Abstract

Optical dielectric constants are critical to modeling the electronic and optical properties of materials. Silver, as a noble metal with low loss, has been extensively investigated. The recently developed epitaxial growths of single crystalline Ag on dielectric substrates have prompted efforts to characterize their intrinsic optical dielectric function. In this paper, we report spectral ellipsometry measurements and analysis of a thick, epitaxially-grown, single-crystalline Ag film. We focus on the range of 0.18 – 1.0 eV or 1.24 – 7 µm, an energy and wavelength range that has not been examined previously using epitaxial films. We compare the extracted dielectric constants and the predicted optical performances with previous measurements. The loss is appreciably lower than the widely quoted Palik’s optical constants (i.e., up to a factor of 2) in the infrared frequency range. The improved knowledge of fundamental optical properties of the high-quality epitaxial Ag film will have a broad impact on simulations and practical applications based on Ag in the long wavelength range.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Silver (Ag) has been the preferred material for plasmonic applications at optical frequencies due to its significantly lower losses than other noble metals. Nevertheless, loss due to grain boundaries and surface roughness still presents a serious challenge. For example, the propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is limited to a few microns in thermally deposited polycrystalline Ag films in the visible frequency range [1]. Such limitations have been greatly reduced in template striped films with atomically smooth surfaces [2] and single crystalline Ag films that further remove the grain boundaries [1]. A number of recent studies have demonstrated the growth of high-quality single crystalline films using either molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) [35] or wet-chemistry synthetic methods [59]. Careful characterization measurements have demonstrated the superior properties of these single crystalline films with SPP propagation length exceeding 100 µm in the visible frequency range [4,5,9].

Knowledge of the dielectric function of Ag in the long wavelength range plays an important role to understand and predict the optical properties of infrared (IR) plasmonic devices. However, the results reported in previous measurements show significant discrepancies due to different sample preparation procedure and most of these studies only cover a limited energy range [1,4,1020]. In this paper, we report the optical constants of Ag in the long wavelength range (1.24 – 7 µm) by performing spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements on a MBE- grown, atomically smooth, single crystalline Ag film. We confirm that the extracted optical dielectric constants satisfy the Kramers-Kronig (K-K) relation. We extend the previous measurements [4] of optical constants of single crystalline Ag film in the visible frequency range to the IR frequency range of 0.18 – 1 eV. These measurements require a sample with an extremely flat surface, large lateral dimensions (∼ cm), and thickness (> 300 nm). Such samples have only become available recently following the development of a rapid MBE growth method [21]. Our measurements have demonstrated that the loss is significantly lower in the IR frequency range than the widely quoted Palik’s optical constants [10]. Using the measured optical constants, we compare other optical properties including SPPs propagation length and Q-factors with that of other films. These results will inform researchers working with Ag as an optical material in the long wavelength range.

2. Experiments and results

Atomically smooth epitaxial silver film. Our previous studies of epitaxial Ag and Al thin films, grown by MBE in an ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) chamber, are obtained via a time-consuming two-step method [35,22], making it impractical to produce optically thick Ag film for characterization and applications in the IR frequency range. In order to overcome this challenge, a new MBE growth method with a rapid deposition rate 3 nm/min was introduced [21]. A single-crystalline, atomically smooth, and optically thick (≥ 300 nm) epitaxial Ag film was grown on heavily doped Si(111)-7 × 7 substrate (see Appendix A for sample growth detail). The high-quality surface of epitaxial Ag film with oxide capping layer was confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) shown in Fig. 1(a), showing a root mean square (rms) surface roughness of 0.44 nm. Furthermore, the crystallinity of the epitaxial Ag film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and only one diffraction peak at 38.2° is observed in the 2θ scan, originating from the Ag(111) crystal plane, as shown in Fig. 1(b). The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the Ag(111) peak is about 0.8°, demonstrating the high quality of crystallinity of the thick Ag film.

 

Fig. 1. (a) AFM image of the epitaxially grown 300 nm Ag film (about 2 nm Al2O3 capping layer). (b) XRD 2$\theta $ pattern of the epitaxially grown Ag films with different thickness (100, 150, and 300 nm). The Ag(111) peak of 300 nm Ag film shows a FWHM of ∼ 0.8°. (c) Layered structure of our thick Ag film sample with a self-oxidized cap.

