Abstract

We used a negative-tone e-beam resist (N-ER) to perform direct laser writing lithography based on a single-photon absorption process with a 405-nm laser source. The linewidth of the N-ER reached 150 nm, which is over three times thinner than that of a conventional photoresist. To optimize the process, the linewidth, lithographic contrast, and aspect ratio of the N-ER were investigated with respect to the dose and baking temperature. We were able to achieve a lithographic contrast of 4.8 and a maximum aspect ratio of 1.43, thereby confirming the superior resolution of the N-ER.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

The drive for smaller and faster industrial technologies has produced an increasing demand for fabrication techniques that allow the production of nanoscale features [15]. Electron beam (e-beam) lithography has been widely used in the field of nanofabrication owing to its high resolution and maskless processes, which are based on direct writing [6,7]. However, e-beam lithography is relatively costly and requires a high-vacuum environment. Sometimes, it may also cause sample damage, particularly if an e-beam with a large kinetic energy is used [8,9]. The direct laser writing (DLW) technique, based on photochemical processes, is a simple, low-cost, mask-free, and path-directed method which can provide large-area structures with micrometer resolution [1012]. Conversely, achieving a sub-micrometer resolution by conventional DLW techniques is more challenging than by e-beam lithography [13]. Recently, novel techniques such as the two-photon absorption (TPA) [1417], stimulated emission depletion (STED) [1820], and photothermal effects have been introduced to achieve nanoscale resolution [2123]. The TPA technique requires femtosecond laser light sources and can hardly produce high-aspect-ratio patterns. Conversely, the STED technique uses two laser sources with different wavelengths, available on limited photo-resists. The photothermal effect is based on single-photon absorption; however, the removal of the crosslinked polymers after the lithographic process is difficult, making this process impractical for various applications [21,22].

Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a positive-tone e-beam resist that has been widely used in nanoscale lithography for fabricating a variety of high-resolution structures [24,25]. In contrast, ma-N 2400 (Micro Resist Technology GmbH) has been developed as an excellent negative e-beam resist (N-ER), capable of fabricating structures down to 50 nm resolution [26,27]. The ma-N 2400 series is composed of a phenolic resin (Novolak) as a polymeric binder and a bisazide as a photoactive compound (PAC). When exposed by the e-beam, the azide groups (R-N3) release nitrogen (N2), and the reactive nitrenes (R-N:) initiate the cross-linking of the resist [28,29]. Until now, the ma-N 2400 series has not been used as a photoresist in DLW lithography with sub-micrometer resolution, whereas the use under deep-ultraviolet illumination has been implied by the manufacturer [30].

In this work, we used the negative-tone e-beam resist as a photo-resist in the direct-laser writing lithography system, by which we were able to produce high-resolution metal nano-patterns. We investigated the linewidth and height of the resist after the developing processes as a function of the exposed dose and the baking temperature. Finally, we compared the achieved lithographic contrast and aspect ratio with those of conventional photoresists.

2. Experimental results and discussion

Direct laser writing lithography began with the spin coating of the N-ER (ma-N 2405) on a silicon substrate at 3000 rpm for 60 s. The thickness of N-ER was 750 nm. This was followed by annealing at the baking temperature of Tbake = 70–150 °C for 90 s, as shown in Fig. 1(a). For direct laser writing, we used a microscope equipped with galvanometer scanning mirrors (Thorlabs, Inc.) and objective lens (Olympus, ×50, NA = 0.8). After exposure to light, the sample was developed using ma-D 525 (typically for 70–90 s), which is the developing solution used for conventional e-beam lithography processes with the N-ER. The metal pattern can be formed by conventional lift-off or etching processes, followed by the removal of the N-ER using an acetone solution. For the light source, we used a laser diode (Thorlabs, Inc.) at 405 nm with a typical power range of 3–200 µW, which is an affordable and cost-effective source available in the market. A relatively high intensity (more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of the photo-resists) is required because the N-ER is less sensitive to near-UV light exposure, as shown in the absorbance data of Fig. 1(b). Therefore, the N-ER is advantageous because it is less sensitive to ambient light and allows stable operation under laser power variations. In this setup, the N-ER was illuminated using a diffraction-limited laser focal spot with a scanning speed of 50 µm/s and a step size of 50 nm. The full width at half maximum of the focused spot was 310 nm; in other words, the radius of the spot size was 260 nm. In general, we scanned the line twice to generate a single narrow line pattern.

 

Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the direct laser writing process. (b) Absorbance spectrum for ma-N 2405. (inset) Semi-logarithmic plot of absorbance. (c) AFM image of array patterns fabricated on Au films with periodicities of 1 µm (top) and 600 nm (bottom).

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In Fig. 1(c), we show typical Au metal patterns fabricated by direct laser writing followed by the developing and etching processes under a dose condition of D = 3.2 J/cm2. Here, D denotes the effective dose with a factor of two increase considering that we scanned twice to generate the single line pattern. The baking temperature was 90 °C. We fabricated one-dimensional array patterns on a gold film with a thickness of 50 nm. After the development process, we used reactive ion etching (RIE) with argon gas for 70 s at a forward power of 350 W and a chamber pressure of 50 mTorr. We demonstrate the atomic force microscope (AFM) images of two arrays with different periodicities (1 µm, top, and 600 nm, bottom) in Fig. 1(c). A linewidth of less than 300 nm was achieved successfully, whereas the rough edge morphology appeared because we used an etching process with Ar bombardment. In other words, the line-edge roughness (LER) of the metal pattern reached 51 nm, whereas that of N-ER was less than 20 nm in general as will be shown later [31]. As a result, we found our DLW technique very useful in the fabrication of optical and electronics devices such as the metamaterials with nanogaps and the field-effective transistors with a narrow channel width [3234].

