.49, respectively. This is due to the symmetry of the structure, so that the two transmitted CP waves have the same characteristics. In addition, the AT of the LP wave is always 0, which suggests that this structure suppresses the asymmetric power transmission of the LP wave.

 

Fig. 3. (a) Total transmittance t+ of RCP waves propagating in the forward (+z) and backward (-z) directions, (b) AT of linear polarization waves and CP waves.

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In addition, we studied the influence of other parameters of the polarization converter on CP wave conversion. As shown in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b), as the width w of the DSMs strips increase from 1µm to 4µm, PCR+ and AT$\; \Delta _{cir}^ + \; $and$\; \Delta _{cir}^ - \; $decreased slightly in the low-frequency region. In the high-frequency region, with increasing w, the resonance frequencies are blue-shifted, the amplitude of PCR- and AT reaches maximum value at w=2 µm. In Figs. 4(c) and 4(d), PCR+,$\; \Delta _{cir\; }^ + $and$\; \Delta _{cir}^ - \; $do not change at 1.92 THz when tm gradually increases, while in the high-frequency region, the PCR- and AT shift to the blue side, and the amplitude of PCR- reaches the maximum value 0.99 at tm = 4µm. It can be seen from Figs. 4(e) and 4(f) that when the thickness of the dielectric is increased from 5µm to 20µm, PCR+,$\; \Delta _{cir}^ + \; $and$\; \Delta _{cir}^ - \; $ in the low frequency region are significantly red shift and the amplitude increases, which reaches maximum when ts = 10µm. The amplitude increases when the thickness increases in the high frequency region. Therefore, changing these physical parameters can effectively adjust the PCR and AT.

 

Fig. 4. Polarization conversion ratio PCR+, PCR- and AT $\Delta _{cir}^ + $ and $\Delta _{cir}^ - $ under different physical parameters.

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Then, we considered the case of oblique incidence. From Figs. 5(a) and 5(b), we can clearly see that when the incident angle θ increases from 0° to 50°, PCR+ and PCR- have the similar changes for both TE and TM waves, there was a slight blue shift and the amplitude of PCR+ increases slightly in the low-frequency region. As shown in Fig. 5(a), the bandwidth of the low-frequency region increases and the amplitude of the high-frequency region decreases with the increasing incident angle θ. As shown in Fig. 5(b), the amplitude of PCR- at high frequency decreases gradually. Therefore, the proposed structure maintains good polarization conversion characteristics for incident angle θ from 0° to 50°.

 

Fig. 5. The polarization conversion ratio PCR+ and PCR- at different incident angles. (a) TE waves and (b) TM waves.

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We investigated the transmission coefficients at different Fermi levels of DSMs, as shown in Fig. 6(a). It can be seen that the co-polarization coefficients t++ and t-- are almost equivalent, the cross-polarization coefficients t+- and t-+ have obvious difference with the increase of Fermi level. This suggests that the polarization conversion of RCP to LCP and LCP to RCP is achieved at 1.92 THz and 3.46 THz, respectively. As shown in Figs. 6(b) and 6(c), we have given the cross-polarization coefficients t+- and t-+ as functions of the Fermi level in order to clearly observe the tunability. When the Fermi level increases from 50 meV to 110 meV, t+- and t-+ both show blue shifts around 1.92 THz and 3.46 THz.

 

Fig. 6. (a) Transmission coefficient with difference Fermi level of DSMs. Cross-polarization transmission coefficient for (b) t+- and (c) t-+ as functions of Fermi level.

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In order to better understand the physical mechanism of CP wave polarization conversion, we simulated the electric field distribution at 1.92 THz and 3.46 THz. As shown in Fig. 7, the DSMs strips of the first layer can be regarded as A, the metal grating as B, and the DSMs strips of the bottom layer as C. For the double-layer structure AB, A is responsible for the polarization conversion including transmission and reflection, and B has the perfect ability to select LP, that is, the electric field with polarization direction perpendicular to the grating is completely transmitted, while the electric field with polarization direction parallel to the grating is completely reflected. Therefore, A and B can be used as mirrors and constitute a Fabry-Perot cavity. From Fig. 7(a), CP wave is converted to y- polarized wave after passing through AB, and all others are reflected, since AB and BC are mirror-symmetrical, the y-polarized wave is eventually converted to LCP. As shown in Figs. 7(b) and 7(d), the resonant cavity formed by AB and BC is symmetrical, which shows that the electric field distribution of the two resonant cavities have the same characteristics. The CP wave undergoes a conversion, and the principal axis is the elliptical polarization (EP) transformation in the x and y directions. Then, the EP wave passes through B, the y component in EP wave will be transmitted, and the x component in EP wave will be reflected. Similarly, B and C form a reverse cavity, responsible for the conversion of LP wave to CP wave. After multiple reflections and conversions, an efficient CP waves cross-polarization conversion occurs.

 

Fig. 7. The electric field distribution at (a) 1.92 THz and (b) 3.46 THz, (b) and (d) Physical mechanism of CP conversion.

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3.2 Circular polarization maintaining reflector

When the conductivity of VO2 is$\; \sigma = 3 \times {10^5}\; S/m$, VO2 behaves like a conductive metal, completely reflects EM waves, and constitutes a CP maintaining reflector. Figure 8(a) suggests the co-polarization and cross-polarization reflection coefficients of CP waves at 1-4 THz. It can be seen that the co-polarized reflection coefficients r++ and r-- exceed 0.78 and the maximum value can reach 0.93 in the range from 2 to 3.55 THz, and the cross-polarization reflection coefficients r-+ and r+- are suppressed below 0.3, with a minimum value of 0.15. That is to say, the reflection wave and the incident wave have the same chirality, and the chirality of the CP waves in the broadband range can be maintained.

 

Fig. 8. (a) The reflection coefficients when CP waves incident. (b) The PMR of the CP waves.

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Next, to study the efficiency and characteristics of polarization maintenance, we simulated and calculated the PMR [57] of the structure, according to${\; PM}{\textrm{R}_ + } = {r_{ +{+} }}^2/({{r_{ +{+} }}^2 + {r_{ -{+} }}^2} )$,$\; \textrm{PM}{\textrm{R}_ - } = {r_{ -{-} }}^2/({{r_{ -{-} }}^2 + {r_{ +{-} }}^2} )$, respectively. As shown in Fig. 8(b), both PMR+ and PMR- simulation results are greater than 88% in the range of 2 THz to 3.55 THz. These results verify that the designed structure can maintain the chirality of LCP or RCP waves well.

We also verified the effect of dielectric layer thickness ts on PMR. As can be seen from Figs. 9(a) and 9(b), the amplitude fluctuates around 0.95 as the ts increases from 11 µm to 15 µm and reaches the minimum value 0.6 when ts = 17 µm. The operating frequency has a blue shift of about 0.3 THz, which means that it has the ability to be tuned by thickness.

 

Fig. 9. The polarization maintaining ratio of (a) RCP wave and (b) LCP wave at different dielectric thickness ts.

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Later, we investigated the effect of the incident angle θ on PMR, as shown in Figs. 10(a) and 10(b). When θ is gradually increased from 0° to 60°, the bandwidth of PMR is gradually narrowed, but the magnitude is still greater than 88% in the range from 2 THz to 3.55 THz. Therefore, both PMR- and PMR+ have good polarization maintaining performance at 0° to 60°.

 

Fig. 10. The PMR of (a) RCP wave and (b) LCP wave at different incident angle θ.

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As shown in Fig. 11, we simulated the reflection coefficients and PMR at different Fermi levels of DSMs to verify the tunability for the polarization maintaining reflector. It can be seen that the transmission coefficients show a blue shift and increase in amplitude as the Fermi level increases from 50 meV to 110 meV in Figs. 11(a) and 11(b). When the Fermi level is greater than 70 meV, the amplitudes of r++ and r-- are stable above 0.8. As shown in Figs. 11(c) and 11(d), PMR+ and PMR- gradually decrease, and the resonance bandwidth increases as the Fermi level increases. From the above results, it can be concluded that changing the Fermi level can achieve dynamic tuning of the operating frequency.