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SE measurement in the long wavelength range. Standard reflection measurements with K-K analysis have been used to determine the complex dielectric function of opaque materials. However, uncertainty can exist in the extracted dielectric constants [23]. In contrast, SE simultaneously measures both the amplitude ratio and phase difference of polarized light, $\rho = {\raise0.7ex\hbox{${{r_p}}$} \!\mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{{r_p}} {{r_s}}}} \right.}\!\lower0.7ex\hbox{${{r_s}}$}} = \tan \psi {e^{ - i{\Delta}}}$, which provides direct access to the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function without having to rely on a K-K analysis procedure [24]. In our SE measurements, two variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometers (VASE and IR-VASE, J. A. Woollam) were used in the spectral range of 0.50 – 4.2 eV and 0.18 – 0.62 eV, respectively. All SE measurements were taken at three angles of incidence of 60°, 67.5°, and 75°, and analyzed simultaneously using WVASE software (J. A. Woollam). No incident angle dependence in the effective dielectric function was observed, verifying the expected isotropic optical properties of Ag. In order to extract the complex dielectric function, $\varepsilon = {\varepsilon _1} + i{\varepsilon _2}$, we fit the entire data set with a combination of the Drude model and a parametric oscillator model [25] (see Appendix C for details). In the energy region of 0.18 – 1 eV that we focus on, the Drude model is applied. These models ensure that the extracted optical constants satisfy the K-K consistency requirement over the entire spectral range (see Fig. 6. in Appendix E). Moreover, an iterative fitting method is applied based on the layered structure shown in Fig. 1(c). The multilayer structure consists of a 2 nm Al2O3 capping layer, a 300 nm epitaxial Ag film, and a Si substrate. We start the fitting from a set of initial dielectric constants for each layer using independently measured values for the Si substrate and a reference data file included in the WVASE software for the 2 nm Al2O3 cap layer. We do not expect that either the values for Si or Al2O3 have appreciable influence on the extracted optical constants of Ag. The 300 nm Ag film is optically thick, which was confirmed while analyzing the ellipsometric data, therefore the Si substrate has no influence. Thus, the extracted optical constants are due to the epitaxial Ag.

Complex dielectric function of epitaxial silver film. Negative real part ($- {\varepsilon _1}$) and positive imaginary part (${\varepsilon _2}$) of the optical dielectric constants of the epitaxial Ag in the spectral range of 0.18 – 1 eV are plotted in Fig. 2(a) and 2(b) (red). The results from Palik’s Handbook of optical constants [10] (green), Johnson and Christy (JC) [11] (gray), Yang et al. [16] (blue), and McPeak et al. [17] (purple) are shown for comparison. This comparison demonstrates the variations among the existing literature values in this relatively narrow spectral range. The insets in Fig. 2(a) and 2(b) zoom in the region difficult to distinguish between different sets of measurements. The residues in Fig. 2(a) and 2(b) are the difference between the calculated effective dielectric function and the experimentally measured effective dielectric function. All residues in this region are centered around zero, suggesting that the experimental SE data is fitted well with the chosen model. In the narrow range of 0.5 – 0.6 eV, one can observe noise that is higher than the other spectral region. We suggest that these higher uncertainties are associated with the residual instrumental errors since we included two data sets taken by two different ellipsometers in this spectral region. The two data sets are simultaneously fitted to extend the spectral range. Large uncertainty of ${\varepsilon _2}$ exists in JC’s data [11] (∼ 40%) as indicated by the gray shaded curves in the energy range of 0.64 – 1 eV. This uncertainty likely resulted from the poor detector efficiency in the long wavelength range in those previous measurements. The dielectric constants in the range of 1 – 4.2 eV are shown in Appendix D because they are not the focus of our study.

 

Fig. 2. (a) Negative real part and (b) imaginary part of dielectric function of epitaxial Ag film from 0.18 to 1 eV (red). Data from Ref. [10,11,16,17] are shown together with gray shaded curve representing the uncertainties in the JC data for comparison. The fitting residues for the epitaxial Ag film are plotted below (a,b). See Data File 1 for optical constants.

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Fig. 3. Plot (a)-(c) show the calculated surface plasmon propagation lengths (LSPP) and the quality factors for localized surface plasmon resonances (QLSPR) and surface plasmon polaritons (QSPP) in the infrared spectral ranges from this work and literatures [10,16].

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3. Discussion

Optical properties of epitaxial silver and Drude model. Optical properties of metals are determined by both free and bound electrons. The free electron contribution to the dielectric function is significantly increased with decreasing frequency, where the optical properties are dominated by intraband transitions within the conduction band. In this low energy region, the complex dielectric function of a metal, described by the Drude model with the approximation of a non-interacting conduction electron gas, is given by