To find the optimal condition, we investigated the linewidth and height of the N-ER after the developing processes as a function of the exposed dose. Figure 2(a) shows a series of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the N-ER for different dose conditions (D = 7.5–15 J/cm2). We used a silicon substrate; therefore, we needed higher doses (about twice) compared to those used in Fig. 1(c), in which laser lithography was performed on the Au film. We clearly observed narrowing of the linewidth as we decreased the exposed dose. The linewidth increased up to 4 µm in the high-dose condition, but decreased to as low as 150 nm, as shown in the inset of Fig. 2(a), for D = 7.5 J/cm2. In other words, we could achieve a linewidth close to or even smaller than the diffraction limit. This is a resolution that is not easily accessible by conventional photoresists with both positive and negative tones. In addition, the LER of N-ER was 14 nm which is very small compared to the linewidth of patterns. In Fig. 2(b), we plotted the linewidth as a function of the dose, extracted from the SEM images (red squares), and compared it with the results obtained by the representative positive photoresist (P-PR) and negative photoresist (N-PR). The P-PR (GXR 601) and N-PR (ma-N 1410) delivered the thinnest linewidths (typically of 550 nm), which were still more than three times larger than the linewidths achieved by the N-ER (and also much more sensitive to light exposure). We note that the N-ER has been developed for the e-beam lithography capable of producing linewidths of less than 50-nm [27]; this enabled us to achieve the higher resolution in DLW than the photoresist cases. Although, as aforementioned [21,22], the photothermal effects enabled resolutions down to 50 nm based on the single-photon absorption on the photoresist, our technique enabled the lift-off process in addition to chemical and physical etching, thereby boosting the versatility for fabricating both positive and negative structures.

 

Fig. 2. (a) SEM images of the N-ER after the developing processes with different doses (D = 15–7.5 J/cm2 from left to right). (b) Linewidth versus dose for different e-beam and photo-resists. P-PR (black triangles), N-PR (blue circles), and N-ER (red squares) refer to GXR 601, ma-N 1410, and ma-N 2405, respectively.

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Next, we evaluated the height of the patterned N-ER (red squares) and N-PR (blue circles) as a function of dose in Fig. 3(a) for the series of results shown in Fig. 2. We extracted the height by taking AFM images of the photo- and e-beam resists. For both resists, the height decreased together with the linewidth as we reduced the exposed dose. In other words, in high-intensity conditions, the height of the N-ER was almost the same as the initial N-ER film thickness (750 nm). However, the thickness decreased to as low as 80 nm for D = 7.5 J/cm2, that is when the linewidth was only 150 nm. This highlights the existence of a trade-off between the linewidth and height of the resist pattern. From the slope of the height-dose curve in Fig. 3(a) we evaluated a lithographic contrast (γ) of 4.8 [35,36], which was approximately 3.4 times higher than that achieved by the N-PR (1.4). We noted that the enhanced lithographic contrast of the N-ER relative to the N-PR is consistent with the enhanced resolution of the former; however, the mechanisms on the photo-induced polymerization responsible for the improved contrast necessitates future investigation. Conversely, sensitivity is defined by the dose required for achieving a thickness of 50%. The calculation yielded 9.3 J/cm2 and 120 mJ/cm2 for the N-ER and N-PR, respectively. This implies that the N-ER requires approximately 80 times higher doses compared to the N-PR, as mentioned previously.

 

Fig. 3. (a) Resist height versus dose for the two different negative resists of N-PR (blue circles) and N-ER (red squares). The solid lines represent sigmoidal interpolations of the data. (b) Aspect ratio as a function of dose for N-PR and N-ER.

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The optimal condition, potentially useful for typical optical and electronic device fabrication, can be found at D = 9.9 J/cm2, which corresponds to a linewidth of 330 nm and a height of 470 nm. In this condition, the pattern has the largest aspect ratio (1.4), as illustrated in Fig. 3(b) (red squares). We also note that the highest aspect ratio in the N-ER is approximately 2.5 times higher than that in the N-PR (0.6; blue circles).

Finally, we evaluated the linewidth and height of the N-ER resist as a function of the baking temperature. We varied Tbake from 70 °C to 150 °C as shown in Fig. 4. The developing times also varied from 70 s (for 70 °C) to 90 s (for 150 °C). The data for Tbake = 90 °C are reported in Figs. 2 and 3. As shown in Fig. 4(a), the linewidth-dose curves did not change noticeably with Tbake from 70 °C to 110 °C, whereas they deviated significantly for Tbake = 150 °C, which yielded linewidths as large as 1.3 µm. In addition, we found a similar tendency of the height to increase from 0 to 750 nm as we increased the dose as shown in Fig. 4(b). The contrast was the highest (∼5.0) for Tbake = 70 °C but decreased to as low as 1.0 for Tbake = 150 °C, as shown in the inset of Fig. 4(b). On the other hand, the aspect ratios for different Tbake (Fig. 4(c)) reached ∼1.4 for both the 90 °C and 110 °C cases. Notably, the aspect ratio for Tbake = 70 °C was relatively low (1.1), even though its contrast was the highest (Fig. 4(b)). Therefore, we identified 90 °C as the optimal baking condition, which coincides with the temperature suggested for the e-beam lithography procedure.

 

Fig. 4. (a) Linewidth, (b) height, and (c) aspect ratio as a function of dose for different baking temperatures (70–150 °C). The inset in (b) shows the contrast as a function of the baking temperature.