 

Fig. 11. Transmission coefficients for incident (a) RCP wave, (b) LCP wave, and (c) PMR+, (d) PMR- at different Fermi level

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Later, we verify the CP wave maintenance mechanism by decomposing the incident and reflected CP waves into x and y polarization waves. The electric fields of the incident waves of x polarization wave and y polarization wave are${\;\boldsymbol{ E}}_{\boldsymbol{x}}^{\boldsymbol i}\; $and$\; {\boldsymbol E}_{\boldsymbol{y}}^{\boldsymbol i}$, respectively, and the electric field of the reflected waves are expressed by${\;\boldsymbol{E}}_x^r\; $and$\; {\boldsymbol E}_y^r$. Expressed as the following matrix [57]:

$$\left( {\begin{array}{{c}} {{\boldsymbol E}_x^r}\\ {{\boldsymbol E}_y^r} \end{array}} \right) = \left( {\begin{array}{{cc}} {{{\boldsymbol r}_{xx}}}&{{{\boldsymbol r}_{xy}}}\\ {{{\boldsymbol r}_{yx}}}&{{{\boldsymbol r}_{yy}}} \end{array}} \right)\left( {\begin{array}{{c}} {{\boldsymbol r}_x^i}\\ {{\boldsymbol r}_y^i} \end{array}} \right) = {{\boldsymbol R}_{LP}}\left( {\begin{array}{{c}} {{\boldsymbol E}_x^i}\\ {{\boldsymbol E}_y^i} \end{array}} \right)$$
The equations of the electric field of the incident waves and reflected waves are expressed as$\; {\boldsymbol E}_x^r = {{\boldsymbol r}_{xx}}{\boldsymbol E}_x^i + {{\boldsymbol r}_{xy}}{\boldsymbol E}_y^i$,${\; }{\boldsymbol E}_y^r = {{\boldsymbol r}_{yx}}{\boldsymbol E}_x^i + {{\boldsymbol r}_{yy}}{\boldsymbol E}_y^i$. The relationship between the complex reflection coefficient, amplitude and phase is$\; {{\boldsymbol r}_{xx}} = {r_{xx}}{e^{i{\varphi _{xx}}}}$,$\; {{\boldsymbol r}_{xy}} = {r_{xy}}{e^{i{\varphi _{xy}}}}$,$\; {{\boldsymbol r}_{yx}} = {r_{yx}}{e^{i{\varphi _{yx}}}}$ and$\; {{\boldsymbol r}_{yy}} = {r_{yy}}{e^{i{\varphi _{yy}}}}$. As long as$\; {r_{xx}} = {r_{yy}}$,${\; }\Delta \varphi = {\varphi _{yy}} - {\varphi _{xx}} ={\pm} \pi \; $or$\; {r_{xy}} = {r_{yx}}$,$\; \Delta \varphi = {\varphi _{xy}} - {\varphi _{yx}} = 0{\; }$are satisfied, CP waves are reflected when CP waves illuminate.

As can be seen from Fig. 12(a), in the range of 2 THz to 3.55 THz, the cross-polarization reflection coefficients$\; {r_{xy}}\; $and$\; {r_{yx}}\; $are greater than 0.8, and the co-polarization reflection coefficients$\; {r_{xx}}\; $and$\; {r_{yy}}\; $are below 0.3, which indicates that the LP waves occur a cross polarization conversion. Figure 12(b) suggests the amplitude ratio and phase difference of$\; {r_{yx}}\; $and$\; {r_{xy}}$, from which we can see that$\; {r_{yx}}/{r_{xy}} = 1$,${\; }{\varphi _{xy}} - {\varphi _{yx}} = 0$. Therefore, it is proved that the corresponding CP reflection can be obtained with the incident CP waves in the range from 2 THz to 3.55 THz.

 

Fig. 12. (a) Co-polarization and cross-polarization reflection coefficients when x-polarization and y-polarization waves are incident, (b) reflectance ratio and phase difference of cross-polarization coefficients.

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4. Conclusions

In this paper, we have successfully proposed a structure that utilizes the phase transition characteristics of VO2 to achieve both transmission and reflection functions in a device. As a transmission CP converter, using a cascaded Fabry-Perot resonator, high-efficiency dual-band CP wave conversion and AT effect can be achieved in the terahertz band. At 1.92 THz and 3.46 THz, the cross-polarization transmission coefficients are 0.86 and 0.69,$\; \Delta _{cir}^ + \; $and$\; \Delta _{cir}^ - \; $are 0.74 and 0.47, respectively. We also studied the effects of other physical parameters and oblique incidence on polarization conversion. The results show that the polarization conversion effect is better when the incidence angle is in the range of 0°-50°. In the case of reflective devices, the chirality of the incident CP wave can be well maintained in the broadband range from 2 THz to 3.55 THz, with PMR more than 88%. For both transmission CP converter and CP maintaining reflector, the Fermi level of DSM can be changed to achieve dynamic tuning of the polarization conversion frequency band. Therefore, the designed MMs structure has a good inspiration for the study of multifunctional polarization converter in the terahertz band.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61775123, 61875106); Key Research and Development Program of Shandong Province (2019GGX104039, 2019GGX104053); National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFA0701000).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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6. T. Amemiya, K. Abe, T. Tanemura, T. Mizumoto, and Y. Nakano, “Nonreciprocal Polarization Conversion in Asymmetric Magnetooptic Waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(11), 1662–1669 (2010). [CrossRef]  

7. K. Kawai, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, T. Sasaki, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Tunable Dichroic Polarization Beam Splitter Created by One-Step Holographic Photoalignment Using Four-Beam Polarization Interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(1), 013102 (2017). [CrossRef]  

8. D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004). [CrossRef]  

9. T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding Metamaterials, Digital Metamaterials and Programmable Metamaterials,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014). [CrossRef]  

10. S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic Coding Metamaterials and Their Powerful Manipulation of Differently Polarized Terahertz Waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016). [CrossRef]  

11. L. L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. H. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic Reprogrammable Coding-Metasurface Holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017). [CrossRef]  

12. H. Xiong and F. Yang, “Ultra-Broadband and Tunable Saline Water-Based Absorber in Microwave Regime,” Opt. Express 28(4), 5306–5316 (2020). [CrossRef]  

13. H. Xiong, Q. Ji, T. Bashir, and F. Yang, “Dual-Controlled Broadband Terahertz Absorber Based on Graphene and Dirac Semimetal,” Opt. Express 28(9), 13884–13894 (2020). [CrossRef]  

14. Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted Optical Metamaterials for Planarized Ultrathin Broadband Circular Polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 870 (2012). [CrossRef]  

15. M. Kang, T. H. Feng, H. T. Wang, and J. Li, “Wave Front Engineering from an Array of Thin Aperture Antennas,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15882–15890 (2012). [CrossRef]  

16. T. Cao, C. W. Wei, L. B. Mao, and Y. Li, “Extrinsic 2d Chirality: Giant Circular Conversion Dichroism from a Metal-Dielectric-Metal Square Array,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7442 (2015). [CrossRef]  

17. Z. Y. Song, Q. Q. Chu, X. P. Shen, and Q. H. Liu, “Wideband High-Efficient Linear Polarization Rotators,” Front. Phys. 13(5), 137803 (2018). [CrossRef]  

18. H. Y. Song, L. Zhang, and Q. H. Liu, “High-Efficiency Broadband Cross Polarization Converter for Near-Infrared Light Based on Anisotropic Plasmonic Meta-Surfaces,” Plasmonics 11(1), 61–64 (2016). [CrossRef]  

19. Z. Y. Song, X. Li, J. M. Hao, S. Y. Xiao, M. Qiu, Q. He, S. J. Ma, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Surface-Wave Properties of a Plasmonic Metal by a Metamaterial Capping,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18178–18187 (2013). [CrossRef]  

20. Y. Z. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband Reflective Polarization Convertor for Terahertz Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181111 (2014). [CrossRef]  

21. X. F. Zang, S. J. Liu, H. H. Gong, Y. J. Wang, and Y. M. Zhu, “Dual-Band Superposition Induced Broadband Terahertz Linear-to-Circular Polarization Converter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(4), 950–957 (2018). [CrossRef]  

22. L. Nilotpal, S. Nama, P. Bhattacharyya, and Chakrabarti, “A Metasurface-Based Broadband Quasi Non-Dispersive Cross Polarization Converter for Far Infrared Region,” Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Aided Eng. 29(10), e21889 (2019). [CrossRef]  

23. N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz Metamaterials for Linear Polarization Conversion and Anomalous Refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013). [CrossRef]  

24. Y. N. Jiang, L. Wang, J. Wang, C. N. Akwuruoha, and W. P. Cao, “Ultra-Wideband High-Efficiency Reflective Linear-to-Circular Polarization Converter Based on Metasurface at Terahertz Frequencies,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27616–27623 (2017). [CrossRef]  

25. Y. Z. Cheng, J. P. Fan, H. Luo, F. Chen, N. X. Feng, X. S. Mao, and R. Z. Gong, “Dual-Band and High-Efficiency Circular Polarization Conversion Via Asymmetric Transmission with Anisotropic Metamaterial in the Terahertz Region,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(3), 1365–1376 (2019). [CrossRef]  

26. X. J. Huang, D. Yang, and H. L. Yang, “Multiple-Band Reflective Polarization Converter Using U-Shaped Metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(10), 103505 (2014). [CrossRef]  

27. Z. C. Li, W. W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Realizing Broadband and Invertible Linear-to-Circular Polarization Converter with Ultrathin Single-Layer Metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18106 (2015). [CrossRef]  

28. O. Buchnev, N. Podoliak, T. Frank, M. Kaczmarek, L. D. Jiang, and V. A. Fedotov, “Controlling Stiction in Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems Using Liquid Crystals,” ACS Nano 10(12), 11519–11524 (2016). [CrossRef]  

29. X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband Tunable Polarization Converter Realized by Graphene-Based Metamaterial,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016). [CrossRef]  

30. Y. Y. Huang, Z. H. Yao, F. R. Hu, C. J. Liu, L. L. Yu, Y. P. Jin, and X. L. Xu, “Tunable Circular Polarization Conversion and Asymmetric Transmission of Planar Chiral Graphene-Metamaterial in Terahertz Region,” Carbon 119, 305–313 (2017). [CrossRef]  

31. C. Yang, Y. Luo, J. X. Guo, Y. Pu, D. He, Y. D. Jiang, J. Xu, and Z. J. Liu, “Wideband Tunable Mid-Infrared Cross Polarization Converter Using Rectangle-Shape Perforated Graphene,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16913–16922 (2016). [CrossRef]  

32. V. S. Yadav, S. K. Ghosh, S. Das, and S. Bhattacharyya, “Wideband Tunable Mid-Infrared Cross-Polarization Converter Using Monolayered Graphene-Based Metasurface over a Wide Angle of Incidence,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 13(1), 82–87 (2019). [CrossRef]  

33. Z. Hamzavi-Zarghani, A. Yahaghi, L. Matekovits, and I. Peter, “Tunable Polarization Converter Based on Graphene Metasurfaces,” 2018 IEEE Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean (RADIO), Grand Port, 2018, pp. 1–2.