$$\varepsilon (\omega )= {\varepsilon _\infty } - \frac{{\omega _p^2}}{{\omega ({\omega + i/\tau } )}}\;, $$
where $\tau $, the relaxation time, and the relaxation rate are related by ${\Gamma} = 1/\tau $. The plasma frequency, ${\omega _p},\; $ is determined by $\boldsymbol{\omega}_p^2 = N{e^2}/{\epsilon _0}{m^\ast }$, where N is the electron density, and ${m^\ast }$ is the effective mass of the electron. The core dielectric constant, ${\varepsilon _\infty }$, contributed by the positive ion cores, is 1 in the ideal free-electron model and 1 – 10 for noble metals (e.g. Au, Ag, and Cu) [26]. The Drude parameters from our fit are ${\varepsilon _\infty }$ = 1 $\pm$ 0.1, $\hbar {\omega _p}$ = 9.0 ${\pm} $ 0.1 eV, and $\tau $ = 16.6 ${\pm} $ 0.2 fs for the epitaxial Ag film. In the energy range of 0.1-1 eV, the frequency dependence of $\tau $ is negligible. Thus, it is reasonable to use an averaged value, which includes contributions from the electron-phonon interactions for frequencies higher than the Debye frequency (∼ 0.02 eV) [27]. Electron-electron, electron-phonon interactions, and scattering from surface / grain boundaries [28,29] all contribute to the relaxation time $\tau $. We suggest that the difference between our measured value and those from others (e.g. 31 ${\pm} $ 12 fs from JC) most likely arises from extrinsic factors such as scattering from surface / grain boundaries because of the different sample preparation procedures. The values reported by Yang et.al. [16], on a template-stripped silver film with ${\varepsilon _\infty }$ = 5 $\pm$ 2, $\hbar {\omega _p}$ = 8.9 ${\pm} $ 0.2 eV, and $\tau $ = 17 ${\pm} $ 3 fs, are mostly consistent with our measurements. The difference in ${\varepsilon _\infty }$ shifts the real part of the dielectric constant ${\varepsilon _1}$, which is a small shift considering the large numerical value of ${\varepsilon _1}$ (∼ 100) in the low energy range. In the literature, the range of these values for a number of different noble metals (Au, Cu, and Ag) is ${\varepsilon _\infty }$ = 1 – 10, $\hbar {\omega _p}$ = 5 – 15 eV, and $\tau $ = 6 – 40 fs, due to different sample preparation procedures and details of the band structure [16,26,30].

In order to demonstrate the potential performance improvement of IR-plasmonic structures based the epitaxial Ag, we calculate the SPPs propagation lengths for SPPs and quality factors [31] for localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) using the measured optical constants, as shown in Fig. 3 (details on SPPs propagationg lengths and quality factors in Appendix B). Table 1 shows these values at a few selected wavelengths and compares them with previous reports. Our measurements show a slight improvement in the broad spectral range from visible to IR range in comparison with those data from Yang (template-stripped film). For example, a factor of 17 – 20% improvements are shown in ${L_{SPP}}$, ${Q_{LSPR}}$, and ${Q_{SPP}}$ at $\lambda $ = 7 $\mu m$ (see Appendix F for optical performances). The improvement over Palik’s work (polycrystalline film) is more notable. we show that our epitaxial film exhibits 158% improvement in ${L_{SPP}}$, a 66% improvement in ${Q_{LSPR}}$, and a 155% improvement in ${Q_{SPP}}$ at $\lambda $ = 7 $\mu m$, in comparison to Palik’s data. These comparisons highlight the advantages of the epitaxial films in different plasmonic applications.

Tables Icon

Table 1. The calculated surface plasmon propagation lengths (LSPP) are shown along with the quality factors for localized surface plasmon resonances (QLSPR) and surface plasmon polaritons (QSPP) based on the dielectric constants from this work (red) and literaturesa, b at ultraviolet (370 nm), visible (650 nm), near-infrared (1000 nm), telecommunication (1550 nm), and infrared (7 µm) wavelengths.

4. Conclusion

In summary, we report optical dielectric constants of epitaxially-grown, optically-thick single crystalline Ag film from 0.18 to 1 eV by SE. As expected, intrinsic loss of our thick Ag film is larger than that of the thin Ag film grown by a more elaborate two-step method [4] but smaller than that found in thermally deposited polycrystalline films even after template stripping is applied to remove surface roughness. The dielectric constants reported here represent the intrinsic optical properties of bulk Ag in the long wavelength range. We expect that these measured data will guide the simulations for IR-plasmonic applications based on single crystalline Ag.

Appendix

A. Epitaxial silver film preparation

We recently developed a two-step growth method by MBE under ultra-high vacuum (below 5 × 10−10 Torr) [21]. We combine a room-temperature, high-rate deposition, and a high-temperature-annealing procedure to prepare optically thick epitaxial Ag film with a greatly improved growth efficiency. In this way, only a few hours of one growth cycle is required to ensure the high quality of an optically thick, atomically smooth, single-crystalline Ag film. First, Ag is evaporated onto the Si (111) substrate at room temperature with a deposition rate of about 3 nm/min, which is about 30 times faster than a previous method to grow epitaxial thin Ag films [4]. Then, the Ag film is transferred to the molybdenum heater equipped with tungsten filaments in the same MBE chamber for in-situ annealing. The annealing temperature is maintained at 500 °C for half an hour. Since exposing bare Ag film to the ambient can result in its rapid oxidization and contamination, in-situ capping of AlOx is applied to prevent such deteriorations. 7 ML (∼1.6 nm) of epitaxial Al layer is first grown on the Ag film and exposure to high purity oxygen under 1.5 ×10−6 Torr pressure for 10 minutes follows. As a result, a high-quality AlOx capping layer on the Ag film is formed to protect the surface.

