Abstract

Spectroscopic properties of tri-doped Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 (R1, R2=Y, La, Gd, Lu) crystals were investigated, where R13+ and R23+ act as the lattice regulating ions. According to the spectra properties of co-doped Nd3+,R3+:CaF2 (R = Y, La, Gd, Lu) crystals, the regulating ions are classified into two categories, Y3+ and Lu3+ ions are in the same class while La3+ and Gd3+ are divided into the other. Attribute to the “combination effect” of the regulating ions, the absorption spectra can be regulated controllably in tri-doped CaF2 crystals, and the emission spectra of Nd3+ in CaF2 crystals become smoother and flatter by incorporating two different types of regulating ions. Preliminary CW laser experiment was conducted for Nd3+,Y3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal and Nd3+,Lu3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal. The slope efficiency and maximum output power of the former reached up to 49.4% and 2.1W, respectively. A CW wavelength tuning range of 34 nm (1043-1077 nm) was obtained for Nd3+,Y3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal. The spectra properties and CW tuning operation indicate that the tri-doped Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystals are suitable for the application of femtosecond mode-locked laser.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Neodymium-doped fluorite-type crystals have attracted much attention as laser materials over the past few years. Alkaline-Earth fluoride crystals have low phonon energy which can obtain higher quantum efficiency than oxide crystal, and also exhibit small nonlinear refractive index which can weaken the nonlinear effect under intense pumping laser. Moreover, Nd-doped fluoride crystals specified for its broad emission bandwidth like glasses while remains a relatively high thermal conductivity [1] like YAG crystal. All the merits make Nd-doped fluoride crystals especially suitable for working as high-energy pulsed laser amplifiers for generating high-power ultrafast lasers. However, the clustering of Nd3+ ions in fluorite-type crystals have limited its emission quantum efficiency at 1.06µm for a long time because of the existence of the energy transfer between the Nd3+ ions in the Nd3+-Nd3+ clusters [2]. To break these clusters, co-doping Nd3+:CaF2 crystal with regulating ions such as Y3+, La3+, Gd3+, Lu3+, Sc3+ have been studied [37], indicating these non-optically active ions have the potential to form the Nd3+-R3+ clusters around the Nd3+ ions, thus isolating Nd3+ ions from one another. The co-doping with regulating ions would improve the luminescence efficiency and laser property of Nd3+:CaF2 crystal to a large extend. For example, Su et al. obtained the CW laser operation in Nd3+,Y3+:CaF2 crystal for the first time [8]. Doualan et al. demonstrated the improvement of absorption, emission and laser properties of Nd3+:CaF2 crystal by co-doping with Lu3+ ions [9]. Recently Wang et al. reported the amelioration of the spectral parameters and LD-pumped CW laser operation in Nd3+,La3+:CaF2 crystal [10] and Nd3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal [11].

The co-doping with regulating ions make Nd3+,R3+:CaF2 (R = Y, La, Gd, Lu) crystals extremely suitable to generate high-power and ultra-short pulses. Q-switched laser operation have been obtained for Nd3+,Y3+:CaF2 crystal [12], Nd,Lu3+:CaF2 crystal [13] and Nd,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal [14]. Furthermore, Nd3+,R3+:CaF2 crystals also have potential to generating femtosecond mode-locked laser. Using Nd3+,Y3+:CaF2 crystal as gain medium, Qin et al. achieved 103fs mode-locked pulses with an average output power of 89 mW [15], and Zhu et al. reported the 264fs mode-locked laser operation with an average output power of 180 mW [16]. Wang et al. obtained femtosecond passively mode-locked laser with pulse duration of 633fs and an average output power of 200 mW on Nd3+,La3+:CaF2 crystal [17]. Soulard et al. demonstrated the femtosecond and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation with pulse duration of 435fs on Nd3+,Lu3+:CaF2 crystal [18].

It is obvious that co-doping different non-optically active ions will improve the spectra properties and laser performance of Nd3+:CaF2 crystal to varying degree because of the formation of different active sites. However, the generation of sub-100fs pulses need flatter and broader emission spectra, so the spectra of Nd3+:CaF2 crystals need to be further tuned. Up to now only few works have done to co-doping several types of regulating ions into Nd3+:CaF2 crystal, which have potential to obtain totally different absorption and emission spectra. In this paper, Nd3+ and two types of non-optically active ions were added into CaF2 to grew tri-doped Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 (R1, R2= Y, La, Gd, Lu) crystals, aiming to produce a “combination effect” and thus optimize the spectral properties. Additionally, the preliminary CW laser experiment of Nd3+,Y3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal were very encouraging and exhibited a broad tuning range and quite high slope efficiency.

2. Experiments

Co-doped 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 crystals and tri-doped 0.5%Nd,2.5%R1,2.5%R2:CaF2 crystals were grown using temperature gradient technique (TGT). Raw materials consist of CaF2 (99.99%), NdF3 (99.99%), YF3 (99.99%), LaF3 (99.99%), GdF3 (99.99%), and LuF3 (99.99%), powders, meanwhile PdF2 (99.99%) was also added as oxygen scavenger. The TGT furnace was kept at high vacuum of about 10−3 Pa in the entire growth process. The samples used for spectral measurements was cut into slices with a thickness of 2mm and then polished. The actual concentrations were measured by ICP-OES (Agilent 725), as shown in Table 1.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Actual concentrations for Nd3+:CaF2 samples doped with different regulating ions

Room temperature absorption spectra were tested in a UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer (PerkinElmer, Lambda 750). Fluorescence spectra were measured using a time-resolved fluorimeter (FLS980, Edinburgh Instruments, UK) pumped at 808nm by a laser diode, and the fluorescence decay curves were recorded using a TDS 3052 oscilloscope pumped at 796nm by Xenon flashlamp. The fluorescence quantum efficiencies were also measured by FLS980 fluorimeter where a integrating sphere was used as sample chamber.

3. Results and discussions

3.1 Spectroscopic properties of co-doped CaF2 crystals

Room temperature absorption and emission spectra were measured for the co-doped 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 (R = Y, La, Gd, Lu) crystals, as shown in Fig. 1. The spectra were all normalized for comparison. The absorption band around 800 nm shown in Fig. 1(a) which consists of two absorption peaks corresponds to the 4I9/24F5/2+2H9/2 Nd3+ absorption transition. The absorption spectra are quite different co-doped Nd3+:CaF2 crystals with different regulating ions. When choosing Y3+ or Lu3+ as regulating ions, the Nd3+,R3+:CaF2 crystals have weaker absorption peaks around 790 nm and stronger peaks around 796 nm, whereas when choosing La3+ or Gd3+ as regulating ions, the absorption peaks around 790 nm are stronger than these around 796 nm.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Comparison of (a) absorption and (b) emission spectra for 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 samples (R = Y, La, Gd, Lu).

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The room temperature emission spectra corresponding to the 4F3/24I11/2 emission transition of Nd3+ ions around 1060 nm of co-doped 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 crystals are shown in Fig. 1(b). The emission spectra around 1060 nm are quite similar when choosing La3+ or Gd3+ as regulating ions. The former has peaks at 1051 nm, 1064 nm and the latter has peaks at 1049 nm, 1064 nm, meanwhile both spectra have peak valleys at 1055 nm. On the other hand, the emission spectra of Y3+ or Lu3+ co-doped Nd3+:CaF2 are quite different from that of La3+ or Gd3+ co-doped Nd3+:CaF2. The former have two more adjacent emission peaks than the latter and no obvious peak valleys are observed.

The differences of the absorption and emission peaks of Nd3+,R3+:CaF2 crystals can be explained as follows. In Nd3+:CaF2 crystal, the substitution of the Ca2+ by Nd3+ is accompanied by charge compensation, interstitial fluorine ions Fi is thus formed. Three main optical centers in Nd3+:CaF2 crystal have been identified, namely luminescence quenched M ([Nd3+-Nd3+]-Fi2) and N ([Nd3+-Nd3+]2-Fi4) centers of orthorhombic symmetry, and luminescence non-quenched L (Nd3+-Fi) centers of tetragonal symmetry [19,20]. When co-doping with regulating ions R3+ (R = Y, La, Gd, Lu), quasi-rhombic centers M’ ([Nd3+-R3+]-Fi2) and N’ ([Nd3+-R3+]2-Fi4, [Nd3+3-R3+]-Fi4, [Nd3+-R3+3]-Fi4) as well as quasi-tetragonal L’ (FiNd3+-Fi) centers are formed. Because of the difference of the binding energy for Y-F, Lu-F, La-F and Gd-F bonds, the effect of the R3+ (R = Y, La, Gd, Lu) to the optical centers are different, therefore the absorption and emission spectra for those Nd3+,R3+:CaF2 crystals vary quite a lot. According to the characteristics of the absorption and emission spectra, the regulating ions can be classified into two categories, Y3+ and Lu3+ ions are in the same class while La3+ and Gd3+ ions are fall into another class. We expect that co-doping these two categories of regulating ions could produce a “combination effect” in tri-doped Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystals, and the spectra of the crystals could thus be regulated.