34. V. S. Yadav, S. K. Ghosh, S. Bhattacharyya, and S. Das, “Graphene Based Metasurface for Tunable Broadband Terahertz Cross Polarization Converter over Wide Angle of Incidence,” Appl. Opt. 57(29), 8720–8726 (2018). [CrossRef]  

35. M. Sajjad, X. Kong, S. Liu, A. Ahmed, S. U. Rahman, and Q. Wang, “Graphene-Based THz Tunable Ultra-Wideband Polarization Converter,” Phys. Lett. A 384(23), 126567 (2020). [CrossRef]  

36. S. Borisenko, Q. Gibson, D. Evtushinsky, V. Zabolotnyy, B. Büchner, and R. J. Cava, “Experimental Realization of a Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 027603 (2014). [CrossRef]  

37. J. Huang, J. N. Li, Y. Yang, J. Li, J. H. Li, Y. T. Zhang, and J. Q. Yao, “Active Controllable Dual Broadband Terahertz Absorber Based on Hybrid Metamaterials with Vanadium Dioxide,” Opt. Express 28(5), 7018–7027 (2020). [CrossRef]  

38. L. X. Wang, C. Z. Li, D. P. Yu, and Z. M. Liao, “Aharonov–Bohm Oscillations in Dirac Semimetal Cd3as2 Nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10769 (2016). [CrossRef]  

39. Z. K. Liu, B. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, H. M. Weng, D. Prabhakaran, S. K. Mo, Z. X. Shen, Z. Fang, X. Dai, Z. Hussain, and Y. L. Chen, “Discovery of a Three-Dimensional Topological Dirac Semimetal, Na3bi,” Science 343(6173), 864–867 (2014). [CrossRef]  

40. L. P. He, X. C. Hong, J. K. Dong, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, J. Zhang, and S. Y. Li, “Quantum Transport Evidence for the Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetal Phase in Cd3as2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(24), 246402 (2014). [CrossRef]  

41. S. M. Shen, Y. L. Liu, W. Q. Liu, Q. L. Tan, J. J. Xiong, and W. D. Zhang, “Tunable Electromagnetically Induced Reflection with a High Q Factor in Complementary Dirac Semimetal Metamaterials,” Mater. Res. Express 5(12), 125804 (2018). [CrossRef]  

42. H. Y. Meng, X. J. Shang, X. X. Xue, K. Z. Tang, S. X. Xia, X. Zhai, Z. R. Liu, J. H. Chen, H. J. Li, and L. L. Wang, “Bidirectional and Dynamically Tunable THz Absorber with Dirac Semimetal,” Opt. Express 27(21), 31062–31074 (2019). [CrossRef]  

43. L. L. Dai, Y. P. Zhang, H. Y. Zhang, and J. F. O’Hara, “Broadband Tunable Terahertz Cross-Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetals,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(7), 075003 (2019). [CrossRef]  

44. L. L. Dai, Y. P. Zhang, X. H. Guo, Y. K. Zhao, S. D. Liu, and H. Y. Zhang, “Dynamically Tunable Broadband Linear-to-Circular Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetals,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(10), 3238–3249 (2018). [CrossRef]  

45. W. L. Meng, B. Y. Hou, Q. H. Cao, H. M. Lin, W. Zhou, Z. X. Li, and D. H. Li, “Dynamically Tunable High-Efficiency Broadband Terahertz Linear Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetal Metamaterials,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 62(8), 2703–2707 (2020). [CrossRef]  

46. L. L. Chen and Z. Y. Song, “Simultaneous Realizations of Absorber and Transparent Conducting Metal in a Single Metamaterial,” Opt. Express 28(5), 6565–6571 (2020). [CrossRef]  

47. Z. Y. Song, A. P. Chen, J. H. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Integrated Metamaterial with Functionalities of Absorption and Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Opt. Express 27(18), 25196–25204 (2019). [CrossRef]  

48. M. Zhang and Z. Y. Song, “Terahertz Bifunctional Absorber Based on a Graphene-Spacer-Vanadium Dioxide-Spacer-Metal Configuration,” Opt. Express 28(8), 11780–11788 (2020). [CrossRef]  

49. Z. Y. Song, Y. D. Deng, Y. G. Zhou, and Z. Y. Liu, “Terahertz Toroidal Metamaterial with Tunable Properties,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5792–5797 (2019). [CrossRef]  

50. M. T. Nouman, J. H. Hwang, M. Faiyaz, K. J. Lee, D. Y. Noh, and J. H. Jang, “Vanadium Dioxide Based Frequency Tunable Metasurface Filters for Realizing Reconfigurable Terahertz Optical Phase and Polarization Control,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12922–12929 (2018). [CrossRef]  

51. Z. Y. Song, K. Wang, J. W. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband Tunable Terahertz Absorber Based on Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018). [CrossRef]  

52. Q. Q. Chu, Z. Y. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Omnidirectional Tunable Terahertz Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Realized by Isotropic Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(8), 082203 (2018). [CrossRef]  

53. M. K. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. W. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-Field-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012). [CrossRef]  

54. Z. Y. Song and J. H. Zhang, “Achieving Broadband Absorption and Polarization Conversion with a Vanadium Dioxide Metasurface in the Same Terahertz Frequencies,” Opt. Express 28(8), 12487–12497 (2020). [CrossRef]  

55. X. X. Zheng, Z. Y. Xiao, and X. Y. Ling, “A Tunable Hybrid Metamaterial Reflective Polarization Converter Based on Vanadium Oxide Film,” Plasmonics 13(1), 287–291 (2018). [CrossRef]  

56. X. D. Liu, X. Q. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, C. R. Han, G. Humbert, A. Crunteanu, and E. P. Macpherson, “Invited Article: An Active Terahertz Polarization Converter Employing Vanadium Dioxide and a Metal Wire Grating in Total Internal Reflection Geometry,” APL Photonics 3(5), 051604 (2018). [CrossRef]  

57. B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W. J. Huo, Z. Xing, B. G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-Band Linear-Polarization Conversion and Circular Polarization in Reflection Mode Using a Symmetric Anisotropic Metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018). [CrossRef]  

58. X. J. Huang, J. Chen, and H. L. Yang, “High-Efficiency Wideband Reflection Polarization Conversion Metasurface for Circularly Polarized Waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(4), 043102 (2017). [CrossRef]  

References

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  43. L. L. Dai, Y. P. Zhang, H. Y. Zhang, and J. F. O’Hara, “Broadband Tunable Terahertz Cross-Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetals,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(7), 075003 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  44. L. L. Dai, Y. P. Zhang, X. H. Guo, Y. K. Zhao, S. D. Liu, and H. Y. Zhang, “Dynamically Tunable Broadband Linear-to-Circular Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetals,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(10), 3238–3249 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  45. W. L. Meng, B. Y. Hou, Q. H. Cao, H. M. Lin, W. Zhou, Z. X. Li, and D. H. Li, “Dynamically Tunable High-Efficiency Broadband Terahertz Linear Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetal Metamaterials,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 62(8), 2703–2707 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  46. L. L. Chen and Z. Y. Song, “Simultaneous Realizations of Absorber and Transparent Conducting Metal in a Single Metamaterial,” Opt. Express 28(5), 6565–6571 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  47. Z. Y. Song, A. P. Chen, J. H. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Integrated Metamaterial with Functionalities of Absorption and Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Opt. Express 27(18), 25196–25204 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  48. M. Zhang and Z. Y. Song, “Terahertz Bifunctional Absorber Based on a Graphene-Spacer-Vanadium Dioxide-Spacer-Metal Configuration,” Opt. Express 28(8), 11780–11788 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  49. Z. Y. Song, Y. D. Deng, Y. G. Zhou, and Z. Y. Liu, “Terahertz Toroidal Metamaterial with Tunable Properties,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5792–5797 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  50. M. T. Nouman, J. H. Hwang, M. Faiyaz, K. J. Lee, D. Y. Noh, and J. H. Jang, “Vanadium Dioxide Based Frequency Tunable Metasurface Filters for Realizing Reconfigurable Terahertz Optical Phase and Polarization Control,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12922–12929 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  51. Z. Y. Song, K. Wang, J. W. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband Tunable Terahertz Absorber Based on Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  52. Q. Q. Chu, Z. Y. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Omnidirectional Tunable Terahertz Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Realized by Isotropic Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(8), 082203 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  53. M. K. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. W. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-Field-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  54. Z. Y. Song and J. H. Zhang, “Achieving Broadband Absorption and Polarization Conversion with a Vanadium Dioxide Metasurface in the Same Terahertz Frequencies,” Opt. Express 28(8), 12487–12497 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  55. X. X. Zheng, Z. Y. Xiao, and X. Y. Ling, “A Tunable Hybrid Metamaterial Reflective Polarization Converter Based on Vanadium Oxide Film,” Plasmonics 13(1), 287–291 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  56. X. D. Liu, X. Q. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, C. R. Han, G. Humbert, A. Crunteanu, and E. P. Macpherson, “Invited Article: An Active Terahertz Polarization Converter Employing Vanadium Dioxide and a Metal Wire Grating in Total Internal Reflection Geometry,” APL Photonics 3(5), 051604 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  57. B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W. J. Huo, Z. Xing, B. G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-Band Linear-Polarization Conversion and Circular Polarization in Reflection Mode Using a Symmetric Anisotropic Metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  58. X. J. Huang, J. Chen, and H. L. Yang, “High-Efficiency Wideband Reflection Polarization Conversion Metasurface for Circularly Polarized Waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(4), 043102 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2020 (8)