B. SPP propagation length and quality factors

The dispersion relationship for SPPs propagating along the interface between a metal and a dielectric is given by [26]

$${k_{SPPs}} = \frac{\omega }{c}\sqrt {\frac{{{\varepsilon _m}{\varepsilon _d}}}{{{\varepsilon _m} + {\varepsilon _d}}}} $$
where $\omega $ is the angular frequency, c is the speed of light, ${\varepsilon _m}$ and ${\varepsilon _d}$ are the permittivity of the metal and dielectric, respectively. The SPP propagating length, ${L_{SPPs}}$, is determined from the imaginary part of the SPP wavevectors, ${k_{SPPs}}$,
$${L_{SPPs}} = \; \frac{1}{2k_{SPPs}^{\prime\prime}} = {\lambda _0}\frac{{{{({\varepsilon_m^{\prime}})}^2}}}{2\pi \varepsilon _m^{\prime\prime}}{\left( {\frac{{\varepsilon_m^{\prime} + {\varepsilon_d}}}{{\varepsilon_m^{\prime}{\varepsilon_d}}}} \right)^{\frac{3}{2}}}$$
where $\varepsilon _m^{\prime}$ and $\varepsilon _m^{\prime\prime}$ are the real and imaginary part of ${\varepsilon _m}$, respectively. When metal exhibits low loss, satisfying the condition $|{\varepsilon_m^{\prime}} |\gg |{{\varepsilon_d}} |$, ${L_{SPPs}}$ can be approximated as ${L_{SPPs}} \approx {\lambda _0}\frac{{{{({\varepsilon_m^{\prime}} )}^2}}}{2\pi \varepsilon _m^{\prime\prime}}$.

To evaluate the loss of a noble metal in plasmonic applications, dimensionless quality factors are defined for both localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) and surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) as [31]

$$\begin{array}{c} {Q_{LSPR}} = - \varepsilon^{\prime} / \varepsilon^{\prime\prime}, \\ Q_{SPP} = \varepsilon^{{\prime}{2}}/\varepsilon ^{\prime\prime}. \end{array}$$
Higher quality factors are often correlated with sharper resonances and the stronger local field enhance in plasmonic applications. We plot these quantities to evaluate our Ag film quality.

C. Parametric optical constant model

The parametric model (PM) developed by Johs et. al. has been used to fit optical dielectric constants over a broad spectral region with improved accuracy [25]. In this work, Psemi-M0 model, a generalized PM provided in WVASE32 software, is used to describe the interband transition around 4 eV. A representative, asymmetric function for ${\varepsilon _2}$ is plotted in Fig. 4 and the parameters in this model are defined as follows:

  • A, E0, B = Amplitude, center-energy position, and broadening.
  • WR = Endpoint position relative to the center-energy position (E0). It changes the spectral width on the right side of the central energy.
  • PR = Horizontal position of the right control point relative to the center-energy position (E0) and the endpoint.
  • AR = Relative magnitude of the right control point (compared to the A)
  • O2R = Coefficient for the 2nd order terms in the polynomials on the right side of the oscillator. It provides additional flexibility to the function.

 

Fig. 4. Representative functions of the Psemi-M0 oscillators are plotted to show how the parameters change the functions in panels (a-d).

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D. Optical dielectric function of epitaxial silver film from 1 to 4.2 eV

In the energy range from 1 to 3.8 eV, Palik’s optical constants show the highest ${\varepsilon _2}$ values among the literature values represented in Fig. 5. For JC’s data, large uncertainties in the optical constants (i.e., up to 40%) exist. We note that ${\varepsilon _2}$ values in Wu’s optical constants are lower than other measurements because the highest quality films were measured. The comparison between our current work and those from Yang and McPeak’s results will be discussed further in Appendix D.

 

Fig. 5. (a) Negative real part and (b) imaginary part of dielectric function of epitaxial 300 nm Ag from 1 to 4.2 eV (red). Data from Palik’s Handbook of optical constants [10] (green), JC [11] (gray), Wu et al. [4] (orange), Yang et al. [16] (blue), and McPeak et al. [17] (purple) are shown for comparison. The gray shaded curve represents the uncertainties in the JC data and the fitting residues for the epitaxial Ag film are plotted below (a,b) for our measurements. The fitting yields higher errors in the interband transition region. The inset of (a) shows $-{\varepsilon _1}$ near 3.8 eV in linear scale, where the transition from negative to positive values concurs at the interband transition.

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E. Kramers-Kronig consistency

 

Fig. 6. Real (blue) and imaginary (green) part of optical dielectric function of epitaxial Ag film from ellipsometry measurement are shown together with a Kramers-Kronig (K-K) consistent fit (red). The inset is plotted in linear scale from 3.6 to 4.2 eV to emphasize K-K consistency near the interband transition.

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F. Optical performance of epitaxial silver film

In a broad spectral range from 0.18 to 3.6 eV, the calculated LSPP and Q-factors in Fig. 7 demonstrate better optical performances of plasmonic structures based on our epitaxial Ag than those based on the optical constants reported by Palik and Yang. In the range of 1.24 to 3 eV, Wu’s measurement shows the best optical performances due to the highest quality of film. McPeak’s measurements suggest better optical performances than those from Yang’s even though both studies were performed on template-stripped Ag film. It could be due to better vacuum condition (∼ 10−8 mbar) in McPeak’s work compared to Yang’s work (∼ 10−6 mbar) during film deposition processes, or different growth rates that result in different grains. In this higher energy range, our results are comparable to those from McPeak within error bars.