3.2 Adjustment of the absorption spectra for tri-doped CaF2 crystals

The comparison of absorption spectra of co-doped 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 crystals and tri-doped 0.5%Nd,2.5%R1,2.5%R2:CaF2 crystals are shown from Fig. 2(a) to Fig. 2(f). The absorption spectrum of 0.5%Nd,5%Y:CaF2 is very different from that of 0.5%Nd,5%La:CaF2 crystal. The former has a weaker absorption peak at 790 nm and a stronger absorption peak at 797 nm, whereas the absorption peak of the latter is much stronger at 790 nm, as shown in Fig. 2(a). However, when co-doped with these two types of regulating ions, the absorption coefficient of these two absorption peaks for 0.5%Nd, 2.5%Y, 2.5%La:CaF2 crystal are much closer.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Comparison of absorption spectra for 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 samples and 0.5%Nd,2.5%R1,2.5%R2:CaF2 samples (R, R1, R2=Y, La, Gd, Lu). The insert graphs shows the comparison of α12 for tri-doped 0.5%Nd,2.5%R1,2.5%R2:CaF2 crystals and its corresponding co-doped 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 crystals.

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It seems that the absorption spectra of the Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystals are the combination of those of the Nd3+,R13+:CaF2 crystals and Nd3+,R23+:CaF2 crystals, which can be obviously observed from Fig. 2(a) to Fig. 2(d). Since the absorption spectrum of 0.5%Nd,5%La:CaF2 crystal and 0.5%Nd,5%Gd:CaF2 crystal is very similar to each other, when co-doping La3+ and Gd3+ together into the Nd:CaF2 crystal, the absorption spectrum doesn’t change much, as shown in Fig. 2(e). Similar situation is also reflected in Fig. 2(f).

In order to further study the changing of the absorption spectra, α1 and α2 are defined as the absorption coefficient of the absorption peaks around 790 nm and 796 nm. According to the literature, the former peak corresponds to the M’ centers and the latter peak corresponds to the L’ centers in the crystal [21,22]. The α12 ratios were calculated to compare the absorption spectra of tri-doped Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystals with those of co-doped Nd3+,R13+:CaF2 crystals and Nd3+,R23+:CaF2 crystals, as shown in the insert graph of Fig. 2(a) to Fig. 2(f). The value of α12 of Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystals are all fall in between that of the Nd3+,R13+:CaF2 crystals and that of the Nd3+,R23+:CaF2 crystals, indicating that the absorption spectra can be adjusted controllably by co-doping two different types of regulating ions.

3.3 Flattening of the emission spectra for tri-doped CaF2 crystals

The room temperature emission spectra around 1060 nm of co-doped 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 crystals and tri-doped 0.5%Nd,2.5%R1,2.5%R2:CaF2 crystals are shown in Fig. 3. When co-doping two different types of regulating ions, totally different emission spectra for tri-doped Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 (R1=Y or Lu, R2=La or Gd) samples were obtained, as shown in Fig. 3(a) to (d). For example, tri-doped Nd3+,Y3+,La3+:CaF2 crystal possess two adjacent emission peaks at 1053 nm and 1062 nm, similar to that of the Nd3+,Y3+:CaF2 crystal, however, as shown in Fig. 3(a), the emission spectrum of the former is much flatter and broader than the latter, which can be attributed to the introducing of another regulating ions La3+. Nd3+,Y3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal exhibits a pretty broad spectrum as Nd3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal, but the peak of the former is much more smoothed, as illustrated in Fig. 3(b). The peak valley of the emission spectrum for Nd3+,Gd3+:CaF2 is compensated, which is due to the introducing of the Y3+ ions. The changing of the emission spectra can ascribe to the formation of R13+-Nd3+ (R1=Y or Lu) and R23+-Nd3+ (R2=La or Gd) clusters in the crystal. These two different optical centers coexistence and work together in the crystal, generating quite different emission spectra. However, when co-doping same types of regulating ions, the emission spectra of Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystals didn’t change much compared to the single regulating ion doped crystals, as shown in Fig. 3(e) and Fig. 3(f), just as we conjectured.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Comparison of emission spectra for 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 samples and 0.5%Nd,2.5%R1,2.5%R2:CaF2 samples (R, R1, R2=Y, La, Gd, Lu).

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Table 2 shows the emission bandwidths of co-doped Nd3+,R3+:CaF2 crystals and tri-doped Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystals. The samples all exhibit emission bandwidth comparable to Nd:glasses, and the FWHM of emission spectra for different samples have some difference. In addition, when choosing Y3+ and Gd3+ as regulating ions, the emission bandwidth of Nd3+,Y3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal is obviously larger than that of Nd3+,Y3+:CaF2 crystal and Nd3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal, which means that the tri-doped CaF2 crystals have potential to obtain broader emission spectrum.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of emission bandwidths for Nd3+:CaF2 samples doping with different regulating ions

In order to validate the “combination effect” mentioned previously, the emission spectra of tri-doped Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystals were reconstructed based on the emission spectra of Nd3+,R13+:CaF2 and Nd3+,R23+:CaF2. The red dash line in Fig. 4 are the reconstructed emission spectra of Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystals, which are the weighted linear combination of Nd3+,R13+:CaF2 spectra and Nd3+,R23+:CaF2 spectra. The reconstruction processes were based on the following equation:

$${I_{1,2}} = {k_{1}}{C_{s1}}{I_{1}} + {k_{2}}{C_{s2}}{I_{2}}$$
Where I1 and I2 are the normalized emission intensity, Cs1 and Cs2 are the actual doping concentration, k1 and k2 are the weighting coefficients of Nd3+,R13+:CaF2 and Nd3+,R23+:CaF2 crystals. The weighting coefficients for Y3+, Lu3+, La3+, Gd3+ co-doped CaF2 crystals were 1.0, 2.0, 0.9, 1.1, respectively. The reconstructed spectra agree well with the experimental spectra, as can be seen from Fig. 4(a) to Fig. 4(d). The coincidence of the reconstructed spectra and experimental spectra further confirms the “combination effect” of spectra mentioned previously, and it opens a new way for optimizing the composition of Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystals as needed. We believe that the emission spectra could be further tuned to be smoother and flatter by adjusting the proportion of the different types of regulating ions, which would be extremely suitable for the mode-locking ultrafast laser output.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Comparison of reconstructed and experimental emission spectra for Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystal (R1=Y or Lu, R2=La or Gd).

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3.4 Fluorescence lifetime

Emission decay curves of the 4F3/2 emitting energy level were recorded at 1060 nm when exciting at 796 nm, as represented in Fig. 5. Because of the existence of multiple optical centers in the crystal, not every decay curves can be well fitted using single-exponential model, so the “average lifetime” τem were calculated according to the following equation [23]:

$${\tau _{em}} = \frac{{\int\limits_{t = 0}^\infty {I(t)} tdt}}{{\int\limits_{t = 0}^\infty {I(t)} dt}}$$
The comparison of calculated fluorescence lifetime for different regulating ions doped samples is shown in Table 3. The fluorescence lifetime of Nd3+,R13+:CaF2 (R1=Y or Lu) crystals are quite different from that of Nd3+,R23+:CaF2 (R2=La or Gd) crystals. The fluorescence lifetime of the single regulating ions co-doped samples is 479 µs for Nd3+,La3+:CaF2 and 528 µs for Nd3+,Gd3+:CaF2, much higher than the lifetime of Nd3+,Y3+:CaF2 and Nd3+,Lu3+:CaF2. When co-doped with these two different types of regulating ions, the fluorescence lifetime of the Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 (R1=Y or Lu, R2=La or Gd) samples is between that of Nd3+,R13+:CaF2 samples and Nd3+,R23+:CaF2 samples, which further confirms the “combination effect” mentioned before.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Fluorescence decay curves of (a) co-doped 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 samples and (b) tri-doped 0.5%Nd,2.5%R1,2.5%R2:CaF2 samples (R, R1, R2=Y, La, Gd, Lu).