H. Xiong and F. Yang, “Ultra-Broadband and Tunable Saline Water-Based Absorber in Microwave Regime,” Opt. Express 28(4), 5306–5316 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Xiong, Q. Ji, T. Bashir, and F. Yang, “Dual-Controlled Broadband Terahertz Absorber Based on Graphene and Dirac Semimetal,” Opt. Express 28(9), 13884–13894 (2020).
[Crossref]

M. Sajjad, X. Kong, S. Liu, A. Ahmed, S. U. Rahman, and Q. Wang, “Graphene-Based THz Tunable Ultra-Wideband Polarization Converter,” Phys. Lett. A 384(23), 126567 (2020).
[Crossref]

J. Huang, J. N. Li, Y. Yang, J. Li, J. H. Li, Y. T. Zhang, and J. Q. Yao, “Active Controllable Dual Broadband Terahertz Absorber Based on Hybrid Metamaterials with Vanadium Dioxide,” Opt. Express 28(5), 7018–7027 (2020).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang and Z. Y. Song, “Terahertz Bifunctional Absorber Based on a Graphene-Spacer-Vanadium Dioxide-Spacer-Metal Configuration,” Opt. Express 28(8), 11780–11788 (2020).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Song and J. H. Zhang, “Achieving Broadband Absorption and Polarization Conversion with a Vanadium Dioxide Metasurface in the Same Terahertz Frequencies,” Opt. Express 28(8), 12487–12497 (2020).
[Crossref]

W. L. Meng, B. Y. Hou, Q. H. Cao, H. M. Lin, W. Zhou, Z. X. Li, and D. H. Li, “Dynamically Tunable High-Efficiency Broadband Terahertz Linear Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetal Metamaterials,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 62(8), 2703–2707 (2020).
[Crossref]

L. L. Chen and Z. Y. Song, “Simultaneous Realizations of Absorber and Transparent Conducting Metal in a Single Metamaterial,” Opt. Express 28(5), 6565–6571 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (7)

Z. Y. Song, A. P. Chen, J. H. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Integrated Metamaterial with Functionalities of Absorption and Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Opt. Express 27(18), 25196–25204 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Song, Y. D. Deng, Y. G. Zhou, and Z. Y. Liu, “Terahertz Toroidal Metamaterial with Tunable Properties,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5792–5797 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Meng, X. J. Shang, X. X. Xue, K. Z. Tang, S. X. Xia, X. Zhai, Z. R. Liu, J. H. Chen, H. J. Li, and L. L. Wang, “Bidirectional and Dynamically Tunable THz Absorber with Dirac Semimetal,” Opt. Express 27(21), 31062–31074 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. L. Dai, Y. P. Zhang, H. Y. Zhang, and J. F. O’Hara, “Broadband Tunable Terahertz Cross-Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetals,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(7), 075003 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. S. Yadav, S. K. Ghosh, S. Das, and S. Bhattacharyya, “Wideband Tunable Mid-Infrared Cross-Polarization Converter Using Monolayered Graphene-Based Metasurface over a Wide Angle of Incidence,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 13(1), 82–87 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Nilotpal, S. Nama, P. Bhattacharyya, and Chakrabarti, “A Metasurface-Based Broadband Quasi Non-Dispersive Cross Polarization Converter for Far Infrared Region,” Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Aided Eng. 29(10), e21889 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Cheng, J. P. Fan, H. Luo, F. Chen, N. X. Feng, X. S. Mao, and R. Z. Gong, “Dual-Band and High-Efficiency Circular Polarization Conversion Via Asymmetric Transmission with Anisotropic Metamaterial in the Terahertz Region,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(3), 1365–1376 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (11)

X. F. Zang, S. J. Liu, H. H. Gong, Y. J. Wang, and Y. M. Zhu, “Dual-Band Superposition Induced Broadband Terahertz Linear-to-Circular Polarization Converter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(4), 950–957 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. S. Yadav, S. K. Ghosh, S. Bhattacharyya, and S. Das, “Graphene Based Metasurface for Tunable Broadband Terahertz Cross Polarization Converter over Wide Angle of Incidence,” Appl. Opt. 57(29), 8720–8726 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Song, Q. Q. Chu, X. P. Shen, and Q. H. Liu, “Wideband High-Efficient Linear Polarization Rotators,” Front. Phys. 13(5), 137803 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. L. Dai, Y. P. Zhang, X. H. Guo, Y. K. Zhao, S. D. Liu, and H. Y. Zhang, “Dynamically Tunable Broadband Linear-to-Circular Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetals,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(10), 3238–3249 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. M. Shen, Y. L. Liu, W. Q. Liu, Q. L. Tan, J. J. Xiong, and W. D. Zhang, “Tunable Electromagnetically Induced Reflection with a High Q Factor in Complementary Dirac Semimetal Metamaterials,” Mater. Res. Express 5(12), 125804 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. T. Nouman, J. H. Hwang, M. Faiyaz, K. J. Lee, D. Y. Noh, and J. H. Jang, “Vanadium Dioxide Based Frequency Tunable Metasurface Filters for Realizing Reconfigurable Terahertz Optical Phase and Polarization Control,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12922–12929 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Song, K. Wang, J. W. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband Tunable Terahertz Absorber Based on Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Q. Chu, Z. Y. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Omnidirectional Tunable Terahertz Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Realized by Isotropic Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(8), 082203 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. X. Zheng, Z. Y. Xiao, and X. Y. Ling, “A Tunable Hybrid Metamaterial Reflective Polarization Converter Based on Vanadium Oxide Film,” Plasmonics 13(1), 287–291 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. D. Liu, X. Q. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, C. R. Han, G. Humbert, A. Crunteanu, and E. P. Macpherson, “Invited Article: An Active Terahertz Polarization Converter Employing Vanadium Dioxide and a Metal Wire Grating in Total Internal Reflection Geometry,” APL Photonics 3(5), 051604 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W. J. Huo, Z. Xing, B. G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-Band Linear-Polarization Conversion and Circular Polarization in Reflection Mode Using a Symmetric Anisotropic Metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

X. J. Huang, J. Chen, and H. L. Yang, “High-Efficiency Wideband Reflection Polarization Conversion Metasurface for Circularly Polarized Waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(4), 043102 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. H. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic Reprogrammable Coding-Metasurface Holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Boroduleva, J. Wu, Q. Q. Yang, H. Li, Q. Zhang, P. W. Li, and S. A. Eremin, “Development of Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassays for Parallel Detection of Pesticides Carbaryl and Triazophos in Wheat Grains,” Anal. Methods 9(48), 6814–6822 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Kawai, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, T. Sasaki, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Tunable Dichroic Polarization Beam Splitter Created by One-Step Holographic Photoalignment Using Four-Beam Polarization Interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(1), 013102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Huang, Z. H. Yao, F. R. Hu, C. J. Liu, L. L. Yu, Y. P. Jin, and X. L. Xu, “Tunable Circular Polarization Conversion and Asymmetric Transmission of Planar Chiral Graphene-Metamaterial in Terahertz Region,” Carbon 119, 305–313 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. N. Jiang, L. Wang, J. Wang, C. N. Akwuruoha, and W. P. Cao, “Ultra-Wideband High-Efficiency Reflective Linear-to-Circular Polarization Converter Based on Metasurface at Terahertz Frequencies,” Opt. Express 25(22), 27616–27623 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

C. Yang, Y. Luo, J. X. Guo, Y. Pu, D. He, Y. D. Jiang, J. Xu, and Z. J. Liu, “Wideband Tunable Mid-Infrared Cross Polarization Converter Using Rectangle-Shape Perforated Graphene,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16913–16922 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Buchnev, N. Podoliak, T. Frank, M. Kaczmarek, L. D. Jiang, and V. A. Fedotov, “Controlling Stiction in Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems Using Liquid Crystals,” ACS Nano 10(12), 11519–11524 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband Tunable Polarization Converter Realized by Graphene-Based Metamaterial,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Nikoufard and M. Hatami, “Photonic Crystal-Based Polarization Converter for Optical Communication Applications,” IJOP 10(2), 111–116 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic Coding Metamaterials and Their Powerful Manipulation of Differently Polarized Terahertz Waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Song, L. Zhang, and Q. H. Liu, “High-Efficiency Broadband Cross Polarization Converter for Near-Infrared Light Based on Anisotropic Plasmonic Meta-Surfaces,” Plasmonics 11(1), 61–64 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. X. Wang, C. Z. Li, D. P. Yu, and Z. M. Liao, “Aharonov–Bohm Oscillations in Dirac Semimetal Cd3as2 Nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10769 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