 

Fig. 7. Calculated SPP lengths (LSPP) and the quality factors for localized surface plasmon resonances (QLSPR) and surface plasmon polaritons (QSPP) in the (a) infrared and (b) visible spectral ranges, respectively.

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Funding

National Science Foundation (DMR-1808042); Welch Foundation (F-1662, F-1802); Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (105-2112-M-007-011-MY3, 105-2633-M-007-003); Air Force Office of Scientific Research (FA9550-15RYCOR162, FA9950-15RYCOR159).

Acknowledgments

The collaboration between National Tsing-Hua University and The University of Texas at Austin is facilitated by the Global Networking Talent 3.0 Program, Ministry of Education in Taiwan. We would like to thank Tom Tiwald at J. A. Woollam for help in analysis of ellipsometry measurements.

Disclosures

The authors declare no competing interests.

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References

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  1. J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S. H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 3988–3992 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).
  11. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  12. W. S. M. Werner, K. Glantschnig, and C. Ambrosch-Draxl, “Optical Constants and Inelastic Electron-Scattering Data for 17 Elemental Metals,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38(4), 1013–1092 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, K. Wilmers, N. Esser, W. Richter, and M. J. G. Lee, “Optical properties of copper and silver in the energy range 2.5-9.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115111 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. D. Rakic, A. B. Djurisic, J. M. Elazar, and M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37(22), 5271–5283 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Babar and J. H. Weaver, “Optical constants of Cu, Ag, and Au revisited,” Appl. Opt. 54(3), 477–481 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Jiang, S. Pillai, and M. A. Green, “Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30605 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. Reddy, U. Guler, K. Chaudhuri, A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Single Crystalline and Polycrystalline Silver Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1083–1091 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, M. Trzcinski, and T. Szoplik, “Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 349–356 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  22. F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. G. Tompkins and E. A. Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry (Springer, 2005).
  25. B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. H. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, and J. D. Benson, “Development of a parametric optical constant model for Hg1−xCdxTe for control of composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry during MBE growth,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 137–142 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics : Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
  27. P. B. Allen, “Electron-Phonon Effects in the Infrared Properties of Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 3(2), 305–320 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  28. G. R. Parkins, W. E. Lawrence, and R. W. Christy, “Intraband optical conductivity σ(ω,T) of Cu, Ag, and Au: Contribution from electron-electron scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 23(12), 6408–6416 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. Liu, M. Pelton, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Reduced damping of surface plasmons at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035418 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  30. J. Trollmann and A. Pucci, “Infrared Dielectric Function of Gold Films in Relation to Their Morphology,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(27), 15011–15018 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Reddy, U. Guler, K. Chaudhuri, A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Single Crystalline and Polycrystalline Silver Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1083–1091 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, M. Trzcinski, and T. Szoplik, “Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 349–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Y. Jiang, S. Pillai, and M. A. Green, “Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30605 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. Babar and J. H. Weaver, “Optical constants of Cu, Ag, and Au revisited,” Appl. Opt. 54(3), 477–481 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Trollmann and A. Pucci, “Infrared Dielectric Function of Gold Films in Relation to Their Morphology,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(27), 15011–15018 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S. H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 3988–3992 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

M. Liu, M. Pelton, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Reduced damping of surface plasmons at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035418 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. S. M. Werner, K. Glantschnig, and C. Ambrosch-Draxl, “Optical Constants and Inelastic Electron-Scattering Data for 17 Elemental Metals,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38(4), 1013–1092 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, K. Wilmers, N. Esser, W. Richter, and M. J. G. Lee, “Optical properties of copper and silver in the energy range 2.5-9.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115111 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

A. D. Rakic, A. B. Djurisic, J. M. Elazar, and M. L. Majewski, “Optical properties of metallic films for vertical-cavity optoelectronic devices,” Appl. Opt. 37(22), 5271–5283 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. H. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, and J. D. Benson, “Development of a parametric optical constant model for Hg1−xCdxTe for control of composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry during MBE growth,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 137–142 (1998).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

G. R. Parkins, W. E. Lawrence, and R. W. Christy, “Intraband optical conductivity σ(ω,T) of Cu, Ag, and Au: Contribution from electron-electron scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 23(12), 6408–6416 (1981).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

P. B. Allen, “Electron-Phonon Effects in the Infrared Properties of Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 3(2), 305–320 (1971).
[Crossref]

Ahn, H.

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Allen, P. B.

P. B. Allen, “Electron-Phonon Effects in the Infrared Properties of Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 3(2), 305–320 (1971).
[Crossref]

Alu, A.

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ambrosch-Draxl, C.

W. S. M. Werner, K. Glantschnig, and C. Ambrosch-Draxl, “Optical Constants and Inelastic Electron-Scattering Data for 17 Elemental Metals,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38(4), 1013–1092 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ambwani, P.

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S. H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 3988–3992 (2012).
[Crossref]

Arnold, M. D.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arwin, H.

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Babar, S.

Benson, J. D.