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Tables Icon

Table 3. Comparison of fluorescence lifetimes, quantum efficiency and peak emission cross sections for Nd3+:CaF2 samples doping with different regulating ions

The peak emission cross sections were also calculated based on the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg expression:

$${\sigma _{em}} = \frac{{\lambda _{peak}^4}}{{8\pi c{n^2}}} \cdot \frac{{{\beta _{2}}}}{{{\tau _{rad}} \cdot \Delta {\lambda _{em}}}}$$
Where λpeak is the peak emission line of 4F3/24I11/2, β2 and Δλem stand for the branching ratio and emission bandwidth of 4F3/24I11/2, τrad is the radiative emission lifetime which can be obtained by measuring the fluorescence quantum efficiency η:
$$\eta = {\tau _{em}}/{\tau _{rad}}$$
The fluorescence quantum efficiency and the calculated peak emission cross sections are shown in the Table 3. The peak emission cross sections of Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 (R1=Y or Lu, R2=La or Gd) samples are lower than that of Nd3+,R13+:CaF2 samples but higher than that of Nd3+,R23+:CaF2 samples, which also exhibit the “combination effect”.

3.5 Laser properties of tri-doped CaF2 crystals

The CW laser experiment was carried out with the setup shown in Fig. 6 for Nd3+,Y3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal and Nd3+,Lu3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal. The uncoated crystal with the dimension of 3×3×5 mm3 was pumped by a fiber-coupled diode laser at 790 nm with a core diameter of 100 µm. The laser beam was collimated into the crystal using a 1:2 coupling optics system. The input mirror M1 was a plane mirror with high-transmission coating at 790 nm, high-reflection coating at 1064 nm and anti-reflection coating at 808 nm. The transmission of the output concave mirror M2 with 100 mm radius of curvature was 2% at 1020-1090 nm. To effectively dissipate heat, the crystal was wrapped in indium foil and mounted in a 12°C heat sink. The slope efficiency η of Nd3+,Lu3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal was 42.0% and the maximum output power was 1.3W. The slope efficiency of Nd3+,Y3+,Gd3+:CaF2 laser was 49.4%, higher than that of Nd3+,Y3+:CaF2 crystal laser [24] and Nd3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal laser [11]. All of these laser experiments were performed under almost identical experimental conditions, using the same cavity design. The maximum output power of Nd3+,Y3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal was as high as 2.1W when the absorbed pumped power was 4.56W, which can attribute to the quite high quality of the crystal. The preliminary CW laser experiment was very encouraging and can provide valuable reference for the ultrafast laser output.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Output power versus absorbed pump power for CW laser operation for 0.5%Nd,2.5%Y,2.5%Gd:CaF2 crystal and 0.5%Nd,2.5%Lu,2.5%Gd:CaF2 crystal.

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A V-type resonator was also employed to study the wavelength tunable performance of the Nd3+,Y3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal, as shown in Fig. 7. The input mirror M1 was a plane mirror with high-reflection coating at 1030-1080 nm. The concave mirror M2 with 200 mm radius of curvature was high-reflection coated at 1020-1090 nm, and the transmittance of the output mirror M3 was 2% at 1020-1090 nm. By inserting a birefringent filter (BF) into the cavity at Brewster’s angle, the CW tuning range from 1043 to 1077 nm was obtained, as shown in Fig. 8. The broad and smooth tuning range further prove that the tri-doped CaF2 crystals have the potential to generate sub-100 fs pulses.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Schematic of the CW tuning setup.

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 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. Wavelength tuning curve of 0.5%Nd,2.5%Y,2.5%Gd:CaF2 crystal based on a quartz BF.

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4. Conclusions

The experimental results in this work indicate that the absorption and emission spectra of Nd3+:CaF2 crystal can be tuned by introducing two kinds of non-optically active regulating ions. The regulating ions are classified into two classes, the emission spectra become more smoothed because of the “combination effect” of these two different types of regulating ions. The reconstructed emission spectra of Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystals agree well with the experimental spectrum, which prove that the spectra of Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystals is the weighted linear combination of that of Nd3+,R13+:CaF2 crystals and Nd3+,R23+:CaF2 crystals. The fluorescence decay properties of Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 samples further confirm the “combination effect” of the regulating ions. The preliminary CW laser operation was very encouraging. The slope efficiency and maximum output power of Nd3+,Y3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal reached up to 49.4% and 2.1W. A continuous tuning range of 34 nm (1043-1077 nm) was obtained for Nd3+,Y3+,Gd3+:CaF2 crystal, indicates that the tri-doped CaF2 crystals have the potential to generate sub-100 fs pulses. We believe that the emission spectra and bandwidth of the Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystals could be further tuned by adjusting the ratios of regulating ions, which indicate that the tri-doped CaF2 crystals are promising materials for generating sub-100 fs mode-locked ultrafast laser.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61635012, U183010005); Shanghai Science and Technology Commission (18511109700); Shanghai Science and Technology Commission (18520744300).

Acknowledgments

We thank Lili Zheng, Shanghai Institute of ceramics, and Shiyu Sun, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics in spectra measurements.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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16. J. F. Zhu, L. J. Zhang, Z. Y. Gao, J. L. Wang, Z. H. Wang, L. B. Su, L. H. Zheng, J. Y. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015). [CrossRef]  

17. H. B. Wang, J. F. Zhu, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Yu, K. Liu, J. L. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, J. Liu, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, and L. B. Su, “Femtosecond mode-locked Nd,La:CaF2 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2184–2189 (2016). [CrossRef]  

18. R. Soulard, S. Normani, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, D. Stoffel, S. Montant, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Femtosecond and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation in Nd,Lu:CaF2,” Proc. SPIE 10683, 106831J (2018). [CrossRef]  

19. Y. V. Orlovskii, T. T. Basiev, V. Osiko, H. Gross, and J. Heber, “Fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) and site-selective fluorescence decay of Nd3+ centers in CaF2,” J. Lumin. 82(3), 251–258 (1999). [CrossRef]  

20. Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. V. Osiko, “Analysis of Optical Spectra of Caf2-Nd3+ (Type 1) Crystals,” Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr 22(2), 295–300 (1966).

21. S. Normani, A. Braud, R. Soulard, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Menard, G. Brasse, R. Moncorge, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Site selective analysis of Nd3+-Lu3+ codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(47), 9016–9025 (2016). [CrossRef]  

22. F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014). [CrossRef]  

23. A. Sillen and Y. Engelborghs, “The correct use of “average” fluorescence parameters,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(5), 475–486 (1998). [CrossRef]  