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3. Conclusion

We used a negative-tone e-beam resist for direct laser writing based on a simple single-photon absorption process. Using a laser source at a wavelength of 405 nm, we achieved a linewidth of less than 300 nm on the metal film in low-dose condition. To find the optimal condition, the linewidth and height of the resist after the developing processes were studied as a function of the exposed dose. The linewidth of the N-ER patterns could be as low as 150 nm, that is 3.7 times thinner than those achievable by the N-PR. Conversely, this required a laser power more than 80 times that required for the N-PR. The lithographic contrast of the N-ER reached 4.8 (with a maximum aspect ratio of 1.43) as compared to 1.4 of the N-PR, confirming the superior resolution achievable by the N-ER. Finally, the linewidth, contrast, and aspect ratio of the N-ER were studied as a function of the baking temperature, and an optimal temperature of 90 °C was determined.

Funding

National Research Foundation of Korea (2020R1A2C1005735); Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (20184030202220).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

References

1. E. Bernhardi, “Bragg-grating-based rare-earth-ion-doped channel waveguide lasers and their applications,” Dissertation, University of Twente (2012).

2. A. Pimpin and W. Srituravanich, “Reviews on micro- and nanolithography techniques and their applications,” Eng. J. 16(1), 37–56 (2012). [CrossRef]  

3. Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional deep sub-diffraction optical beam lithography with 9 nm feature size,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2061 (2013). [CrossRef]  

4. D. Ji, T. Li, and H. Fuchs, “Nanosphere Lithography for Sub-10-nm Nanogap Electrodes,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 3(1), 1600348 (2017). [CrossRef]  

5. J. Kim, K. Han, and J. W. Hahn, “Selective dual-band metamaterial perfect absorber for infrared stealth technology,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6740 (2017). [CrossRef]  

6. M. S. M. Saifullah, T. Ondarçuhu, D. K. Koltsov, C. Joachim, and M. E. Welland, “A reliable scheme for fabricating sub-5 nm co-planar junctions for single-molecule electronics,” Nanotechnology 13(5), 659–662 (2002). [CrossRef]  

7. M. Altissimo, “E-beam lithography for micro-/nanofabrication,” Biomicrofluidics 4(2), 026503 (2010). [CrossRef]  

8. T. Fink, D. D. Smith, and W. D. Braddock, “Electron-beam-induced damage study in GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures as determined by magnetotransport characterization,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 37(6), 1422–1425 (1990). [CrossRef]  

9. R. F. Egerton, P. Li, and M. Malac, “Radiation damage in the TEM and SEM,” Micron 35(6), 399–409 (2004). [CrossRef]  

10. C. Hao-Wen, “Development of blue laser direct-write lithography system,” Int. J. Innov. Technol. Manag. 2(1), 63 (2012).

11. M. Z. Mohammed, A. H. I. Mourad, and S. A. Khashan, “Maskless Lithography Using Negative Photoresist Material: Impact of UV Laser Intensity on the Cured Line Width,” Lasers Manuf. Mater. Process. 5(2), 133–142 (2018). [CrossRef]  

12. S. Srikanth, S. Dudala, S. Raut, S. K. Dubey, I. Ishii, A. Javed, and S. G. Goel, “Optimization and Characterization of Direct UV Laser Writing System for Microscale Applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 30(9), 095003 (2020). [CrossRef]  

13. J. Fischer and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional optical laser lithography beyond the diffraction limit,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 22–44 (2013). [CrossRef]  

14. A. Žukauskas, I. Matulaitiene, D. Paipulas, G. Niaura, M. Malinauskas, and R. Gadonas, “Tuning the refractive index in 3D direct laser writing lithography: Towards GRIN microoptics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 706–712 (2015). [CrossRef]  

15. M. G. Guney and G. K. Fedder, “Estimation of line dimensions in 3D direct laser writing lithography,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26(10), 105011 (2016). [CrossRef]  

16. N. Tsutsumi, J. Hirota, K. Kinashi, and W. Sakai, “Direct laser writing for micro-optical devices using a negative photoresist,” Opt. Express 25(25), 31539–31551 (2017). [CrossRef]  

17. H. Ni, G. Yuan, L. Sun, N. Chang, D. Zhang, R. Chen, L. Jiang, H. Chen, Z. Gu, and X. Zhao, “Large-scale high-numerical-aperture super-oscillatory lens fabricated by direct laser writing lithography,” RSC Adv. 8(36), 20117–20123 (2018). [CrossRef]  

18. J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010). [CrossRef]  

19. P. Müller, R. Müller, L. Hammer, C. Barner-Kowollik, M. Wegener, and E. Blasco, “STED-Inspired Laser Lithography Based on Photoswitchable Spirothiopyran Moieties,” Chem. Mater. 31(6), 1966–1972 (2019). [CrossRef]  

20. X. He, T. Li, J. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “STED direct laser writing of 45 nm Width Nanowire,” Micromachines 10(11), 726 (2019). [CrossRef]  

21. S. Bagheri, K. Weber, T. Gissibl, T. Weiss, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “Fabrication of Square-Centimeter Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays by Femtosecond Direct Laser Writing Lithography: Effects of Collective Excitations on SEIRA Enhancement,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 779–786 (2015). [CrossRef]  

22. Q. C. Tong, D. T. T. Nguyen, M. T. Do, M. H. Luong, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, and N. D. Lai, “Direct laser writing of polymeric nanostructures via optically induced local thermal effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183104 (2016). [CrossRef]  

23. L. Qin, Y. Huang, F. Xia, L. Wang, J. Ning, H. Chen, X. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, Q. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography,” Nano Lett. 20(7), 4916–4923 (2020). [CrossRef]  

24. W. Chen and H. Ahmed, “Fabrication of 5-7 nm wide etched lines in silicon using 100 keV electron-beam lithography and polymethylmethacrylate resist,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(13), 1499–1501 (1993). [CrossRef]  

25. M. A. Bruk, E. N. Zhikharev, A. E. Rogozhin, D. R. Streltsov, V. A. Kalnov, S. N. Averkin, and A. V. Spirin, “Formation of micro- A nd nanostructures with well-rounded profile by new e-beam lithography principle,” Microelectron. Eng. 155(1), 92–96 (2016). [CrossRef]  