B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. H. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, and J. D. Benson, “Development of a parametric optical constant model for Hg1−xCdxTe for control of composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry during MBE growth,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 137–142 (1998).
[Crossref]

Blaber, M. G.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boltasseva, A.

H. Reddy, U. Guler, K. Chaudhuri, A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Single Crystalline and Polycrystalline Silver Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1083–1091 (2017).
[Crossref]

Boreman, G. D.

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. W.

C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chang, W. H.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. M.

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chaudhuri, K.

H. Reddy, U. Guler, K. Chaudhuri, A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Single Crystalline and Polycrystalline Silver Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1083–1091 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. Y.

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. J.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. L.

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cheng, F.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C. Y.

C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
[Crossref]

Christy, R. W.

G. R. Parkins, W. E. Lawrence, and R. W. Christy, “Intraband optical conductivity σ(ω,T) of Cu, Ag, and Au: Contribution from electron-electron scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 23(12), 6408–6416 (1981).
[Crossref]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Ciesielski, A.

A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, M. Trzcinski, and T. Szoplik, “Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 349–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cobley, C. M.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cornfeld, A.

B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. H. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, and J. D. Benson, “Development of a parametric optical constant model for Hg1−xCdxTe for control of composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry during MBE growth,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 137–142 (1998).
[Crossref]

D’Archangel, J.

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dabidian, N.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dinan, J. H.

B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. H. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, and J. D. Benson, “Development of a parametric optical constant model for Hg1−xCdxTe for control of composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry during MBE growth,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 137–142 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Djurisic, A. B.

Dutta, A.

H. Reddy, U. Guler, K. Chaudhuri, A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Single Crystalline and Polycrystalline Silver Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1083–1091 (2017).
[Crossref]

Elazar, J. M.

Esser, N.

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, K. Wilmers, N. Esser, W. Richter, and M. J. G. Lee, “Optical properties of copper and silver in the energy range 2.5-9.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Estakhri, N. M.

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ford, M. J.

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ghosh, G.

E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

Glantschnig, K.

W. S. M. Werner, K. Glantschnig, and C. Ambrosch-Draxl, “Optical Constants and Inelastic Electron-Scattering Data for 17 Elemental Metals,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38(4), 1013–1092 (2009).
[Crossref]

Green, M. A.

Y. Jiang, S. Pillai, and M. A. Green, “Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30605 (2016).
[Crossref]

Guler, U.

H. Reddy, U. Guler, K. Chaudhuri, A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Single Crystalline and Polycrystalline Silver Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1083–1091 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

M. Liu, M. Pelton, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Reduced damping of surface plasmons at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035418 (2009).
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F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Herrmann, T.

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, K. Wilmers, N. Esser, W. Richter, and M. J. G. Lee, “Optical properties of copper and silver in the energy range 2.5-9.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115111 (2001).
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Hohenau, A.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
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C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Iotti, S.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
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H. G. Tompkins and E. A. Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry (Springer, 2005).

Jayanti, S. V.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
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Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, S. Pillai, and M. A. Green, “Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30605 (2016).
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P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
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B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. H. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, and J. D. Benson, “Development of a parametric optical constant model for Hg1−xCdxTe for control of composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry during MBE growth,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 137–142 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kildishev, A. V.

H. Reddy, U. Guler, K. Chaudhuri, A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Single Crystalline and Polycrystalline Silver Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1083–1091 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
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H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kress, S. J. P.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
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G. R. Parkins, W. E. Lawrence, and R. W. Christy, “Intraband optical conductivity σ(ω,T) of Cu, Ag, and Au: Contribution from electron-electron scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 23(12), 6408–6416 (1981).
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Lee, C. J.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. J. G.

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, K. Wilmers, N. Esser, W. Richter, and M. J. G. Lee, “Optical properties of copper and silver in the energy range 2.5-9.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Leighton, C.

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S. H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 3988–3992 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, B. H.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
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Li, W.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, F. C.

C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
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Lindquist, N. C.

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S. H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 3988–3992 (2012).
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P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
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M. Liu, M. Pelton, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Reduced damping of surface plasmons at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035418 (2009).
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Liu, X. X.

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
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Lu, M. Y.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. J.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
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Manno, M.

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S. H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 3988–3992 (2012).
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McPeak, K. M.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
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Meyer, S.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
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M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
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Nagpal, P.

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S. H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 3988–3992 (2012).
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P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[Crossref]

Norris, D. J.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S. H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 3988–3992 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
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T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
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Oh, S. H.

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S. H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 3988–3992 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[Crossref]

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E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

Park, J. H.

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S. H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 3988–3992 (2012).
[Crossref]

Parkins, G. R.

G. R. Parkins, W. E. Lawrence, and R. W. Christy, “Intraband optical conductivity σ(ω,T) of Cu, Ag, and Au: Contribution from electron-electron scattering,” Phys. Rev. B 23(12), 6408–6416 (1981).
[Crossref]

Pelton, M.

M. Liu, M. Pelton, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Reduced damping of surface plasmons at low temperatures,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035418 (2009).
[Crossref]

Perng, T. P.

C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pillai, S.

Y. Jiang, S. Pillai, and M. A. Green, “Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30605 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pribil, G. K.