24. S. Y. Pang, F. K. Ma, H. Yu, X. B. Qian, D. P. Jiang, Y. Wu, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Y. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation of LD-pumped Nd, Gd:CaF2 and Nd, Y:CaF2 crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055802 (2018). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. G. A. Slack, “Thermal Conductivity of CaF2, MnF2, CoF2, and ZnF2 Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 122(5), 1451–1464 (1961).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. K. Voronko and V. V. Osiko, “Nature of Concentration Quenching of Luminescence of Nd+++ Ions in Crystals,” Jetp Lett-Ussr 5(10), 295 (1967).
  3. K. S. Bagdasarov, Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, L. V. Krotova, and V. V. Osiko, “Modification of Optical Properties of Caf2-TR3+ Crystals by Yttrium Impurities,” Phys. Status Solidi B 12(2), 905–912 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. A. Kaminski, “High-temperature effects observed in stimulated emission from CaF2 and LaF3 crystals activated with Nd3+,” Jetp Lett-Ussr 6(5), 115–118 (1967).
  5. A. A. Kaminskii, N. R. Agamalyan, G. A. Denisenko, S. E. Sarkisov, and P. P. Fedorov, “Spectroscopy and laser-emission of disordered GdF3-CaF2-Nd3+ trigonal crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 70(2), 397–406 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Osico, A. M. Prochorov, and Y. K. Voronko, “Spectral Investigation of Stimulated Radiation of ND3+ in CAF2-YF3,” Phys. Lett. 22(4), 419–421 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. A. Kaminskii, Z. I. Zhmurova, V. A. Lomonov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Two stimulated-emission 4F3/2- 4I11/2,13/2 channels of ND3+ ions in crystals of the CaF2-Scf3 SYSTEM,” Phys. Status Solidi A 84(1), K81–K84 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  8. L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. L. Doualan, L. B. Su, G. Brasse, A. Benayad, V. Menard, Y. Y. Zhan, A. Braud, P. Camy, J. Xu, and R. Moncorge, “Improvement of infrared laser properties of Nd:CaF2 crystals via codoping with Y3+ and Lu3+ buffer ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(11), 3018–3021 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Z. Wang, D. P. Jiang, Q. H. Wu, Z. D. Cao, S. Y. Pang, J. Y. Wang, X. B. Qian, J. Liu, B. C. Mei, and L. B. Su, “Effect of La3+ proportion on spectroscopic and continuous wave laser properties of Nd,La:CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. 29(1), 015801 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Wang, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, S. Pang, J. Wang, X. Qian, J. Liu, B. Mei, and L. Su, “Spectral properties and highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation in Nd, Gd:CaF2 crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 781, 629–632 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  12. C. Li, M. W. Fan, J. Liu, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. Q. Q. Hao, S. Y. Pang, J. Liu, and L. B. Su, “Tunable and passively Q-switched laser operation of Nd,Lu:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Appl. Opt. 57(22), 6491–6495 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. J. Wu, S. Y. Pang, Y. Q. Zu, Q. Q. Peng, J. M. Yang, J. Liu, and L. B. Su, “Silver nanorods absorber for passively Q-switched Nd, Gd: CaF2 laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(2), 020015 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  15. Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. Y. Ge, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, Y. X. Cao, and J. Xu, “Generation of 103 fs mode-locked pulses by a gain linewidth-variable Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1737–1739 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. F. Zhu, L. J. Zhang, Z. Y. Gao, J. L. Wang, Z. H. Wang, L. B. Su, L. H. Zheng, J. Y. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. B. Wang, J. F. Zhu, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Yu, K. Liu, J. L. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, J. Liu, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, and L. B. Su, “Femtosecond mode-locked Nd,La:CaF2 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2184–2189 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. Soulard, S. Normani, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, D. Stoffel, S. Montant, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Femtosecond and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation in Nd,Lu:CaF2,” Proc. SPIE 10683, 106831J (2018).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. V. Orlovskii, T. T. Basiev, V. Osiko, H. Gross, and J. Heber, “Fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) and site-selective fluorescence decay of Nd3+ centers in CaF2,” J. Lumin. 82(3), 251–258 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  20. Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. V. Osiko, “Analysis of Optical Spectra of Caf2-Nd3+ (Type 1) Crystals,” Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr 22(2), 295–300 (1966).
  21. S. Normani, A. Braud, R. Soulard, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Menard, G. Brasse, R. Moncorge, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Site selective analysis of Nd3+-Lu3+ codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(47), 9016–9025 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  22. F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. Sillen and Y. Engelborghs, “The correct use of “average” fluorescence parameters,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(5), 475–486 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  24. S. Y. Pang, F. K. Ma, H. Yu, X. B. Qian, D. P. Jiang, Y. Wu, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Y. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation of LD-pumped Nd, Gd:CaF2 and Nd, Y:CaF2 crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055802 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

S. Z. Wang, D. P. Jiang, Q. H. Wu, Z. D. Cao, S. Y. Pang, J. Y. Wang, X. B. Qian, J. Liu, B. C. Mei, and L. B. Su, “Effect of La3+ proportion on spectroscopic and continuous wave laser properties of Nd,La:CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. 29(1), 015801 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, S. Pang, J. Wang, X. Qian, J. Liu, B. Mei, and L. Su, “Spectral properties and highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation in Nd, Gd:CaF2 crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 781, 629–632 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

Q. Q. Hao, S. Y. Pang, J. Liu, and L. B. Su, “Tunable and passively Q-switched laser operation of Nd,Lu:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Appl. Opt. 57(22), 6491–6495 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Wu, S. Y. Pang, Y. Q. Zu, Q. Q. Peng, J. M. Yang, J. Liu, and L. B. Su, “Silver nanorods absorber for passively Q-switched Nd, Gd: CaF2 laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(2), 020015 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. Soulard, S. Normani, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, D. Stoffel, S. Montant, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Femtosecond and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation in Nd,Lu:CaF2,” Proc. SPIE 10683, 106831J (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Pang, F. K. Ma, H. Yu, X. B. Qian, D. P. Jiang, Y. Wu, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Y. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation of LD-pumped Nd, Gd:CaF2 and Nd, Y:CaF2 crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055802 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

H. B. Wang, J. F. Zhu, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Yu, K. Liu, J. L. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, J. Liu, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, and L. B. Su, “Femtosecond mode-locked Nd,La:CaF2 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2184–2189 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Normani, A. Braud, R. Soulard, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Menard, G. Brasse, R. Moncorge, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Site selective analysis of Nd3+-Lu3+ codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(47), 9016–9025 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. F. Zhu, L. J. Zhang, Z. Y. Gao, J. L. Wang, Z. H. Wang, L. B. Su, L. H. Zheng, J. Y. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Li, M. W. Fan, J. Liu, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. Y. Ge, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, Y. X. Cao, and J. Xu, “Generation of 103 fs mode-locked pulses by a gain linewidth-variable Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1737–1739 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. L. Doualan, L. B. Su, G. Brasse, A. Benayad, V. Menard, Y. Y. Zhan, A. Braud, P. Camy, J. Xu, and R. Moncorge, “Improvement of infrared laser properties of Nd:CaF2 crystals via codoping with Y3+ and Lu3+ buffer ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(11), 3018–3021 (2013).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

Y. V. Orlovskii, T. T. Basiev, V. Osiko, H. Gross, and J. Heber, “Fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) and site-selective fluorescence decay of Nd3+ centers in CaF2,” J. Lumin. 82(3), 251–258 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

A. Sillen and Y. Engelborghs, “The correct use of “average” fluorescence parameters,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(5), 475–486 (1998).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, Z. I. Zhmurova, V. A. Lomonov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Two stimulated-emission 4F3/2- 4I11/2,13/2 channels of ND3+ ions in crystals of the CaF2-Scf3 SYSTEM,” Phys. Status Solidi A 84(1), K81–K84 (1984).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, N. R. Agamalyan, G. A. Denisenko, S. E. Sarkisov, and P. P. Fedorov, “Spectroscopy and laser-emission of disordered GdF3-CaF2-Nd3+ trigonal crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 70(2), 397–406 (1982).
[Crossref]

1967 (2)

Y. K. Voronko and V. V. Osiko, “Nature of Concentration Quenching of Luminescence of Nd+++ Ions in Crystals,” Jetp Lett-Ussr 5(10), 295 (1967).

A. A. Kaminski, “High-temperature effects observed in stimulated emission from CaF2 and LaF3 crystals activated with Nd3+,” Jetp Lett-Ussr 6(5), 115–118 (1967).

1966 (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Osico, A. M. Prochorov, and Y. K. Voronko, “Spectral Investigation of Stimulated Radiation of ND3+ in CAF2-YF3,” Phys. Lett. 22(4), 419–421 (1966).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. V. Osiko, “Analysis of Optical Spectra of Caf2-Nd3+ (Type 1) Crystals,” Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr 22(2), 295–300 (1966).

1965 (1)

K. S. Bagdasarov, Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, L. V. Krotova, and V. V. Osiko, “Modification of Optical Properties of Caf2-TR3+ Crystals by Yttrium Impurities,” Phys. Status Solidi B 12(2), 905–912 (1965).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

G. A. Slack, “Thermal Conductivity of CaF2, MnF2, CoF2, and ZnF2 Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 122(5), 1451–1464 (1961).
[Crossref]

Agamalyan, N. R.

A. A. Kaminskii, N. R. Agamalyan, G. A. Denisenko, S. E. Sarkisov, and P. P. Fedorov, “Spectroscopy and laser-emission of disordered GdF3-CaF2-Nd3+ trigonal crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 70(2), 397–406 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bagdasarov, K. S.

K. S. Bagdasarov, Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, L. V. Krotova, and V. V. Osiko, “Modification of Optical Properties of Caf2-TR3+ Crystals by Yttrium Impurities,” Phys. Status Solidi B 12(2), 905–912 (1965).
[Crossref]

Basiev, T. T.

Y. V. Orlovskii, T. T. Basiev, V. Osiko, H. Gross, and J. Heber, “Fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) and site-selective fluorescence decay of Nd3+ centers in CaF2,” J. Lumin. 82(3), 251–258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Benayad, A.

S. Normani, A. Braud, R. Soulard, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Menard, G. Brasse, R. Moncorge, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Site selective analysis of Nd3+-Lu3+ codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(47), 9016–9025 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. L. Doualan, L. B. Su, G. Brasse, A. Benayad, V. Menard, Y. Y. Zhan, A. Braud, P. Camy, J. Xu, and R. Moncorge, “Improvement of infrared laser properties of Nd:CaF2 crystals via codoping with Y3+ and Lu3+ buffer ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(11), 3018–3021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brasse, G.