26. H. Elsner, H. G. Meyer, A. Voigt, and G. Grüitzner, “Evaluation of ma-N 2400 series DUV photoresist for electron beam exposure,” Microelectron. Eng. 46(1-4), 389–392 (1999). [CrossRef]  

27. H. Elsner and H. G. Meyer, “Nanometer and high aspect ratio patterning by electron beam lithography using a simple DUV negative tone resist,” Microelectron. Eng. 57-58(1), 291–296 (2001). [CrossRef]  

28. D. Roy, P. K. Basu, P. Raghunathan, and S. V. Eswaran, “Photo-induced cross-linking mechanism in azide-novolac negative photoresists: Molecular level investigation using NMR spectroscopy,” Magn. Reson. Chem. 41(9), 671–678 (2003). [CrossRef]  

29. M. M. Blideran, M. Häffner, B. E. Schuster, C. Raisch, H. Weigand, M. Fleischer, H. Peisert, T. Chassé, and D. P. Kern, “Improving etch selectivity and stability of novolak based negative resists by fluorine plasma treatment,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 769–772 (2009). [CrossRef]  

30. ma-N 2400 negative photo resist data sheet (micro resist technology GmbH).

31. D. B. Bonneville, M. A. Méndez-Rosales, H. C. Frankis, L. M. Gonçalves, R. N. Kleiman, and J. D. B. Bradley, “Flexible and low-cost fabrication of optical waveguides by UV laser resist-mask writing,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(4), 1728 (2019). [CrossRef]  

32. S. J. Park, S. H. Cha, G. A. Shin, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensing viruses using terahertz nano-gap metamaterials,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(8), 3551–3558 (2017). [CrossRef]  

33. B. H. Son, H. S. Kim, H. Jeong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Electron beam induced removal of PMMA layer used for graphene transfer,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 18058 (2017). [CrossRef]  

34. H. S. Kim, N. Y. Ha, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Phonon-Polaritons in Lead Halide Perovskite Film Hybridized with THz Metamaterials,” Nano Lett. 20(9), 6690–6696 (2020). [CrossRef]  

35. D. X. Yang, A. Frommhold, X. Xue, R. E. Palmer, and A. P. G. Robinson, “Chemically amplified phenolic fullerene electron beam resist,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(8), 1505–1512 (2014). [CrossRef]  