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pucci, A.

J. Trollmann and A. Pucci, “Infrared Dielectric Function of Gold Films in Relation to Their Morphology,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(27), 15011–15018 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qin, D.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qiu, X.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rakic, A. D.

Raschke, M. B.

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Reddy, H.

H. Reddy, U. Guler, K. Chaudhuri, A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Single Crystalline and Polycrystalline Silver Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1083–1091 (2017).
[Crossref]

Richter, W.

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, K. Wilmers, N. Esser, W. Richter, and M. J. G. Lee, “Optical properties of copper and silver in the energy range 2.5-9.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rogers, M.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rossinelli, A.

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rycenga, M.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sanders, C. E.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

H. Reddy, U. Guler, K. Chaudhuri, A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Single Crystalline and Polycrystalline Silver Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1083–1091 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shih, C. K.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shih, C.-K.

F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shvets, G.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Skowronski, L.

A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, M. Trzcinski, and T. Szoplik, “Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 349–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Stahrenberg, K.

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, K. Wilmers, N. Esser, W. Richter, and M. J. G. Lee, “Optical properties of copper and silver in the energy range 2.5-9.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Su, C. Y.

C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Su, P. H.

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

Su, P.-H.

F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sundheimer, M. L.

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Szoplik, T.

A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, M. Trzcinski, and T. Szoplik, “Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 349–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tompkins, H. G.

H. G. Tompkins and E. A. Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry (Springer, 2005).

Trollmann, J.

J. Trollmann and A. Pucci, “Infrared Dielectric Function of Gold Films in Relation to Their Morphology,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(27), 15011–15018 (2014).
[Crossref]

Trzcinski, M.

A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, M. Trzcinski, and T. Szoplik, “Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 349–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tucker, E.

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wagner, D.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weaver, J. H.

Werner, W. S. M.

W. S. M. Werner, K. Glantschnig, and C. Ambrosch-Draxl, “Optical Constants and Inelastic Electron-Scattering Data for 17 Elemental Metals,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38(4), 1013–1092 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wilmers, K.

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, K. Wilmers, N. Esser, W. Richter, and M. J. G. Lee, “Optical properties of copper and silver in the energy range 2.5-9.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115111 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wormeester, H.

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xia, Y.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. U.

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yen, T. J.

C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zeng, J.

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (2)

C. W. Chang, F. C. Lin, C. Y. Chiu, C. Y. Su, J. S. Huang, T. P. Perng, and T. J. Yen, “HNO3-assisted polyol synthesis of ultralarge single-crystalline Ag microplates and their far propagation length of surface plasmon polariton,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(14), 11791–11798 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, C. J. Lee, J. Choi, C. Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, H. Zhang, S. Gwo, W. H. Chang, X. Li, and C. K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Optically Thick, Single Crystalline Silver Films for Plasmonics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(3), 3189–3195 (2019).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

F. Cheng, P.-H. Su, J. Choi, S. Gwo, X. Li, and C.-K. Shih, “Epitaxial Growth of Atomically Smooth Aluminum on Silicon and Its Intrinsic Optical Properties,” ACS Nano 10(11), 9852–9860 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (2)

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic Films Can Easily Be Better: Rules and Recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Reddy, U. Guler, K. Chaudhuri, A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Temperature-Dependent Optical Properties of Single Crystalline and Polycrystalline Silver Thin Films,” ACS Photonics 4(5), 1083–1091 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

J. H. Park, P. Ambwani, M. Manno, N. C. Lindquist, P. Nagpal, S. H. Oh, C. Leighton, and D. J. Norris, “Single-crystalline silver films for plasmonics,” Adv. Mater. 24(29), 3988–3992 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, C. Zhang, N. M. Estakhri, Y. Zhao, J. Kim, M. Zhang, X. X. Liu, G. K. Pribil, A. Alu, C. K. Shih, and X. Li, “Intrinsic optical properties and enhanced plasmonic response of epitaxial silver,” Adv. Mater. 26(35), 6106–6110 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

A. Ciesielski, L. Skowronski, M. Trzcinski, and T. Szoplik, “Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 349–356 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. Rycenga, C. M. Cobley, J. Zeng, W. Li, C. H. Moran, Q. Zhang, D. Qin, and Y. Xia, “Controlling the synthesis and assembly of silver nanostructures for plasmonic applications,” Chem. Rev. 111(6), 3669–3712 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

J. Trollmann and A. Pucci, “Infrared Dielectric Function of Gold Films in Relation to Their Morphology,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(27), 15011–15018 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

W. S. M. Werner, K. Glantschnig, and C. Ambrosch-Draxl, “Optical Constants and Inelastic Electron-Scattering Data for 17 Elemental Metals,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 38(4), 1013–1092 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

M. G. Blaber, M. D. Arnold, and M. J. Ford, “A review of the optical properties of alloys and intermetallics for plasmonics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(14), 143201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

C. Y. Wang, H. Y. Chen, L. Sun, W. L. Chen, Y. M. Chang, H. Ahn, X. Li, and S. Gwo, “Giant colloidal silver crystals for low-loss linear and nonlinear plasmonics,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7734 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (6)