S. Normani, A. Braud, R. Soulard, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Menard, G. Brasse, R. Moncorge, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Site selective analysis of Nd3+-Lu3+ codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(47), 9016–9025 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. L. Doualan, L. B. Su, G. Brasse, A. Benayad, V. Menard, Y. Y. Zhan, A. Braud, P. Camy, J. Xu, and R. Moncorge, “Improvement of infrared laser properties of Nd:CaF2 crystals via codoping with Y3+ and Lu3+ buffer ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(11), 3018–3021 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Braud, A.

R. Soulard, S. Normani, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, D. Stoffel, S. Montant, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Femtosecond and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation in Nd,Lu:CaF2,” Proc. SPIE 10683, 106831J (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Normani, A. Braud, R. Soulard, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Menard, G. Brasse, R. Moncorge, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Site selective analysis of Nd3+-Lu3+ codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(47), 9016–9025 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. L. Doualan, L. B. Su, G. Brasse, A. Benayad, V. Menard, Y. Y. Zhan, A. Braud, P. Camy, J. Xu, and R. Moncorge, “Improvement of infrared laser properties of Nd:CaF2 crystals via codoping with Y3+ and Lu3+ buffer ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(11), 3018–3021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Camy, P.

R. Soulard, S. Normani, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, D. Stoffel, S. Montant, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Femtosecond and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation in Nd,Lu:CaF2,” Proc. SPIE 10683, 106831J (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Normani, A. Braud, R. Soulard, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Menard, G. Brasse, R. Moncorge, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Site selective analysis of Nd3+-Lu3+ codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(47), 9016–9025 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. L. Doualan, L. B. Su, G. Brasse, A. Benayad, V. Menard, Y. Y. Zhan, A. Braud, P. Camy, J. Xu, and R. Moncorge, “Improvement of infrared laser properties of Nd:CaF2 crystals via codoping with Y3+ and Lu3+ buffer ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(11), 3018–3021 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y. X.

Cao, Z. D.

S. Z. Wang, D. P. Jiang, Q. H. Wu, Z. D. Cao, S. Y. Pang, J. Y. Wang, X. B. Qian, J. Liu, B. C. Mei, and L. B. Su, “Effect of La3+ proportion on spectroscopic and continuous wave laser properties of Nd,La:CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. 29(1), 015801 (2019).
[Crossref]

Denisenko, G. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, N. R. Agamalyan, G. A. Denisenko, S. E. Sarkisov, and P. P. Fedorov, “Spectroscopy and laser-emission of disordered GdF3-CaF2-Nd3+ trigonal crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 70(2), 397–406 (1982).
[Crossref]

Doualan, J. L.

R. Soulard, S. Normani, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, D. Stoffel, S. Montant, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Femtosecond and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation in Nd,Lu:CaF2,” Proc. SPIE 10683, 106831J (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Normani, A. Braud, R. Soulard, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Menard, G. Brasse, R. Moncorge, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Site selective analysis of Nd3+-Lu3+ codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(47), 9016–9025 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. L. Doualan, L. B. Su, G. Brasse, A. Benayad, V. Menard, Y. Y. Zhan, A. Braud, P. Camy, J. Xu, and R. Moncorge, “Improvement of infrared laser properties of Nd:CaF2 crystals via codoping with Y3+ and Lu3+ buffer ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(11), 3018–3021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Engelborghs, Y.

A. Sillen and Y. Engelborghs, “The correct use of “average” fluorescence parameters,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(5), 475–486 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fan, M. W.

C. Li, M. W. Fan, J. Liu, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fedorov, P. P.

A. A. Kaminskii, N. R. Agamalyan, G. A. Denisenko, S. E. Sarkisov, and P. P. Fedorov, “Spectroscopy and laser-emission of disordered GdF3-CaF2-Nd3+ trigonal crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 70(2), 397–406 (1982).
[Crossref]

Gao, Z. Y.

H. B. Wang, J. F. Zhu, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Yu, K. Liu, J. L. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, J. Liu, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, and L. B. Su, “Femtosecond mode-locked Nd,La:CaF2 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2184–2189 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhu, L. J. Zhang, Z. Y. Gao, J. L. Wang, Z. H. Wang, L. B. Su, L. H. Zheng, J. Y. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ge, W. Y.

Goossens, J. P.

R. Soulard, S. Normani, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, D. Stoffel, S. Montant, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Femtosecond and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation in Nd,Lu:CaF2,” Proc. SPIE 10683, 106831J (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Normani, A. Braud, R. Soulard, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Menard, G. Brasse, R. Moncorge, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Site selective analysis of Nd3+-Lu3+ codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(47), 9016–9025 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gross, H.

Y. V. Orlovskii, T. T. Basiev, V. Osiko, H. Gross, and J. Heber, “Fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) and site-selective fluorescence decay of Nd3+ centers in CaF2,” J. Lumin. 82(3), 251–258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hao, Q. Q.

Heber, J.

Y. V. Orlovskii, T. T. Basiev, V. Osiko, H. Gross, and J. Heber, “Fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) and site-selective fluorescence decay of Nd3+ centers in CaF2,” J. Lumin. 82(3), 251–258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D.

S. Wang, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, S. Pang, J. Wang, X. Qian, J. Liu, B. Mei, and L. Su, “Spectral properties and highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation in Nd, Gd:CaF2 crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 781, 629–632 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D. P.

S. Z. Wang, D. P. Jiang, Q. H. Wu, Z. D. Cao, S. Y. Pang, J. Y. Wang, X. B. Qian, J. Liu, B. C. Mei, and L. B. Su, “Effect of La3+ proportion on spectroscopic and continuous wave laser properties of Nd,La:CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. 29(1), 015801 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Pang, F. K. Ma, H. Yu, X. B. Qian, D. P. Jiang, Y. Wu, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Y. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation of LD-pumped Nd, Gd:CaF2 and Nd, Y:CaF2 crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055802 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. B. Wang, J. F. Zhu, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Yu, K. Liu, J. L. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, J. Liu, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, and L. B. Su, “Femtosecond mode-locked Nd,La:CaF2 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2184–2189 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Li, M. W. Fan, J. Liu, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. Y. Ge, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, Y. X. Cao, and J. Xu, “Generation of 103 fs mode-locked pulses by a gain linewidth-variable Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1737–1739 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kaminski, A. A.

A. A. Kaminski, “High-temperature effects observed in stimulated emission from CaF2 and LaF3 crystals activated with Nd3+,” Jetp Lett-Ussr 6(5), 115–118 (1967).

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, Z. I. Zhmurova, V. A. Lomonov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Two stimulated-emission 4F3/2- 4I11/2,13/2 channels of ND3+ ions in crystals of the CaF2-Scf3 SYSTEM,” Phys. Status Solidi A 84(1), K81–K84 (1984).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kaminskii, N. R. Agamalyan, G. A. Denisenko, S. E. Sarkisov, and P. P. Fedorov, “Spectroscopy and laser-emission of disordered GdF3-CaF2-Nd3+ trigonal crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 70(2), 397–406 (1982).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Osico, A. M. Prochorov, and Y. K. Voronko, “Spectral Investigation of Stimulated Radiation of ND3+ in CAF2-YF3,” Phys. Lett. 22(4), 419–421 (1966).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. V. Osiko, “Analysis of Optical Spectra of Caf2-Nd3+ (Type 1) Crystals,” Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr 22(2), 295–300 (1966).

K. S. Bagdasarov, Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, L. V. Krotova, and V. V. Osiko, “Modification of Optical Properties of Caf2-TR3+ Crystals by Yttrium Impurities,” Phys. Status Solidi B 12(2), 905–912 (1965).
[Crossref]

Krotova, L. V.

K. S. Bagdasarov, Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, L. V. Krotova, and V. V. Osiko, “Modification of Optical Properties of Caf2-TR3+ Crystals by Yttrium Impurities,” Phys. Status Solidi B 12(2), 905–912 (1965).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

C. Li, M. W. Fan, J. Liu, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, H. J.

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lisiecki, R.