36. R. Fallica, D. Kazazis, R. Kirchner, A. Voigt, I. Mochi, H. Schift, and Y. Ekinci, “Lithographic performance of ZEP520A and mr-PosEBR resists exposed by electron beam and extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 35(6), 061603 (2017). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. E. Bernhardi, “Bragg-grating-based rare-earth-ion-doped channel waveguide lasers and their applications,” Dissertation, University of Twente (2012).
  2. A. Pimpin and W. Srituravanich, “Reviews on micro- and nanolithography techniques and their applications,” Eng. J. 16(1), 37–56 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional deep sub-diffraction optical beam lithography with 9 nm feature size,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2061 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Ji, T. Li, and H. Fuchs, “Nanosphere Lithography for Sub-10-nm Nanogap Electrodes,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 3(1), 1600348 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Kim, K. Han, and J. W. Hahn, “Selective dual-band metamaterial perfect absorber for infrared stealth technology,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6740 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. S. M. Saifullah, T. Ondarçuhu, D. K. Koltsov, C. Joachim, and M. E. Welland, “A reliable scheme for fabricating sub-5 nm co-planar junctions for single-molecule electronics,” Nanotechnology 13(5), 659–662 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Altissimo, “E-beam lithography for micro-/nanofabrication,” Biomicrofluidics 4(2), 026503 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Fink, D. D. Smith, and W. D. Braddock, “Electron-beam-induced damage study in GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures as determined by magnetotransport characterization,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 37(6), 1422–1425 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  9. R. F. Egerton, P. Li, and M. Malac, “Radiation damage in the TEM and SEM,” Micron 35(6), 399–409 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. Hao-Wen, “Development of blue laser direct-write lithography system,” Int. J. Innov. Technol. Manag. 2(1), 63 (2012).
  11. M. Z. Mohammed, A. H. I. Mourad, and S. A. Khashan, “Maskless Lithography Using Negative Photoresist Material: Impact of UV Laser Intensity on the Cured Line Width,” Lasers Manuf. Mater. Process. 5(2), 133–142 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Srikanth, S. Dudala, S. Raut, S. K. Dubey, I. Ishii, A. Javed, and S. G. Goel, “Optimization and Characterization of Direct UV Laser Writing System for Microscale Applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 30(9), 095003 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Fischer and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional optical laser lithography beyond the diffraction limit,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 22–44 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. Žukauskas, I. Matulaitiene, D. Paipulas, G. Niaura, M. Malinauskas, and R. Gadonas, “Tuning the refractive index in 3D direct laser writing lithography: Towards GRIN microoptics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 706–712 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. G. Guney and G. K. Fedder, “Estimation of line dimensions in 3D direct laser writing lithography,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26(10), 105011 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. N. Tsutsumi, J. Hirota, K. Kinashi, and W. Sakai, “Direct laser writing for micro-optical devices using a negative photoresist,” Opt. Express 25(25), 31539–31551 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  17. H. Ni, G. Yuan, L. Sun, N. Chang, D. Zhang, R. Chen, L. Jiang, H. Chen, Z. Gu, and X. Zhao, “Large-scale high-numerical-aperture super-oscillatory lens fabricated by direct laser writing lithography,” RSC Adv. 8(36), 20117–20123 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Müller, R. Müller, L. Hammer, C. Barner-Kowollik, M. Wegener, and E. Blasco, “STED-Inspired Laser Lithography Based on Photoswitchable Spirothiopyran Moieties,” Chem. Mater. 31(6), 1966–1972 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  20. X. He, T. Li, J. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “STED direct laser writing of 45 nm Width Nanowire,” Micromachines 10(11), 726 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. Bagheri, K. Weber, T. Gissibl, T. Weiss, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “Fabrication of Square-Centimeter Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays by Femtosecond Direct Laser Writing Lithography: Effects of Collective Excitations on SEIRA Enhancement,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 779–786 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  22. Q. C. Tong, D. T. T. Nguyen, M. T. Do, M. H. Luong, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, and N. D. Lai, “Direct laser writing of polymeric nanostructures via optically induced local thermal effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183104 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  23. L. Qin, Y. Huang, F. Xia, L. Wang, J. Ning, H. Chen, X. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, Q. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography,” Nano Lett. 20(7), 4916–4923 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  24. W. Chen and H. Ahmed, “Fabrication of 5-7 nm wide etched lines in silicon using 100 keV electron-beam lithography and polymethylmethacrylate resist,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(13), 1499–1501 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. A. Bruk, E. N. Zhikharev, A. E. Rogozhin, D. R. Streltsov, V. A. Kalnov, S. N. Averkin, and A. V. Spirin, “Formation of micro- A nd nanostructures with well-rounded profile by new e-beam lithography principle,” Microelectron. Eng. 155(1), 92–96 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  26. H. Elsner, H. G. Meyer, A. Voigt, and G. Grüitzner, “Evaluation of ma-N 2400 series DUV photoresist for electron beam exposure,” Microelectron. Eng. 46(1-4), 389–392 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  27. H. Elsner and H. G. Meyer, “Nanometer and high aspect ratio patterning by electron beam lithography using a simple DUV negative tone resist,” Microelectron. Eng. 57-58(1), 291–296 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. Roy, P. K. Basu, P. Raghunathan, and S. V. Eswaran, “Photo-induced cross-linking mechanism in azide-novolac negative photoresists: Molecular level investigation using NMR spectroscopy,” Magn. Reson. Chem. 41(9), 671–678 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. M. Blideran, M. Häffner, B. E. Schuster, C. Raisch, H. Weigand, M. Fleischer, H. Peisert, T. Chassé, and D. P. Kern, “Improving etch selectivity and stability of novolak based negative resists by fluorine plasma treatment,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 769–772 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  30. ma-N 2400 negative photo resist data sheet (micro resist technology GmbH).
  31. D. B. Bonneville, M. A. Méndez-Rosales, H. C. Frankis, L. M. Gonçalves, R. N. Kleiman, and J. D. B. Bradley, “Flexible and low-cost fabrication of optical waveguides by UV laser resist-mask writing,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(4), 1728 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  32. S. J. Park, S. H. Cha, G. A. Shin, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensing viruses using terahertz nano-gap metamaterials,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(8), 3551–3558 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  33. B. H. Son, H. S. Kim, H. Jeong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Electron beam induced removal of PMMA layer used for graphene transfer,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 18058 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  34. H. S. Kim, N. Y. Ha, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Phonon-Polaritons in Lead Halide Perovskite Film Hybridized with THz Metamaterials,” Nano Lett. 20(9), 6690–6696 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  35. D. X. Yang, A. Frommhold, X. Xue, R. E. Palmer, and A. P. G. Robinson, “Chemically amplified phenolic fullerene electron beam resist,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(8), 1505–1512 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  36. R. Fallica, D. Kazazis, R. Kirchner, A. Voigt, I. Mochi, H. Schift, and Y. Ekinci, “Lithographic performance of ZEP520A and mr-PosEBR resists exposed by electron beam and extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 35(6), 061603 (2017).
    [Crossref]

2020 (3)

S. Srikanth, S. Dudala, S. Raut, S. K. Dubey, I. Ishii, A. Javed, and S. G. Goel, “Optimization and Characterization of Direct UV Laser Writing System for Microscale Applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 30(9), 095003 (2020).
[Crossref]

L. Qin, Y. Huang, F. Xia, L. Wang, J. Ning, H. Chen, X. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, Q. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography,” Nano Lett. 20(7), 4916–4923 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kim, N. Y. Ha, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Phonon-Polaritons in Lead Halide Perovskite Film Hybridized with THz Metamaterials,” Nano Lett. 20(9), 6690–6696 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (3)

D. B. Bonneville, M. A. Méndez-Rosales, H. C. Frankis, L. M. Gonçalves, R. N. Kleiman, and J. D. B. Bradley, “Flexible and low-cost fabrication of optical waveguides by UV laser resist-mask writing,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(4), 1728 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Müller, R. Müller, L. Hammer, C. Barner-Kowollik, M. Wegener, and E. Blasco, “STED-Inspired Laser Lithography Based on Photoswitchable Spirothiopyran Moieties,” Chem. Mater. 31(6), 1966–1972 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. He, T. Li, J. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “STED direct laser writing of 45 nm Width Nanowire,” Micromachines 10(11), 726 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

M. Z. Mohammed, A. H. I. Mourad, and S. A. Khashan, “Maskless Lithography Using Negative Photoresist Material: Impact of UV Laser Intensity on the Cured Line Width,” Lasers Manuf. Mater. Process. 5(2), 133–142 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Ni, G. Yuan, L. Sun, N. Chang, D. Zhang, R. Chen, L. Jiang, H. Chen, Z. Gu, and X. Zhao, “Large-scale high-numerical-aperture super-oscillatory lens fabricated by direct laser writing lithography,” RSC Adv. 8(36), 20117–20123 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