Z. C. Li, W. W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Realizing Broadband and Invertible Linear-to-Circular Polarization Converter with Ultrathin Single-Layer Metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18106 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Cao, C. W. Wei, L. B. Mao, and Y. Li, “Extrinsic 2d Chirality: Giant Circular Conversion Dichroism from a Metal-Dielectric-Metal Square Array,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7442 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

Y. Z. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband Reflective Polarization Convertor for Terahertz Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181111 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. J. Huang, D. Yang, and H. L. Yang, “Multiple-Band Reflective Polarization Converter Using U-Shaped Metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(10), 103505 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Borisenko, Q. Gibson, D. Evtushinsky, V. Zabolotnyy, B. Büchner, and R. J. Cava, “Experimental Realization of a Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 027603 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding Metamaterials, Digital Metamaterials and Programmable Metamaterials,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. K. Liu, B. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, H. M. Weng, D. Prabhakaran, S. K. Mo, Z. X. Shen, Z. Fang, X. Dai, Z. Hussain, and Y. L. Chen, “Discovery of a Three-Dimensional Topological Dirac Semimetal, Na3bi,” Science 343(6173), 864–867 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. P. He, X. C. Hong, J. K. Dong, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, J. Zhang, and S. Y. Li, “Quantum Transport Evidence for the Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetal Phase in Cd3as2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(24), 246402 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Z. Y. Song, X. Li, J. M. Hao, S. Y. Xiao, M. Qiu, Q. He, S. J. Ma, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Surface-Wave Properties of a Plasmonic Metal by a Metamaterial Capping,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18178–18187 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz Metamaterials for Linear Polarization Conversion and Anomalous Refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted Optical Metamaterials for Planarized Ultrathin Broadband Circular Polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 870 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kang, T. H. Feng, H. T. Wang, and J. Li, “Wave Front Engineering from an Array of Thin Aperture Antennas,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15882–15890 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, Z. B. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Asymmetric Electromagnetic Wave Transmission of Linear Polarization Via Polarization Conversion Through Chiral Metamaterial Structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195131 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. K. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. W. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-Field-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

T. Amemiya, K. Abe, T. Tanemura, T. Mizumoto, and Y. Nakano, “Nonreciprocal Polarization Conversion in Asymmetric Magnetooptic Waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(11), 1662–1669 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. M. Zhao, Y. Chen, and Y. J. Feng, “Polarization Beam Splitting Through an Anisotropic Metamaterial Slab Realized by a Layered Metal-Dielectric Structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071114 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref]

Abbott, D.

Y. Z. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband Reflective Polarization Convertor for Terahertz Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Abe, K.

T. Amemiya, K. Abe, T. Tanemura, T. Mizumoto, and Y. Nakano, “Nonreciprocal Polarization Conversion in Asymmetric Magnetooptic Waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(11), 1662–1669 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, A.

M. Sajjad, X. Kong, S. Liu, A. Ahmed, S. U. Rahman, and Q. Wang, “Graphene-Based THz Tunable Ultra-Wideband Polarization Converter,” Phys. Lett. A 384(23), 126567 (2020).
[Crossref]

Akwuruoha, C. N.

Alù, A.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted Optical Metamaterials for Planarized Ultrathin Broadband Circular Polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 870 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amemiya, T.

T. Amemiya, K. Abe, T. Tanemura, T. Mizumoto, and Y. Nakano, “Nonreciprocal Polarization Conversion in Asymmetric Magnetooptic Waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(11), 1662–1669 (2010).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

M. K. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. W. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-Field-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz Metamaterials for Linear Polarization Conversion and Anomalous Refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bao, D.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic Coding Metamaterials and Their Powerful Manipulation of Differently Polarized Terahertz Waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bashir, T.

Belkin, M. A.

Y. Zhao, M. A. Belkin, and A. Alù, “Twisted Optical Metamaterials for Planarized Ultrathin Broadband Circular Polarizers,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 870 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, M.

Y. Z. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband Reflective Polarization Convertor for Terahertz Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharyya, P.

L. Nilotpal, S. Nama, P. Bhattacharyya, and Chakrabarti, “A Metasurface-Based Broadband Quasi Non-Dispersive Cross Polarization Converter for Far Infrared Region,” Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Aided Eng. 29(10), e21889 (2019).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharyya, S.

V. S. Yadav, S. K. Ghosh, S. Das, and S. Bhattacharyya, “Wideband Tunable Mid-Infrared Cross-Polarization Converter Using Monolayered Graphene-Based Metasurface over a Wide Angle of Incidence,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 13(1), 82–87 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. S. Yadav, S. K. Ghosh, S. Bhattacharyya, and S. Das, “Graphene Based Metasurface for Tunable Broadband Terahertz Cross Polarization Converter over Wide Angle of Incidence,” Appl. Opt. 57(29), 8720–8726 (2018).
[Crossref]

Biss, D. P.

Borisenko, S.

S. Borisenko, Q. Gibson, D. Evtushinsky, V. Zabolotnyy, B. Büchner, and R. J. Cava, “Experimental Realization of a Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 027603 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boroduleva, A. Y.

A. Y. Boroduleva, J. Wu, Q. Q. Yang, H. Li, Q. Zhang, P. W. Li, and S. A. Eremin, “Development of Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassays for Parallel Detection of Pesticides Carbaryl and Triazophos in Wheat Grains,” Anal. Methods 9(48), 6814–6822 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brown, T. G.

Büchner, B.

S. Borisenko, Q. Gibson, D. Evtushinsky, V. Zabolotnyy, B. Büchner, and R. J. Cava, “Experimental Realization of a Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 027603 (2014).
[Crossref]

Buchnev, O.

O. Buchnev, N. Podoliak, T. Frank, M. Kaczmarek, L. D. Jiang, and V. A. Fedotov, “Controlling Stiction in Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems Using Liquid Crystals,” ACS Nano 10(12), 11519–11524 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, Q. H.

W. L. Meng, B. Y. Hou, Q. H. Cao, H. M. Lin, W. Zhou, Z. X. Li, and D. H. Li, “Dynamically Tunable High-Efficiency Broadband Terahertz Linear Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetal Metamaterials,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 62(8), 2703–2707 (2020).
[Crossref]

Cao, T.

T. Cao, C. W. Wei, L. B. Mao, and Y. Li, “Extrinsic 2d Chirality: Giant Circular Conversion Dichroism from a Metal-Dielectric-Metal Square Array,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 7442 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cao, W. P.

Cava, R. J.

S. Borisenko, Q. Gibson, D. Evtushinsky, V. Zabolotnyy, B. Büchner, and R. J. Cava, “Experimental Realization of a Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 027603 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chakrabarti,

L. Nilotpal, S. Nama, P. Bhattacharyya, and Chakrabarti, “A Metasurface-Based Broadband Quasi Non-Dispersive Cross Polarization Converter for Far Infrared Region,” Int. J. RF Microw. Comput. Aided Eng. 29(10), e21889 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, A. P.

Chen, F.

Chen, H. T.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz Metamaterials for Linear Polarization Conversion and Anomalous Refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

X. J. Huang, J. Chen, and H. L. Yang, “High-Efficiency Wideband Reflection Polarization Conversion Metasurface for Circularly Polarized Waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(4), 043102 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, J. H.

Chen, L. L.

Chen, S. Q.

Z. C. Li, W. W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Realizing Broadband and Invertible Linear-to-Circular Polarization Converter with Ultrathin Single-Layer Metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. Q.

X. D. Liu, X. Q. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, C. R. Han, G. Humbert, A. Crunteanu, and E. P. Macpherson, “Invited Article: An Active Terahertz Polarization Converter Employing Vanadium Dioxide and a Metal Wire Grating in Total Internal Reflection Geometry,” APL Photonics 3(5), 051604 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

J. M. Zhao, Y. Chen, and Y. J. Feng, “Polarization Beam Splitting Through an Anisotropic Metamaterial Slab Realized by a Layered Metal-Dielectric Structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. L.

Z. K. Liu, B. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, H. M. Weng, D. Prabhakaran, S. K. Mo, Z. X. Shen, Z. Fang, X. Dai, Z. Hussain, and Y. L. Chen, “Discovery of a Three-Dimensional Topological Dirac Semimetal, Na3bi,” Science 343(6173), 864–867 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

Z. C. Li, W. W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Realizing Broadband and Invertible Linear-to-Circular Polarization Converter with Ultrathin Single-Layer Metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Q.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic Coding Metamaterials and Their Powerful Manipulation of Differently Polarized Terahertz Waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding Metamaterials, Digital Metamaterials and Programmable Metamaterials,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Cheng, J. P. Fan, H. Luo, F. Chen, N. X. Feng, X. S. Mao, and R. Z. Gong, “Dual-Band and High-Efficiency Circular Polarization Conversion Via Asymmetric Transmission with Anisotropic Metamaterial in the Terahertz Region,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(3), 1365–1376 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband Reflective Polarization Convertor for Terahertz Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, D. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz Metamaterials for Linear Polarization Conversion and Anomalous Refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chu, P.