F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

S. Wang, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, S. Pang, J. Wang, X. Qian, J. Liu, B. Mei, and L. Su, “Spectral properties and highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation in Nd, Gd:CaF2 crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 781, 629–632 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Z. Wang, D. P. Jiang, Q. H. Wu, Z. D. Cao, S. Y. Pang, J. Y. Wang, X. B. Qian, J. Liu, B. C. Mei, and L. B. Su, “Effect of La3+ proportion on spectroscopic and continuous wave laser properties of Nd,La:CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. 29(1), 015801 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Q. Hao, S. Y. Pang, J. Liu, and L. B. Su, “Tunable and passively Q-switched laser operation of Nd,Lu:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Appl. Opt. 57(22), 6491–6495 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Wu, S. Y. Pang, Y. Q. Zu, Q. Q. Peng, J. M. Yang, J. Liu, and L. B. Su, “Silver nanorods absorber for passively Q-switched Nd, Gd: CaF2 laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(2), 020015 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Pang, F. K. Ma, H. Yu, X. B. Qian, D. P. Jiang, Y. Wu, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Y. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation of LD-pumped Nd, Gd:CaF2 and Nd, Y:CaF2 crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055802 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. B. Wang, J. F. Zhu, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Yu, K. Liu, J. L. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, J. Liu, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, and L. B. Su, “Femtosecond mode-locked Nd,La:CaF2 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2184–2189 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Li, M. W. Fan, J. Liu, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

Lomonov, V. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, Z. I. Zhmurova, V. A. Lomonov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Two stimulated-emission 4F3/2- 4I11/2,13/2 channels of ND3+ ions in crystals of the CaF2-Scf3 SYSTEM,” Phys. Status Solidi A 84(1), K81–K84 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ma, F. K.

S. Y. Pang, F. K. Ma, H. Yu, X. B. Qian, D. P. Jiang, Y. Wu, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Y. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation of LD-pumped Nd, Gd:CaF2 and Nd, Y:CaF2 crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055802 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. B. Wang, J. F. Zhu, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Yu, K. Liu, J. L. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, J. Liu, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, and L. B. Su, “Femtosecond mode-locked Nd,La:CaF2 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2184–2189 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. Y. Ge, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, Y. X. Cao, and J. Xu, “Generation of 103 fs mode-locked pulses by a gain linewidth-variable Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1737–1739 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

Macalik, B.

F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mei, B.

S. Wang, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, S. Pang, J. Wang, X. Qian, J. Liu, B. Mei, and L. Su, “Spectral properties and highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation in Nd, Gd:CaF2 crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 781, 629–632 (2019).
[Crossref]

Mei, B. C.

S. Z. Wang, D. P. Jiang, Q. H. Wu, Z. D. Cao, S. Y. Pang, J. Y. Wang, X. B. Qian, J. Liu, B. C. Mei, and L. B. Su, “Effect of La3+ proportion on spectroscopic and continuous wave laser properties of Nd,La:CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. 29(1), 015801 (2019).
[Crossref]

Menard, V.

S. Normani, A. Braud, R. Soulard, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Menard, G. Brasse, R. Moncorge, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Site selective analysis of Nd3+-Lu3+ codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(47), 9016–9025 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. L. Doualan, L. B. Su, G. Brasse, A. Benayad, V. Menard, Y. Y. Zhan, A. Braud, P. Camy, J. Xu, and R. Moncorge, “Improvement of infrared laser properties of Nd:CaF2 crystals via codoping with Y3+ and Lu3+ buffer ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(11), 3018–3021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moncorge, R.

S. Normani, A. Braud, R. Soulard, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Menard, G. Brasse, R. Moncorge, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Site selective analysis of Nd3+-Lu3+ codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(47), 9016–9025 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. L. Doualan, L. B. Su, G. Brasse, A. Benayad, V. Menard, Y. Y. Zhan, A. Braud, P. Camy, J. Xu, and R. Moncorge, “Improvement of infrared laser properties of Nd:CaF2 crystals via codoping with Y3+ and Lu3+ buffer ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(11), 3018–3021 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Montant, S.

R. Soulard, S. Normani, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, D. Stoffel, S. Montant, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Femtosecond and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation in Nd,Lu:CaF2,” Proc. SPIE 10683, 106831J (2018).
[Crossref]

Normani, S.

R. Soulard, S. Normani, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, D. Stoffel, S. Montant, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Femtosecond and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation in Nd,Lu:CaF2,” Proc. SPIE 10683, 106831J (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Normani, A. Braud, R. Soulard, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Menard, G. Brasse, R. Moncorge, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Site selective analysis of Nd3+-Lu3+ codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(47), 9016–9025 (2016).
[Crossref]

Orlovskii, Y. V.

Y. V. Orlovskii, T. T. Basiev, V. Osiko, H. Gross, and J. Heber, “Fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) and site-selective fluorescence decay of Nd3+ centers in CaF2,” J. Lumin. 82(3), 251–258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Osico, V. V.

A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Osico, A. M. Prochorov, and Y. K. Voronko, “Spectral Investigation of Stimulated Radiation of ND3+ in CAF2-YF3,” Phys. Lett. 22(4), 419–421 (1966).
[Crossref]

Osiko, V.

Y. V. Orlovskii, T. T. Basiev, V. Osiko, H. Gross, and J. Heber, “Fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) and site-selective fluorescence decay of Nd3+ centers in CaF2,” J. Lumin. 82(3), 251–258 (1999).
[Crossref]

Osiko, V. V.

Y. K. Voronko and V. V. Osiko, “Nature of Concentration Quenching of Luminescence of Nd+++ Ions in Crystals,” Jetp Lett-Ussr 5(10), 295 (1967).

Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. V. Osiko, “Analysis of Optical Spectra of Caf2-Nd3+ (Type 1) Crystals,” Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr 22(2), 295–300 (1966).

K. S. Bagdasarov, Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, L. V. Krotova, and V. V. Osiko, “Modification of Optical Properties of Caf2-TR3+ Crystals by Yttrium Impurities,” Phys. Status Solidi B 12(2), 905–912 (1965).
[Crossref]

Pang, S.

S. Wang, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, S. Pang, J. Wang, X. Qian, J. Liu, B. Mei, and L. Su, “Spectral properties and highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation in Nd, Gd:CaF2 crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 781, 629–632 (2019).
[Crossref]

Pang, S. Y.

S. Z. Wang, D. P. Jiang, Q. H. Wu, Z. D. Cao, S. Y. Pang, J. Y. Wang, X. B. Qian, J. Liu, B. C. Mei, and L. B. Su, “Effect of La3+ proportion on spectroscopic and continuous wave laser properties of Nd,La:CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. 29(1), 015801 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Q. Hao, S. Y. Pang, J. Liu, and L. B. Su, “Tunable and passively Q-switched laser operation of Nd,Lu:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Appl. Opt. 57(22), 6491–6495 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Wu, S. Y. Pang, Y. Q. Zu, Q. Q. Peng, J. M. Yang, J. Liu, and L. B. Su, “Silver nanorods absorber for passively Q-switched Nd, Gd: CaF2 laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(2), 020015 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Pang, F. K. Ma, H. Yu, X. B. Qian, D. P. Jiang, Y. Wu, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Y. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation of LD-pumped Nd, Gd:CaF2 and Nd, Y:CaF2 crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055802 (2018).
[Crossref]

Peng, Q. Q.

Prochorov, A. M.

A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Osico, A. M. Prochorov, and Y. K. Voronko, “Spectral Investigation of Stimulated Radiation of ND3+ in CAF2-YF3,” Phys. Lett. 22(4), 419–421 (1966).
[Crossref]

Qian, L. J.

Qian, X.

S. Wang, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, S. Pang, J. Wang, X. Qian, J. Liu, B. Mei, and L. Su, “Spectral properties and highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation in Nd, Gd:CaF2 crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 781, 629–632 (2019).
[Crossref]

Qian, X. B.

S. Z. Wang, D. P. Jiang, Q. H. Wu, Z. D. Cao, S. Y. Pang, J. Y. Wang, X. B. Qian, J. Liu, B. C. Mei, and L. B. Su, “Effect of La3+ proportion on spectroscopic and continuous wave laser properties of Nd,La:CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. 29(1), 015801 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Pang, F. K. Ma, H. Yu, X. B. Qian, D. P. Jiang, Y. Wu, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Y. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation of LD-pumped Nd, Gd:CaF2 and Nd, Y:CaF2 crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055802 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Li, M. W. Fan, J. Liu, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qin, Z. P.

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sarkisov, S. E.

A. A. Kaminskii, Z. I. Zhmurova, V. A. Lomonov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Two stimulated-emission 4F3/2- 4I11/2,13/2 channels of ND3+ ions in crystals of the CaF2-Scf3 SYSTEM,” Phys. Status Solidi A 84(1), K81–K84 (1984).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kaminskii, N. R. Agamalyan, G. A. Denisenko, S. E. Sarkisov, and P. P. Fedorov, “Spectroscopy and laser-emission of disordered GdF3-CaF2-Nd3+ trigonal crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 70(2), 397–406 (1982).
[Crossref]

Shao, Y. J.