N. Tsutsumi, J. Hirota, K. Kinashi, and W. Sakai, “Direct laser writing for micro-optical devices using a negative photoresist,” Opt. Express 25(25), 31539–31551 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Ji, T. Li, and H. Fuchs, “Nanosphere Lithography for Sub-10-nm Nanogap Electrodes,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 3(1), 1600348 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, K. Han, and J. W. Hahn, “Selective dual-band metamaterial perfect absorber for infrared stealth technology,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6740 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, S. H. Cha, G. A. Shin, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensing viruses using terahertz nano-gap metamaterials,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(8), 3551–3558 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. H. Son, H. S. Kim, H. Jeong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Electron beam induced removal of PMMA layer used for graphene transfer,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 18058 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Fallica, D. Kazazis, R. Kirchner, A. Voigt, I. Mochi, H. Schift, and Y. Ekinci, “Lithographic performance of ZEP520A and mr-PosEBR resists exposed by electron beam and extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 35(6), 061603 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

M. A. Bruk, E. N. Zhikharev, A. E. Rogozhin, D. R. Streltsov, V. A. Kalnov, S. N. Averkin, and A. V. Spirin, “Formation of micro- A nd nanostructures with well-rounded profile by new e-beam lithography principle,” Microelectron. Eng. 155(1), 92–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. C. Tong, D. T. T. Nguyen, M. T. Do, M. H. Luong, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, and N. D. Lai, “Direct laser writing of polymeric nanostructures via optically induced local thermal effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183104 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. G. Guney and G. K. Fedder, “Estimation of line dimensions in 3D direct laser writing lithography,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26(10), 105011 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

A. Žukauskas, I. Matulaitiene, D. Paipulas, G. Niaura, M. Malinauskas, and R. Gadonas, “Tuning the refractive index in 3D direct laser writing lithography: Towards GRIN microoptics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 706–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Bagheri, K. Weber, T. Gissibl, T. Weiss, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “Fabrication of Square-Centimeter Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays by Femtosecond Direct Laser Writing Lithography: Effects of Collective Excitations on SEIRA Enhancement,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 779–786 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. X. Yang, A. Frommhold, X. Xue, R. E. Palmer, and A. P. G. Robinson, “Chemically amplified phenolic fullerene electron beam resist,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(8), 1505–1512 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional optical laser lithography beyond the diffraction limit,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 22–44 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional deep sub-diffraction optical beam lithography with 9 nm feature size,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2061 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

A. Pimpin and W. Srituravanich, “Reviews on micro- and nanolithography techniques and their applications,” Eng. J. 16(1), 37–56 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Hao-Wen, “Development of blue laser direct-write lithography system,” Int. J. Innov. Technol. Manag. 2(1), 63 (2012).

2010 (2)

M. Altissimo, “E-beam lithography for micro-/nanofabrication,” Biomicrofluidics 4(2), 026503 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. M. Blideran, M. Häffner, B. E. Schuster, C. Raisch, H. Weigand, M. Fleischer, H. Peisert, T. Chassé, and D. P. Kern, “Improving etch selectivity and stability of novolak based negative resists by fluorine plasma treatment,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 769–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. F. Egerton, P. Li, and M. Malac, “Radiation damage in the TEM and SEM,” Micron 35(6), 399–409 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. Roy, P. K. Basu, P. Raghunathan, and S. V. Eswaran, “Photo-induced cross-linking mechanism in azide-novolac negative photoresists: Molecular level investigation using NMR spectroscopy,” Magn. Reson. Chem. 41(9), 671–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. S. M. Saifullah, T. Ondarçuhu, D. K. Koltsov, C. Joachim, and M. E. Welland, “A reliable scheme for fabricating sub-5 nm co-planar junctions for single-molecule electronics,” Nanotechnology 13(5), 659–662 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

H. Elsner and H. G. Meyer, “Nanometer and high aspect ratio patterning by electron beam lithography using a simple DUV negative tone resist,” Microelectron. Eng. 57-58(1), 291–296 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Elsner, H. G. Meyer, A. Voigt, and G. Grüitzner, “Evaluation of ma-N 2400 series DUV photoresist for electron beam exposure,” Microelectron. Eng. 46(1-4), 389–392 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

W. Chen and H. Ahmed, “Fabrication of 5-7 nm wide etched lines in silicon using 100 keV electron-beam lithography and polymethylmethacrylate resist,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(13), 1499–1501 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

T. Fink, D. D. Smith, and W. D. Braddock, “Electron-beam-induced damage study in GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures as determined by magnetotransport characterization,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 37(6), 1422–1425 (1990).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, H.

W. Chen and H. Ahmed, “Fabrication of 5-7 nm wide etched lines in silicon using 100 keV electron-beam lithography and polymethylmethacrylate resist,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(13), 1499–1501 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y. H.

H. S. Kim, N. Y. Ha, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Phonon-Polaritons in Lead Halide Perovskite Film Hybridized with THz Metamaterials,” Nano Lett. 20(9), 6690–6696 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, S. H. Cha, G. A. Shin, and Y. H. Ahn, “Sensing viruses using terahertz nano-gap metamaterials,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(8), 3551–3558 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. H. Son, H. S. Kim, H. Jeong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Electron beam induced removal of PMMA layer used for graphene transfer,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 18058 (2017).
[Crossref]

Altissimo, M.

M. Altissimo, “E-beam lithography for micro-/nanofabrication,” Biomicrofluidics 4(2), 026503 (2010).
[Crossref]

Averkin, S. N.

M. A. Bruk, E. N. Zhikharev, A. E. Rogozhin, D. R. Streltsov, V. A. Kalnov, S. N. Averkin, and A. V. Spirin, “Formation of micro- A nd nanostructures with well-rounded profile by new e-beam lithography principle,” Microelectron. Eng. 155(1), 92–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, S.