B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W. J. Huo, Z. Xing, B. G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-Band Linear-Polarization Conversion and Circular Polarization in Reflection Mode Using a Symmetric Anisotropic Metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chu, Q. Q.

Z. Y. Song, Q. Q. Chu, X. P. Shen, and Q. H. Liu, “Wideband High-Efficient Linear Polarization Rotators,” Front. Phys. 13(5), 137803 (2018).
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Q. Q. Chu, Z. Y. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Omnidirectional Tunable Terahertz Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Realized by Isotropic Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(8), 082203 (2018).
[Crossref]

Crunteanu, A.

X. D. Liu, X. Q. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, C. R. Han, G. Humbert, A. Crunteanu, and E. P. Macpherson, “Invited Article: An Active Terahertz Polarization Converter Employing Vanadium Dioxide and a Metal Wire Grating in Total Internal Reflection Geometry,” APL Photonics 3(5), 051604 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cui, T. J.

L. L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. H. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic Reprogrammable Coding-Metasurface Holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic Coding Metamaterials and Their Powerful Manipulation of Differently Polarized Terahertz Waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. J. Cui, M. Q. Qi, X. Wan, J. Zhao, and Q. Cheng, “Coding Metamaterials, Digital Metamaterials and Programmable Metamaterials,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(10), e218 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dai, L. L.

L. L. Dai, Y. P. Zhang, H. Y. Zhang, and J. F. O’Hara, “Broadband Tunable Terahertz Cross-Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetals,” Appl. Phys. Express 12(7), 075003 (2019).
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L. L. Dai, Y. P. Zhang, X. H. Guo, Y. K. Zhao, S. D. Liu, and H. Y. Zhang, “Dynamically Tunable Broadband Linear-to-Circular Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetals,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(10), 3238–3249 (2018).
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Dai, X.

Z. K. Liu, B. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, H. M. Weng, D. Prabhakaran, S. K. Mo, Z. X. Shen, Z. Fang, X. Dai, Z. Hussain, and Y. L. Chen, “Discovery of a Three-Dimensional Topological Dirac Semimetal, Na3bi,” Science 343(6173), 864–867 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dalvit, D. A. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz Metamaterials for Linear Polarization Conversion and Anomalous Refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Das, S.

V. S. Yadav, S. K. Ghosh, S. Das, and S. Bhattacharyya, “Wideband Tunable Mid-Infrared Cross-Polarization Converter Using Monolayered Graphene-Based Metasurface over a Wide Angle of Incidence,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 13(1), 82–87 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. S. Yadav, S. K. Ghosh, S. Bhattacharyya, and S. Das, “Graphene Based Metasurface for Tunable Broadband Terahertz Cross Polarization Converter over Wide Angle of Incidence,” Appl. Opt. 57(29), 8720–8726 (2018).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y. D.

Ding, J.

L. L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. H. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic Reprogrammable Coding-Metasurface Holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dong, J. K.

L. P. He, X. C. Hong, J. K. Dong, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, J. Zhang, and S. Y. Li, “Quantum Transport Evidence for the Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetal Phase in Cd3as2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(24), 246402 (2014).
[Crossref]

Du, L. L.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic Coding Metamaterials and Their Powerful Manipulation of Differently Polarized Terahertz Waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref]

Eremin, S. A.

A. Y. Boroduleva, J. Wu, Q. Q. Yang, H. Li, Q. Zhang, P. W. Li, and S. A. Eremin, “Development of Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassays for Parallel Detection of Pesticides Carbaryl and Triazophos in Wheat Grains,” Anal. Methods 9(48), 6814–6822 (2017).
[Crossref]

Evtushinsky, D.

S. Borisenko, Q. Gibson, D. Evtushinsky, V. Zabolotnyy, B. Büchner, and R. J. Cava, “Experimental Realization of a Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 027603 (2014).
[Crossref]

Faiyaz, M.

Fan, J. P.

Fan, K.

M. K. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. W. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-Field-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fang, Z.

Z. K. Liu, B. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, H. M. Weng, D. Prabhakaran, S. K. Mo, Z. X. Shen, Z. Fang, X. Dai, Z. Hussain, and Y. L. Chen, “Discovery of a Three-Dimensional Topological Dirac Semimetal, Na3bi,” Science 343(6173), 864–867 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fedotov, V. A.

O. Buchnev, N. Podoliak, T. Frank, M. Kaczmarek, L. D. Jiang, and V. A. Fedotov, “Controlling Stiction in Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems Using Liquid Crystals,” ACS Nano 10(12), 11519–11524 (2016).
[Crossref]

Feng, N. X.

Feng, T. H.

Feng, Y. J.

C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, Z. B. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Asymmetric Electromagnetic Wave Transmission of Linear Polarization Via Polarization Conversion Through Chiral Metamaterial Structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195131 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Zhao, Y. Chen, and Y. J. Feng, “Polarization Beam Splitting Through an Anisotropic Metamaterial Slab Realized by a Layered Metal-Dielectric Structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 071114 (2008).
[Crossref]

Frank, T.

O. Buchnev, N. Podoliak, T. Frank, M. Kaczmarek, L. D. Jiang, and V. A. Fedotov, “Controlling Stiction in Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems Using Liquid Crystals,” ACS Nano 10(12), 11519–11524 (2016).
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Gao, X.

X. Y. Yu, X. Gao, W. Qiao, L. L. Wen, and W. L. Yang, “Broadband Tunable Polarization Converter Realized by Graphene-Based Metamaterial,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(21), 2399–2402 (2016).
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Ghosh, S. K.

V. S. Yadav, S. K. Ghosh, S. Das, and S. Bhattacharyya, “Wideband Tunable Mid-Infrared Cross-Polarization Converter Using Monolayered Graphene-Based Metasurface over a Wide Angle of Incidence,” IET Microw. Antennas Propag. 13(1), 82–87 (2019).
[Crossref]

V. S. Yadav, S. K. Ghosh, S. Bhattacharyya, and S. Das, “Graphene Based Metasurface for Tunable Broadband Terahertz Cross Polarization Converter over Wide Angle of Incidence,” Appl. Opt. 57(29), 8720–8726 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gibson, Q.

S. Borisenko, Q. Gibson, D. Evtushinsky, V. Zabolotnyy, B. Büchner, and R. J. Cava, “Experimental Realization of a Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(2), 027603 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gong, H. H.

Gong, R. Z.

Y. Z. Cheng, J. P. Fan, H. Luo, F. Chen, N. X. Feng, X. S. Mao, and R. Z. Gong, “Dual-Band and High-Efficiency Circular Polarization Conversion Via Asymmetric Transmission with Anisotropic Metamaterial in the Terahertz Region,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(3), 1365–1376 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Z. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband Reflective Polarization Convertor for Terahertz Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Grady, N. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz Metamaterials for Linear Polarization Conversion and Anomalous Refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, J. X.

B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W. J. Huo, Z. Xing, B. G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-Band Linear-Polarization Conversion and Circular Polarization in Reflection Mode Using a Symmetric Anisotropic Metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Yang, Y. Luo, J. X. Guo, Y. Pu, D. He, Y. D. Jiang, J. Xu, and Z. J. Liu, “Wideband Tunable Mid-Infrared Cross Polarization Converter Using Rectangle-Shape Perforated Graphene,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16913–16922 (2016).
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Guo, X. H.

Hamzavi-Zarghani, Z.

Z. Hamzavi-Zarghani, A. Yahaghi, L. Matekovits, and I. Peter, “Tunable Polarization Converter Based on Graphene Metasurfaces,” 2018 IEEE Radio and Antenna Days of the Indian Ocean (RADIO), Grand Port, 2018, pp. 1–2.

Han, C. R.

X. D. Liu, X. Q. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, C. R. Han, G. Humbert, A. Crunteanu, and E. P. Macpherson, “Invited Article: An Active Terahertz Polarization Converter Employing Vanadium Dioxide and a Metal Wire Grating in Total Internal Reflection Geometry,” APL Photonics 3(5), 051604 (2018).
[Crossref]

Han, J. G.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic Coding Metamaterials and Their Powerful Manipulation of Differently Polarized Terahertz Waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
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Hao, J. M.

Hatami, M.

M. Nikoufard and M. Hatami, “Photonic Crystal-Based Polarization Converter for Optical Communication Applications,” IJOP 10(2), 111–116 (2016).
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He, D.

He, L. P.

L. P. He, X. C. Hong, J. K. Dong, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, J. Zhang, and S. Y. Li, “Quantum Transport Evidence for the Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetal Phase in Cd3as2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(24), 246402 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, Q.

Headland, D.

Y. Z. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband Reflective Polarization Convertor for Terahertz Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heyes, J. E.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz Metamaterials for Linear Polarization Conversion and Anomalous Refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hong, X. C.