F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sillen, A.

A. Sillen and Y. Engelborghs, “The correct use of “average” fluorescence parameters,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(5), 475–486 (1998).
[Crossref]

Slack, G. A.

G. A. Slack, “Thermal Conductivity of CaF2, MnF2, CoF2, and ZnF2 Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 122(5), 1451–1464 (1961).
[Crossref]

Solarz, P.

F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Soulard, R.

R. Soulard, S. Normani, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, D. Stoffel, S. Montant, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Femtosecond and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation in Nd,Lu:CaF2,” Proc. SPIE 10683, 106831J (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Normani, A. Braud, R. Soulard, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Menard, G. Brasse, R. Moncorge, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Site selective analysis of Nd3+-Lu3+ codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(47), 9016–9025 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stoffel, D.

R. Soulard, S. Normani, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, D. Stoffel, S. Montant, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Femtosecond and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation in Nd,Lu:CaF2,” Proc. SPIE 10683, 106831J (2018).
[Crossref]

Su, L.

S. Wang, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, S. Pang, J. Wang, X. Qian, J. Liu, B. Mei, and L. Su, “Spectral properties and highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation in Nd, Gd:CaF2 crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 781, 629–632 (2019).
[Crossref]

Su, L. B.

S. Z. Wang, D. P. Jiang, Q. H. Wu, Z. D. Cao, S. Y. Pang, J. Y. Wang, X. B. Qian, J. Liu, B. C. Mei, and L. B. Su, “Effect of La3+ proportion on spectroscopic and continuous wave laser properties of Nd,La:CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. 29(1), 015801 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Q. Hao, S. Y. Pang, J. Liu, and L. B. Su, “Tunable and passively Q-switched laser operation of Nd,Lu:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Appl. Opt. 57(22), 6491–6495 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Wu, S. Y. Pang, Y. Q. Zu, Q. Q. Peng, J. M. Yang, J. Liu, and L. B. Su, “Silver nanorods absorber for passively Q-switched Nd, Gd: CaF2 laser,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(2), 020015 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Pang, F. K. Ma, H. Yu, X. B. Qian, D. P. Jiang, Y. Wu, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Y. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation of LD-pumped Nd, Gd:CaF2 and Nd, Y:CaF2 crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055802 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. B. Wang, J. F. Zhu, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Yu, K. Liu, J. L. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, J. Liu, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, and L. B. Su, “Femtosecond mode-locked Nd,La:CaF2 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2184–2189 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhu, L. J. Zhang, Z. Y. Gao, J. L. Wang, Z. H. Wang, L. B. Su, L. H. Zheng, J. Y. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Li, M. W. Fan, J. Liu, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. Y. Ge, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, Y. X. Cao, and J. Xu, “Generation of 103 fs mode-locked pulses by a gain linewidth-variable Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1737–1739 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. L. Doualan, L. B. Su, G. Brasse, A. Benayad, V. Menard, Y. Y. Zhan, A. Braud, P. Camy, J. Xu, and R. Moncorge, “Improvement of infrared laser properties of Nd:CaF2 crystals via codoping with Y3+ and Lu3+ buffer ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(11), 3018–3021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, F.

F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Voronko, Y. K.

Y. K. Voronko and V. V. Osiko, “Nature of Concentration Quenching of Luminescence of Nd+++ Ions in Crystals,” Jetp Lett-Ussr 5(10), 295 (1967).

A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Osico, A. M. Prochorov, and Y. K. Voronko, “Spectral Investigation of Stimulated Radiation of ND3+ in CAF2-YF3,” Phys. Lett. 22(4), 419–421 (1966).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. V. Osiko, “Analysis of Optical Spectra of Caf2-Nd3+ (Type 1) Crystals,” Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr 22(2), 295–300 (1966).

K. S. Bagdasarov, Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, L. V. Krotova, and V. V. Osiko, “Modification of Optical Properties of Caf2-TR3+ Crystals by Yttrium Impurities,” Phys. Status Solidi B 12(2), 905–912 (1965).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. B.

Wang, J.

S. Wang, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, S. Pang, J. Wang, X. Qian, J. Liu, B. Mei, and L. Su, “Spectral properties and highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation in Nd, Gd:CaF2 crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 781, 629–632 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. L.

H. B. Wang, J. F. Zhu, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Yu, K. Liu, J. L. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, J. Liu, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, and L. B. Su, “Femtosecond mode-locked Nd,La:CaF2 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2184–2189 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhu, L. J. Zhang, Z. Y. Gao, J. L. Wang, Z. H. Wang, L. B. Su, L. H. Zheng, J. Y. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. Y.

S. Z. Wang, D. P. Jiang, Q. H. Wu, Z. D. Cao, S. Y. Pang, J. Y. Wang, X. B. Qian, J. Liu, B. C. Mei, and L. B. Su, “Effect of La3+ proportion on spectroscopic and continuous wave laser properties of Nd,La:CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. 29(1), 015801 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhu, L. J. Zhang, Z. Y. Gao, J. L. Wang, Z. H. Wang, L. B. Su, L. H. Zheng, J. Y. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. G.

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, S. Pang, J. Wang, X. Qian, J. Liu, B. Mei, and L. Su, “Spectral properties and highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation in Nd, Gd:CaF2 crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 781, 629–632 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. Z.

S. Z. Wang, D. P. Jiang, Q. H. Wu, Z. D. Cao, S. Y. Pang, J. Y. Wang, X. B. Qian, J. Liu, B. C. Mei, and L. B. Su, “Effect of La3+ proportion on spectroscopic and continuous wave laser properties of Nd,La:CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. 29(1), 015801 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. H.

J. F. Zhu, L. J. Zhang, Z. Y. Gao, J. L. Wang, Z. H. Wang, L. B. Su, L. H. Zheng, J. Y. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wei, Z. Y.

H. B. Wang, J. F. Zhu, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Yu, K. Liu, J. L. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, J. Liu, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, and L. B. Su, “Femtosecond mode-locked Nd,La:CaF2 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2184–2189 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhu, L. J. Zhang, Z. Y. Gao, J. L. Wang, Z. H. Wang, L. B. Su, L. H. Zheng, J. Y. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

S. Wang, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, S. Pang, J. Wang, X. Qian, J. Liu, B. Mei, and L. Su, “Spectral properties and highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation in Nd, Gd:CaF2 crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 781, 629–632 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q. H.

S. Z. Wang, D. P. Jiang, Q. H. Wu, Z. D. Cao, S. Y. Pang, J. Y. Wang, X. B. Qian, J. Liu, B. C. Mei, and L. B. Su, “Effect of La3+ proportion on spectroscopic and continuous wave laser properties of Nd,La:CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. 29(1), 015801 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

S. Y. Pang, F. K. Ma, H. Yu, X. B. Qian, D. P. Jiang, Y. Wu, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Y. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation of LD-pumped Nd, Gd:CaF2 and Nd, Y:CaF2 crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055802 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. J.

Xie, G. Q.

Xu, J.

J. F. Zhu, L. J. Zhang, Z. Y. Gao, J. L. Wang, Z. H. Wang, L. B. Su, L. H. Zheng, J. Y. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Li, M. W. Fan, J. Liu, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. Y. Ge, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, Y. X. Cao, and J. Xu, “Generation of 103 fs mode-locked pulses by a gain linewidth-variable Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1737–1739 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. L. Doualan, L. B. Su, G. Brasse, A. Benayad, V. Menard, Y. Y. Zhan, A. Braud, P. Camy, J. Xu, and R. Moncorge, “Improvement of infrared laser properties of Nd:CaF2 crystals via codoping with Y3+ and Lu3+ buffer ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(11), 3018–3021 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, J. Y.

S. Y. Pang, F. K. Ma, H. Yu, X. B. Qian, D. P. Jiang, Y. Wu, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Y. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation of LD-pumped Nd, Gd:CaF2 and Nd, Y:CaF2 crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055802 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. M.

Yu, H.

S. Y. Pang, F. K. Ma, H. Yu, X. B. Qian, D. P. Jiang, Y. Wu, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Y. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation of LD-pumped Nd, Gd:CaF2 and Nd, Y:CaF2 crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055802 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, Y.

Yuan, P.

Zhan, Y. Y.