S. Bagheri, K. Weber, T. Gissibl, T. Weiss, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “Fabrication of Square-Centimeter Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays by Femtosecond Direct Laser Writing Lithography: Effects of Collective Excitations on SEIRA Enhancement,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 779–786 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barner-Kowollik, C.

P. Müller, R. Müller, L. Hammer, C. Barner-Kowollik, M. Wegener, and E. Blasco, “STED-Inspired Laser Lithography Based on Photoswitchable Spirothiopyran Moieties,” Chem. Mater. 31(6), 1966–1972 (2019).
[Crossref]

Basu, P. K.

D. Roy, P. K. Basu, P. Raghunathan, and S. V. Eswaran, “Photo-induced cross-linking mechanism in azide-novolac negative photoresists: Molecular level investigation using NMR spectroscopy,” Magn. Reson. Chem. 41(9), 671–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bernhardi, E.

E. Bernhardi, “Bragg-grating-based rare-earth-ion-doped channel waveguide lasers and their applications,” Dissertation, University of Twente (2012).

Blasco, E.

P. Müller, R. Müller, L. Hammer, C. Barner-Kowollik, M. Wegener, and E. Blasco, “STED-Inspired Laser Lithography Based on Photoswitchable Spirothiopyran Moieties,” Chem. Mater. 31(6), 1966–1972 (2019).
[Crossref]

Blideran, M. M.

M. M. Blideran, M. Häffner, B. E. Schuster, C. Raisch, H. Weigand, M. Fleischer, H. Peisert, T. Chassé, and D. P. Kern, “Improving etch selectivity and stability of novolak based negative resists by fluorine plasma treatment,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 769–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bonneville, D. B.

Braddock, W. D.

T. Fink, D. D. Smith, and W. D. Braddock, “Electron-beam-induced damage study in GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures as determined by magnetotransport characterization,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 37(6), 1422–1425 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bradley, J. D. B.

Bruk, M. A.

M. A. Bruk, E. N. Zhikharev, A. E. Rogozhin, D. R. Streltsov, V. A. Kalnov, S. N. Averkin, and A. V. Spirin, “Formation of micro- A nd nanostructures with well-rounded profile by new e-beam lithography principle,” Microelectron. Eng. 155(1), 92–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional deep sub-diffraction optical beam lithography with 9 nm feature size,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2061 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cha, S. H.

Chang, N.

H. Ni, G. Yuan, L. Sun, N. Chang, D. Zhang, R. Chen, L. Jiang, H. Chen, Z. Gu, and X. Zhao, “Large-scale high-numerical-aperture super-oscillatory lens fabricated by direct laser writing lithography,” RSC Adv. 8(36), 20117–20123 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chassé, T.

M. M. Blideran, M. Häffner, B. E. Schuster, C. Raisch, H. Weigand, M. Fleischer, H. Peisert, T. Chassé, and D. P. Kern, “Improving etch selectivity and stability of novolak based negative resists by fluorine plasma treatment,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 769–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

L. Qin, Y. Huang, F. Xia, L. Wang, J. Ning, H. Chen, X. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, Q. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography,” Nano Lett. 20(7), 4916–4923 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. Ni, G. Yuan, L. Sun, N. Chang, D. Zhang, R. Chen, L. Jiang, H. Chen, Z. Gu, and X. Zhao, “Large-scale high-numerical-aperture super-oscillatory lens fabricated by direct laser writing lithography,” RSC Adv. 8(36), 20117–20123 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

H. Ni, G. Yuan, L. Sun, N. Chang, D. Zhang, R. Chen, L. Jiang, H. Chen, Z. Gu, and X. Zhao, “Large-scale high-numerical-aperture super-oscillatory lens fabricated by direct laser writing lithography,” RSC Adv. 8(36), 20117–20123 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

W. Chen and H. Ahmed, “Fabrication of 5-7 nm wide etched lines in silicon using 100 keV electron-beam lithography and polymethylmethacrylate resist,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(13), 1499–1501 (1993).
[Crossref]

Do, M. T.

Q. C. Tong, D. T. T. Nguyen, M. T. Do, M. H. Luong, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, and N. D. Lai, “Direct laser writing of polymeric nanostructures via optically induced local thermal effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dubey, S. K.

S. Srikanth, S. Dudala, S. Raut, S. K. Dubey, I. Ishii, A. Javed, and S. G. Goel, “Optimization and Characterization of Direct UV Laser Writing System for Microscale Applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 30(9), 095003 (2020).
[Crossref]

Dudala, S.

S. Srikanth, S. Dudala, S. Raut, S. K. Dubey, I. Ishii, A. Javed, and S. G. Goel, “Optimization and Characterization of Direct UV Laser Writing System for Microscale Applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 30(9), 095003 (2020).
[Crossref]

Egerton, R. F.

R. F. Egerton, P. Li, and M. Malac, “Radiation damage in the TEM and SEM,” Micron 35(6), 399–409 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ekinci, Y.

R. Fallica, D. Kazazis, R. Kirchner, A. Voigt, I. Mochi, H. Schift, and Y. Ekinci, “Lithographic performance of ZEP520A and mr-PosEBR resists exposed by electron beam and extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 35(6), 061603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Elsner, H.

H. Elsner and H. G. Meyer, “Nanometer and high aspect ratio patterning by electron beam lithography using a simple DUV negative tone resist,” Microelectron. Eng. 57-58(1), 291–296 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Elsner, H. G. Meyer, A. Voigt, and G. Grüitzner, “Evaluation of ma-N 2400 series DUV photoresist for electron beam exposure,” Microelectron. Eng. 46(1-4), 389–392 (1999).
[Crossref]

Eswaran, S. V.