L. P. He, X. C. Hong, J. K. Dong, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, J. Zhang, and S. Y. Li, “Quantum Transport Evidence for the Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetal Phase in Cd3as2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(24), 246402 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hou, B. Y.

W. L. Meng, B. Y. Hou, Q. H. Cao, H. M. Lin, W. Zhou, Z. X. Li, and D. H. Li, “Dynamically Tunable High-Efficiency Broadband Terahertz Linear Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetal Metamaterials,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 62(8), 2703–2707 (2020).
[Crossref]

Hu, F. R.

Y. Y. Huang, Z. H. Yao, F. R. Hu, C. J. Liu, L. L. Yu, Y. P. Jin, and X. L. Xu, “Tunable Circular Polarization Conversion and Asymmetric Transmission of Planar Chiral Graphene-Metamaterial in Terahertz Region,” Carbon 119, 305–313 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, B. G.

B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W. J. Huo, Z. Xing, B. G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-Band Linear-Polarization Conversion and Circular Polarization in Reflection Mode Using a Symmetric Anisotropic Metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, Z. B. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Asymmetric Electromagnetic Wave Transmission of Linear Polarization Via Polarization Conversion Through Chiral Metamaterial Structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195131 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Huang, X. J.

X. J. Huang, J. Chen, and H. L. Yang, “High-Efficiency Wideband Reflection Polarization Conversion Metasurface for Circularly Polarized Waves,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(4), 043102 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. J. Huang, D. Yang, and H. L. Yang, “Multiple-Band Reflective Polarization Converter Using U-Shaped Metamaterial,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(10), 103505 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Huang, Z. H. Yao, F. R. Hu, C. J. Liu, L. L. Yu, Y. P. Jin, and X. L. Xu, “Tunable Circular Polarization Conversion and Asymmetric Transmission of Planar Chiral Graphene-Metamaterial in Terahertz Region,” Carbon 119, 305–313 (2017).
[Crossref]

Humbert, G.

X. D. Liu, X. Q. Chen, E. P. J. Parrott, C. R. Han, G. Humbert, A. Crunteanu, and E. P. Macpherson, “Invited Article: An Active Terahertz Polarization Converter Employing Vanadium Dioxide and a Metal Wire Grating in Total Internal Reflection Geometry,” APL Photonics 3(5), 051604 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huo, W. J.

B. Q. Lin, J. X. Guo, P. Chu, W. J. Huo, Z. Xing, B. G. Huang, and L. Wu, “Multiple-Band Linear-Polarization Conversion and Circular Polarization in Reflection Mode Using a Symmetric Anisotropic Metasurface,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 9(2), 024038 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hussain, Z.

Z. K. Liu, B. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, H. M. Weng, D. Prabhakaran, S. K. Mo, Z. X. Shen, Z. Fang, X. Dai, Z. Hussain, and Y. L. Chen, “Discovery of a Three-Dimensional Topological Dirac Semimetal, Na3bi,” Science 343(6173), 864–867 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hwang, H. Y.

M. K. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. W. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-Field-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hwang, J. H.

Jang, J. H.

Ji, Q.

Ji, W.

L. L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. H. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic Reprogrammable Coding-Metasurface Holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L. D.

O. Buchnev, N. Podoliak, T. Frank, M. Kaczmarek, L. D. Jiang, and V. A. Fedotov, “Controlling Stiction in Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems Using Liquid Crystals,” ACS Nano 10(12), 11519–11524 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, M. H.

L. L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. H. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic Reprogrammable Coding-Metasurface Holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, T.

C. Huang, Y. J. Feng, J. M. Zhao, Z. B. Wang, and T. Jiang, “Asymmetric Electromagnetic Wave Transmission of Linear Polarization Via Polarization Conversion Through Chiral Metamaterial Structures,” Phys. Rev. B 85(19), 195131 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W. X.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic Coding Metamaterials and Their Powerful Manipulation of Differently Polarized Terahertz Waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y. D.

Jiang, Y. N.

Jin, Y. P.

Y. Y. Huang, Z. H. Yao, F. R. Hu, C. J. Liu, L. L. Yu, Y. P. Jin, and X. L. Xu, “Tunable Circular Polarization Conversion and Asymmetric Transmission of Planar Chiral Graphene-Metamaterial in Terahertz Region,” Carbon 119, 305–313 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kaczmarek, M.

O. Buchnev, N. Podoliak, T. Frank, M. Kaczmarek, L. D. Jiang, and V. A. Fedotov, “Controlling Stiction in Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems Using Liquid Crystals,” ACS Nano 10(12), 11519–11524 (2016).
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Kang, M.

Kawai, K.

K. Kawai, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, T. Sasaki, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Tunable Dichroic Polarization Beam Splitter Created by One-Step Holographic Photoalignment Using Four-Beam Polarization Interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(1), 013102 (2017).
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Kawatsuki, N.

K. Kawai, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, T. Sasaki, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Tunable Dichroic Polarization Beam Splitter Created by One-Step Holographic Photoalignment Using Four-Beam Polarization Interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(1), 013102 (2017).
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Keiser, G. R.

M. K. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. W. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-Field-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kittiwatanakul, S.

M. K. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. W. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-Field-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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Kong, X.

M. Sajjad, X. Kong, S. Liu, A. Ahmed, S. U. Rahman, and Q. Wang, “Graphene-Based THz Tunable Ultra-Wideband Polarization Converter,” Phys. Lett. A 384(23), 126567 (2020).
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Lee, K. J.

Li, C. Z.

L. X. Wang, C. Z. Li, D. P. Yu, and Z. M. Liao, “Aharonov–Bohm Oscillations in Dirac Semimetal Cd3as2 Nanowires,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10769 (2016).
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Li, D. H.

W. L. Meng, B. Y. Hou, Q. H. Cao, H. M. Lin, W. Zhou, Z. X. Li, and D. H. Li, “Dynamically Tunable High-Efficiency Broadband Terahertz Linear Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetal Metamaterials,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 62(8), 2703–2707 (2020).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

A. Y. Boroduleva, J. Wu, Q. Q. Yang, H. Li, Q. Zhang, P. W. Li, and S. A. Eremin, “Development of Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassays for Parallel Detection of Pesticides Carbaryl and Triazophos in Wheat Grains,” Anal. Methods 9(48), 6814–6822 (2017).
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L. L. Li, T. J. Cui, W. Ji, S. Liu, J. Ding, X. Wan, Y. B. Li, M. H. Jiang, C. W. Qiu, and S. Zhang, “Electromagnetic Reprogrammable Coding-Metasurface Holograms,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 197 (2017).
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Z. Y. Song, K. Wang, J. W. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband Tunable Terahertz Absorber Based on Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018).
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Liu, S. J.

Liu, W. Q.

S. M. Shen, Y. L. Liu, W. Q. Liu, Q. L. Tan, J. J. Xiong, and W. D. Zhang, “Tunable Electromagnetically Induced Reflection with a High Q Factor in Complementary Dirac Semimetal Metamaterials,” Mater. Res. Express 5(12), 125804 (2018).
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Liu, W. W.

Z. C. Li, W. W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Realizing Broadband and Invertible Linear-to-Circular Polarization Converter with Ultrathin Single-Layer Metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18106 (2015).
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S. M. Shen, Y. L. Liu, W. Q. Liu, Q. L. Tan, J. J. Xiong, and W. D. Zhang, “Tunable Electromagnetically Induced Reflection with a High Q Factor in Complementary Dirac Semimetal Metamaterials,” Mater. Res. Express 5(12), 125804 (2018).
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Liu, Z. K.

Z. K. Liu, B. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, H. M. Weng, D. Prabhakaran, S. K. Mo, Z. X. Shen, Z. Fang, X. Dai, Z. Hussain, and Y. L. Chen, “Discovery of a Three-Dimensional Topological Dirac Semimetal, Na3bi,” Science 343(6173), 864–867 (2014).
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Liu, Z. Y.

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Macpherson, E. P.

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Matekovits, L.

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Meng, W. L.

W. L. Meng, B. Y. Hou, Q. H. Cao, H. M. Lin, W. Zhou, Z. X. Li, and D. H. Li, “Dynamically Tunable High-Efficiency Broadband Terahertz Linear Polarization Converter Based on Dirac Semimetal Metamaterials,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 62(8), 2703–2707 (2020).
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T. Amemiya, K. Abe, T. Tanemura, T. Mizumoto, and Y. Nakano, “Nonreciprocal Polarization Conversion in Asymmetric Magnetooptic Waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(11), 1662–1669 (2010).
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Z. K. Liu, B. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, H. M. Weng, D. Prabhakaran, S. K. Mo, Z. X. Shen, Z. Fang, X. Dai, Z. Hussain, and Y. L. Chen, “Discovery of a Three-Dimensional Topological Dirac Semimetal, Na3bi,” Science 343(6173), 864–867 (2014).
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T. Amemiya, K. Abe, T. Tanemura, T. Mizumoto, and Y. Nakano, “Nonreciprocal Polarization Conversion in Asymmetric Magnetooptic Waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(11), 1662–1669 (2010).
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M. K. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. W. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-Field-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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Y. Z. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband Reflective Polarization Convertor for Terahertz Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181111 (2014).
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L. P. He, X. C. Hong, J. K. Dong, J. Pan, Z. Zhang, J. Zhang, and S. Y. Li, “Quantum Transport Evidence for the Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetal Phase in Cd3as2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(24), 246402 (2014).
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Qiu, M.