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. L. Doualan, L. B. Su, G. Brasse, A. Benayad, V. Menard, Y. Y. Zhan, A. Braud, P. Camy, J. Xu, and R. Moncorge, “Improvement of infrared laser properties of Nd:CaF2 crystals via codoping with Y3+ and Lu3+ buffer ions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(11), 3018–3021 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

S. Y. Pang, F. K. Ma, H. Yu, X. B. Qian, D. P. Jiang, Y. Wu, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Y. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation of LD-pumped Nd, Gd:CaF2 and Nd, Y:CaF2 crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055802 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. J.

J. F. Zhu, L. J. Zhang, Z. Y. Gao, J. L. Wang, Z. H. Wang, L. B. Su, L. H. Zheng, J. Y. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, W. Y. Ge, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, Y. X. Cao, and J. Xu, “Generation of 103 fs mode-locked pulses by a gain linewidth-variable Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 1737–1739 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zheng, L. H.

J. F. Zhu, L. J. Zhang, Z. Y. Gao, J. L. Wang, Z. H. Wang, L. B. Su, L. H. Zheng, J. Y. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhmurova, Z. I.

A. A. Kaminskii, Z. I. Zhmurova, V. A. Lomonov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Two stimulated-emission 4F3/2- 4I11/2,13/2 channels of ND3+ ions in crystals of the CaF2-Scf3 SYSTEM,” Phys. Status Solidi A 84(1), K81–K84 (1984).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J. F.

H. B. Wang, J. F. Zhu, Z. Y. Gao, Y. Yu, K. Liu, J. L. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, J. Liu, D. P. Jiang, F. K. Ma, and L. B. Su, “Femtosecond mode-locked Nd,La:CaF2 disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(7), 2184–2189 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhu, L. J. Zhang, Z. Y. Gao, J. L. Wang, Z. H. Wang, L. B. Su, L. H. Zheng, J. Y. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zu, Y. Q.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

CrystEngComm (1)

S. Normani, A. Braud, R. Soulard, J. L. Doualan, A. Benayad, V. Menard, G. Brasse, R. Moncorge, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Site selective analysis of Nd3+-Lu3+ codoped CaF2 laser crystals,” CrystEngComm 18(47), 9016–9025 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

S. Wang, D. Jiang, Q. Wu, S. Pang, J. Wang, X. Qian, J. Liu, B. Mei, and L. Su, “Spectral properties and highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation in Nd, Gd:CaF2 crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 781, 629–632 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

Y. V. Orlovskii, T. T. Basiev, V. Osiko, H. Gross, and J. Heber, “Fluorescence line narrowing (FLN) and site-selective fluorescence decay of Nd3+ centers in CaF2,” J. Lumin. 82(3), 251–258 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jetp Lett-Ussr (2)

Y. K. Voronko and V. V. Osiko, “Nature of Concentration Quenching of Luminescence of Nd+++ Ions in Crystals,” Jetp Lett-Ussr 5(10), 295 (1967).

A. A. Kaminski, “High-temperature effects observed in stimulated emission from CaF2 and LaF3 crystals activated with Nd3+,” Jetp Lett-Ussr 6(5), 115–118 (1967).

Laser Phys. (2)

S. Z. Wang, D. P. Jiang, Q. H. Wu, Z. D. Cao, S. Y. Pang, J. Y. Wang, X. B. Qian, J. Liu, B. C. Mei, and L. B. Su, “Effect of La3+ proportion on spectroscopic and continuous wave laser properties of Nd,La:CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. 29(1), 015801 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. K. Ma, Q. Zhang, D. P. Jiang, L. B. Su, Y. J. Shao, J. Y. Wang, F. Tang, J. Xu, P. Solarz, W. Ryba-Romanowski, R. Lisiecki, and B. Macalik, “Spectroscopic, dielectric properties and local structure observation by EXAFS for Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal,” Laser Phys. 24(10), 105703 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Y. Pang, F. K. Ma, H. Yu, X. B. Qian, D. P. Jiang, Y. Wu, F. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Y. Xu, and L. B. Su, “Highly efficient continuous-wave laser operation of LD-pumped Nd, Gd:CaF2 and Nd, Y:CaF2 crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(5), 055802 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. F. Zhu, L. J. Zhang, Z. Y. Gao, J. L. Wang, Z. H. Wang, L. B. Su, L. H. Zheng, J. Y. Wang, J. Xu, and Z. Y. Wei, “Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 12(3), 035801 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. B. Su, Q. G. Wang, H. J. Li, G. Brasse, P. Camy, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, R. Moncorge, Y. Y. Zhan, L. H. Zheng, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Spectroscopic properties and CW laser operation of Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 single crystals,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(3), 035804 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

C. Li, M. W. Fan, J. Liu, L. B. Su, D. P. Jiang, X. B. Qian, and J. Xu, “Operation of continuous wave and Q-switching on diode-pumped Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 140–143 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

A. Sillen and Y. Engelborghs, “The correct use of “average” fluorescence parameters,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67(5), 475–486 (1998).
[Crossref]

Phys. Lett. (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Osico, A. M. Prochorov, and Y. K. Voronko, “Spectral Investigation of Stimulated Radiation of ND3+ in CAF2-YF3,” Phys. Lett. 22(4), 419–421 (1966).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

G. A. Slack, “Thermal Conductivity of CaF2, MnF2, CoF2, and ZnF2 Crystals,” Phys. Rev. 122(5), 1451–1464 (1961).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, Z. I. Zhmurova, V. A. Lomonov, and S. E. Sarkisov, “Two stimulated-emission 4F3/2- 4I11/2,13/2 channels of ND3+ ions in crystals of the CaF2-Scf3 SYSTEM,” Phys. Status Solidi A 84(1), K81–K84 (1984).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kaminskii, N. R. Agamalyan, G. A. Denisenko, S. E. Sarkisov, and P. P. Fedorov, “Spectroscopy and laser-emission of disordered GdF3-CaF2-Nd3+ trigonal crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 70(2), 397–406 (1982).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

K. S. Bagdasarov, Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, L. V. Krotova, and V. V. Osiko, “Modification of Optical Properties of Caf2-TR3+ Crystals by Yttrium Impurities,” Phys. Status Solidi B 12(2), 905–912 (1965).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Soulard, S. Normani, J. L. Doualan, A. Braud, D. Stoffel, S. Montant, J. P. Goossens, and P. Camy, “Femtosecond and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation in Nd,Lu:CaF2,” Proc. SPIE 10683, 106831J (2018).
[Crossref]

Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr (1)

Y. K. Voronko, A. A. Kaminskii, and V. V. Osiko, “Analysis of Optical Spectra of Caf2-Nd3+ (Type 1) Crystals,” Sov. Phys. Jetp-Ussr 22(2), 295–300 (1966).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Comparison of (a) absorption and (b) emission spectra for 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 samples (R = Y, La, Gd, Lu).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Comparison of absorption spectra for 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 samples and 0.5%Nd,2.5%R1,2.5%R2:CaF2 samples (R, R1, R2=Y, La, Gd, Lu). The insert graphs shows the comparison of α12 for tri-doped 0.5%Nd,2.5%R1,2.5%R2:CaF2 crystals and its corresponding co-doped 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 crystals.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Comparison of emission spectra for 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 samples and 0.5%Nd,2.5%R1,2.5%R2:CaF2 samples (R, R1, R2=Y, La, Gd, Lu).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Comparison of reconstructed and experimental emission spectra for Nd3+,R13+,R23+:CaF2 crystal (R1=Y or Lu, R2=La or Gd).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Fluorescence decay curves of (a) co-doped 0.5%Nd,5%R:CaF2 samples and (b) tri-doped 0.5%Nd,2.5%R1,2.5%R2:CaF2 samples (R, R1, R2=Y, La, Gd, Lu).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Output power versus absorbed pump power for CW laser operation for 0.5%Nd,2.5%Y,2.5%Gd:CaF2 crystal and 0.5%Nd,2.5%Lu,2.5%Gd:CaF2 crystal.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Schematic of the CW tuning setup.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Wavelength tuning curve of 0.5%Nd,2.5%Y,2.5%Gd:CaF2 crystal based on a quartz BF.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Actual concentrations for Nd3+:CaF2 samples doped with different regulating ions

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of emission bandwidths for Nd3+:CaF2 samples doping with different regulating ions

Tables Icon

Table 3. Comparison of fluorescence lifetimes, quantum efficiency and peak emission cross sections for Nd3+:CaF2 samples doping with different regulating ions

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I 1 , 2 = k 1 C s 1 I 1 + k 2 C s 2 I 2
τ e m = t = 0 I ( t ) t d t t = 0 I ( t ) d t
σ e m = λ p e a k 4 8 π c n 2 β 2 τ r a d Δ λ e m
η = τ e m / τ r a d

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