K. Stahrenberg, T. Herrmann, K. Wilmers, N. Esser, W. Richter, and M. J. G. Lee, “Optical properties of copper and silver in the energy range 2.5-9.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 64(11), 115111 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. U. Yang, J. D’Archangel, M. L. Sundheimer, E. Tucker, G. D. Boreman, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical dielectric function of silver,” Phys. Rev. B 91(23), 235137 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(25), 257403 (2005).
[Crossref]

Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

T. W. H. Oates, H. Wormeester, and H. Arwin, “Characterization of plasmonic effects in thin films and metamaterials using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 86(11-12), 328–376 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

L. Sun, C. Zhang, C. Y. Wang, P. H. Su, M. Zhang, S. Gwo, C. K. Shih, X. Li, and Y. Wu, “Enhancement of Plasmonic Performance in Epitaxial Silver at Low Temperature,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8917 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Jiang, S. Pillai, and M. A. Green, “Realistic Silver Optical Constants for Plasmonics,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30605 (2016).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

P. Nagpal, N. C. Lindquist, S. H. Oh, and D. J. Norris, “Ultrasmooth patterned metals for plasmonics and metamaterials,” Science 325(5940), 594–597 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Lu, J. Kim, H. Y. Chen, C. Wu, N. Dabidian, C. E. Sanders, C. Y. Wang, M. Y. Lu, B. H. Li, X. Qiu, W. H. Chang, L. J. Chen, G. Shvets, C. K. Shih, and S. Gwo, “Plasmonic nanolaser using epitaxially grown silver film,” Science 337(6093), 450–453 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

B. Johs, C. M. Herzinger, J. H. Dinan, A. Cornfeld, and J. D. Benson, “Development of a parametric optical constant model for Hg1−xCdxTe for control of composition by spectroscopic ellipsometry during MBE growth,” Thin Solid Films 313-314, 137–142 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics : Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

H. G. Tompkins and E. A. Irene, Handbook of Ellipsometry (Springer, 2005).

E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
» Data File 1       Optical dielectric constant of epitaxial silver film

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) AFM image of the epitaxially grown 300 nm Ag film (about 2 nm Al2O3 capping layer). (b) XRD 2$\theta $ pattern of the epitaxially grown Ag films with different thickness (100, 150, and 300 nm). The Ag(111) peak of 300 nm Ag film shows a FWHM of ∼ 0.8°. (c) Layered structure of our thick Ag film sample with a self-oxidized cap.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Negative real part and (b) imaginary part of dielectric function of epitaxial Ag film from 0.18 to 1 eV (red). Data from Ref. [10,11,16,17] are shown together with gray shaded curve representing the uncertainties in the JC data for comparison. The fitting residues for the epitaxial Ag film are plotted below (a,b). See Data File 1 for optical constants.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Plot (a)-(c) show the calculated surface plasmon propagation lengths (LSPP) and the quality factors for localized surface plasmon resonances (QLSPR) and surface plasmon polaritons (QSPP) in the infrared spectral ranges from this work and literatures [10,16].
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Representative functions of the Psemi-M0 oscillators are plotted to show how the parameters change the functions in panels (a-d).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Negative real part and (b) imaginary part of dielectric function of epitaxial 300 nm Ag from 1 to 4.2 eV (red). Data from Palik’s Handbook of optical constants [10] (green), JC [11] (gray), Wu et al. [4] (orange), Yang et al. [16] (blue), and McPeak et al. [17] (purple) are shown for comparison. The gray shaded curve represents the uncertainties in the JC data and the fitting residues for the epitaxial Ag film are plotted below (a,b) for our measurements. The fitting yields higher errors in the interband transition region. The inset of (a) shows $-{\varepsilon _1}$ near 3.8 eV in linear scale, where the transition from negative to positive values concurs at the interband transition.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Real (blue) and imaginary (green) part of optical dielectric function of epitaxial Ag film from ellipsometry measurement are shown together with a Kramers-Kronig (K-K) consistent fit (red). The inset is plotted in linear scale from 3.6 to 4.2 eV to emphasize K-K consistency near the interband transition.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Calculated SPP lengths (LSPP) and the quality factors for localized surface plasmon resonances (QLSPR) and surface plasmon polaritons (QSPP) in the (a) infrared and (b) visible spectral ranges, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The calculated surface plasmon propagation lengths (LSPP) are shown along with the quality factors for localized surface plasmon resonances (QLSPR) and surface plasmon polaritons (QSPP) based on the dielectric constants from this work (red) and literaturesa, b at ultraviolet (370 nm), visible (650 nm), near-infrared (1000 nm), telecommunication (1550 nm), and infrared (7 µm) wavelengths.

Equations (4)

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ε ( ω ) = ε ω p 2 ω ( ω + i / τ ) ,
k S P P s = ω c ε m ε d ε m + ε d
L S P P s = 1 2 k S P P s = λ 0 ( ε m ) 2 2 π ε m ( ε m + ε d ε m ε d ) 3 2
Q L S P R = ε / ε , Q S P P = ε 2 / ε .

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