Rahman, S. U.

M. Sajjad, X. Kong, S. Liu, A. Ahmed, S. U. Rahman, and Q. Wang, “Graphene-Based THz Tunable Ultra-Wideband Polarization Converter,” Phys. Lett. A 384(23), 126567 (2020).
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N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz Metamaterials for Linear Polarization Conversion and Anomalous Refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
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Sajjad, M.

M. Sajjad, X. Kong, S. Liu, A. Ahmed, S. U. Rahman, and Q. Wang, “Graphene-Based THz Tunable Ultra-Wideband Polarization Converter,” Phys. Lett. A 384(23), 126567 (2020).
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K. Kawai, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, T. Sasaki, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Tunable Dichroic Polarization Beam Splitter Created by One-Step Holographic Photoalignment Using Four-Beam Polarization Interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(1), 013102 (2017).
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K. Kawai, M. Sakamoto, K. Noda, T. Sasaki, N. Kawatsuki, and H. Ono, “Tunable Dichroic Polarization Beam Splitter Created by One-Step Holographic Photoalignment Using Four-Beam Polarization Interferometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 121(1), 013102 (2017).
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Shang, X. J.

Shen, S. M.

S. M. Shen, Y. L. Liu, W. Q. Liu, Q. L. Tan, J. J. Xiong, and W. D. Zhang, “Tunable Electromagnetically Induced Reflection with a High Q Factor in Complementary Dirac Semimetal Metamaterials,” Mater. Res. Express 5(12), 125804 (2018).
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Shen, X. P.

Z. Y. Song, Q. Q. Chu, X. P. Shen, and Q. H. Liu, “Wideband High-Efficient Linear Polarization Rotators,” Front. Phys. 13(5), 137803 (2018).
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Shen, Z. X.

Z. K. Liu, B. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Wang, H. M. Weng, D. Prabhakaran, S. K. Mo, Z. X. Shen, Z. Fang, X. Dai, Z. Hussain, and Y. L. Chen, “Discovery of a Three-Dimensional Topological Dirac Semimetal, Na3bi,” Science 343(6173), 864–867 (2014).
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Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, and M. C. K. Wiltshire, “Metamaterials and Negative Refractive Index,” Science 305(5685), 788–792 (2004).
[Crossref]

Song, H. Y.

H. Y. Song, L. Zhang, and Q. H. Liu, “High-Efficiency Broadband Cross Polarization Converter for Near-Infrared Light Based on Anisotropic Plasmonic Meta-Surfaces,” Plasmonics 11(1), 61–64 (2016).
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Song, Z. Y.

M. Zhang and Z. Y. Song, “Terahertz Bifunctional Absorber Based on a Graphene-Spacer-Vanadium Dioxide-Spacer-Metal Configuration,” Opt. Express 28(8), 11780–11788 (2020).
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L. L. Chen and Z. Y. Song, “Simultaneous Realizations of Absorber and Transparent Conducting Metal in a Single Metamaterial,” Opt. Express 28(5), 6565–6571 (2020).
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Z. Y. Song and J. H. Zhang, “Achieving Broadband Absorption and Polarization Conversion with a Vanadium Dioxide Metasurface in the Same Terahertz Frequencies,” Opt. Express 28(8), 12487–12497 (2020).
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Z. Y. Song, A. P. Chen, J. H. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Integrated Metamaterial with Functionalities of Absorption and Electromagnetically Induced Transparency,” Opt. Express 27(18), 25196–25204 (2019).
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Z. Y. Song, Y. D. Deng, Y. G. Zhou, and Z. Y. Liu, “Terahertz Toroidal Metamaterial with Tunable Properties,” Opt. Express 27(4), 5792–5797 (2019).
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Z. Y. Song, K. Wang, J. W. Li, and Q. H. Liu, “Broadband Tunable Terahertz Absorber Based on Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterials,” Opt. Express 26(6), 7148–7154 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Q. Chu, Z. Y. Song, and Q. H. Liu, “Omnidirectional Tunable Terahertz Analog of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Realized by Isotropic Vanadium Dioxide Metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Express 11(8), 082203 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Song, Q. Q. Chu, X. P. Shen, and Q. H. Liu, “Wideband High-Efficient Linear Polarization Rotators,” Front. Phys. 13(5), 137803 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Song, X. Li, J. M. Hao, S. Y. Xiao, M. Qiu, Q. He, S. J. Ma, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the Surface-Wave Properties of a Plasmonic Metal by a Metamaterial Capping,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18178–18187 (2013).
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Sriram, S.

Y. Z. Cheng, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, D. Headland, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and D. Abbott, “Ultrabroadband Reflective Polarization Convertor for Terahertz Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 181111 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sternbach, A. J.

M. K. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. W. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-Field-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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Strikwerda, A. C.

M. K. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. W. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-Field-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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Tan, Q. L.

S. M. Shen, Y. L. Liu, W. Q. Liu, Q. L. Tan, J. J. Xiong, and W. D. Zhang, “Tunable Electromagnetically Induced Reflection with a High Q Factor in Complementary Dirac Semimetal Metamaterials,” Mater. Res. Express 5(12), 125804 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tanemura, T.

T. Amemiya, K. Abe, T. Tanemura, T. Mizumoto, and Y. Nakano, “Nonreciprocal Polarization Conversion in Asymmetric Magnetooptic Waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(11), 1662–1669 (2010).
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Tang, K. Z.

Tang, W. X.

S. Liu, T. J. Cui, Q. Xu, D. Bao, L. L. Du, X. Wan, W. X. Tang, C. M. Ouyang, X. Y. Zhou, H. Yuan, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, J. G. Han, W. L. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Anisotropic Coding Metamaterials and Their Powerful Manipulation of Differently Polarized Terahertz Waves,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(5), e16076 (2016).
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Tao, H.

M. K. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. W. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-Field-Induced Insulator-to-Metal Transition in Vanadium Dioxide Metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
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Taylor, A. J.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. R. Dalvit, and H. T. Chen, “Terahertz Metamaterials for Linear Polarization Conversion and Anomalous Refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
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Tian, J. G.

Z. C. Li, W. W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Q. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Realizing Broadband and Invertible Linear-to-Circular Polarization Converter with Ultrathin Single-Layer Metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 18106 (2015).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) 3D schematic of the structure, (b) front view, (c) metal grating, (d) side view.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The co-polarization transmission coefficients t++, t-- and the cross-polarization transmission coefficients t+-, t-+ when CP waves illuminate in the backward (-z) directions.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Total transmittance t+ of RCP waves propagating in the forward (+z) and backward (-z) directions, (b) AT of linear polarization waves and CP waves.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Polarization conversion ratio PCR+, PCR- and AT $\Delta _{cir}^ + $ and $\Delta _{cir}^ - $ under different physical parameters.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The polarization conversion ratio PCR+ and PCR- at different incident angles. (a) TE waves and (b) TM waves.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Transmission coefficient with difference Fermi level of DSMs. Cross-polarization transmission coefficient for (b) t+- and (c) t-+ as functions of Fermi level.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The electric field distribution at (a) 1.92 THz and (b) 3.46 THz, (b) and (d) Physical mechanism of CP conversion.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) The reflection coefficients when CP waves incident. (b) The PMR of the CP waves.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. The polarization maintaining ratio of (a) RCP wave and (b) LCP wave at different dielectric thickness ts.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. The PMR of (a) RCP wave and (b) LCP wave at different incident angle θ.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Transmission coefficients for incident (a) RCP wave, (b) LCP wave, and (c) PMR+, (d) PMR- at different Fermi level
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. (a) Co-polarization and cross-polarization reflection coefficients when x-polarization and y-polarization waves are incident, (b) reflectance ratio and phase difference of cross-polarization coefficients.

Equations (9)

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Re σ ( Ω ) = e 2 g k F 24 π Ω G ( Ω / 2 )
Im σ ( Ω ) = e 2 g k F 24 π 2 [ 4 Ω ( 1 + π 2 3 ( T E F ) 2 ) + 8 Ω 0 ε c ( G ( ε ) G ( Ω / 2 ) Ω 2 4 ε 2 ε d ε ) ]
ε ω = ε ω p 2 ( σ ) ω 2 + i γ ω
T L P = ( t x x t x y t y x t y y )
T c p = ( t + + t + t + t ) = 1 2 ( t x x + t y y + i ( t x y t y x ) t x x t y y i ( t x y + t y x ) t x x t y y + i ( t x y + t y x ) t x x + t y y i ( t x y t y x ) )
R c p = ( r + + r + r + r ) = 1 2 ( r x x r y y i ( r x y + r y x ) r x x + r y y + i ( r x y r y x ) r x x + r y y i ( r x y r y x ) r x x r y y + i ( r x y + r y x ) )
Δ l i n ( x ) = | t y x | 2 | t x y | 2 = Δ l i n ( y )
Δ c i r ( + ) = | t + | 2 | t + | 2 = Δ c i r ( )
( E x r E y r ) = ( r x x r x y r y x r y y ) ( r x i r y i ) = R L P ( E x i E y i )

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