D. Roy, P. K. Basu, P. Raghunathan, and S. V. Eswaran, “Photo-induced cross-linking mechanism in azide-novolac negative photoresists: Molecular level investigation using NMR spectroscopy,” Magn. Reson. Chem. 41(9), 671–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

Evans, R. A.

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional deep sub-diffraction optical beam lithography with 9 nm feature size,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2061 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fallica, R.

R. Fallica, D. Kazazis, R. Kirchner, A. Voigt, I. Mochi, H. Schift, and Y. Ekinci, “Lithographic performance of ZEP520A and mr-PosEBR resists exposed by electron beam and extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 35(6), 061603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fedder, G. K.

M. G. Guney and G. K. Fedder, “Estimation of line dimensions in 3D direct laser writing lithography,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26(10), 105011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fink, T.

T. Fink, D. D. Smith, and W. D. Braddock, “Electron-beam-induced damage study in GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures as determined by magnetotransport characterization,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 37(6), 1422–1425 (1990).
[Crossref]

Fischer, J.

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional optical laser lithography beyond the diffraction limit,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 22–44 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fleischer, M.

M. M. Blideran, M. Häffner, B. E. Schuster, C. Raisch, H. Weigand, M. Fleischer, H. Peisert, T. Chassé, and D. P. Kern, “Improving etch selectivity and stability of novolak based negative resists by fluorine plasma treatment,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 769–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

Frankis, H. C.

Frommhold, A.

D. X. Yang, A. Frommhold, X. Xue, R. E. Palmer, and A. P. G. Robinson, “Chemically amplified phenolic fullerene electron beam resist,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(8), 1505–1512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, H.

D. Ji, T. Li, and H. Fuchs, “Nanosphere Lithography for Sub-10-nm Nanogap Electrodes,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 3(1), 1600348 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gadonas, R.

A. Žukauskas, I. Matulaitiene, D. Paipulas, G. Niaura, M. Malinauskas, and R. Gadonas, “Tuning the refractive index in 3D direct laser writing lithography: Towards GRIN microoptics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 706–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gan, Z.

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional deep sub-diffraction optical beam lithography with 9 nm feature size,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2061 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giessen, H.

S. Bagheri, K. Weber, T. Gissibl, T. Weiss, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “Fabrication of Square-Centimeter Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays by Femtosecond Direct Laser Writing Lithography: Effects of Collective Excitations on SEIRA Enhancement,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 779–786 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gissibl, T.

S. Bagheri, K. Weber, T. Gissibl, T. Weiss, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “Fabrication of Square-Centimeter Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays by Femtosecond Direct Laser Writing Lithography: Effects of Collective Excitations on SEIRA Enhancement,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 779–786 (2015).
[Crossref]

Goel, S. G.

S. Srikanth, S. Dudala, S. Raut, S. K. Dubey, I. Ishii, A. Javed, and S. G. Goel, “Optimization and Characterization of Direct UV Laser Writing System for Microscale Applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 30(9), 095003 (2020).
[Crossref]

Gonçalves, L. M.

Grüitzner, G.

H. Elsner, H. G. Meyer, A. Voigt, and G. Grüitzner, “Evaluation of ma-N 2400 series DUV photoresist for electron beam exposure,” Microelectron. Eng. 46(1-4), 389–392 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

Z. Gan, Y. Cao, R. A. Evans, and M. Gu, “Three-dimensional deep sub-diffraction optical beam lithography with 9 nm feature size,” Nat. Commun. 4(1), 2061 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gu, Z.

H. Ni, G. Yuan, L. Sun, N. Chang, D. Zhang, R. Chen, L. Jiang, H. Chen, Z. Gu, and X. Zhao, “Large-scale high-numerical-aperture super-oscillatory lens fabricated by direct laser writing lithography,” RSC Adv. 8(36), 20117–20123 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guney, M. G.

M. G. Guney and G. K. Fedder, “Estimation of line dimensions in 3D direct laser writing lithography,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 26(10), 105011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ha, N. Y.

H. S. Kim, N. Y. Ha, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Phonon-Polaritons in Lead Halide Perovskite Film Hybridized with THz Metamaterials,” Nano Lett. 20(9), 6690–6696 (2020).
[Crossref]

Häffner, M.

M. M. Blideran, M. Häffner, B. E. Schuster, C. Raisch, H. Weigand, M. Fleischer, H. Peisert, T. Chassé, and D. P. Kern, “Improving etch selectivity and stability of novolak based negative resists by fluorine plasma treatment,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 769–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hahn, J. W.

J. Kim, K. Han, and J. W. Hahn, “Selective dual-band metamaterial perfect absorber for infrared stealth technology,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6740 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hammer, L.

P. Müller, R. Müller, L. Hammer, C. Barner-Kowollik, M. Wegener, and E. Blasco, “STED-Inspired Laser Lithography Based on Photoswitchable Spirothiopyran Moieties,” Chem. Mater. 31(6), 1966–1972 (2019).
[Crossref]

Han, K.

J. Kim, K. Han, and J. W. Hahn, “Selective dual-band metamaterial perfect absorber for infrared stealth technology,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6740 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hao-Wen, C.

C. Hao-Wen, “Development of blue laser direct-write lithography system,” Int. J. Innov. Technol. Manag. 2(1), 63 (2012).

He, X.

X. He, T. Li, J. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “STED direct laser writing of 45 nm Width Nanowire,” Micromachines 10(11), 726 (2019).
[Crossref]

Hirota, J.

Huang, Y.

L. Qin, Y. Huang, F. Xia, L. Wang, J. Ning, H. Chen, X. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, Q. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography,” Nano Lett. 20(7), 4916–4923 (2020).
[Crossref]

Ishii, I.

S. Srikanth, S. Dudala, S. Raut, S. K. Dubey, I. Ishii, A. Javed, and S. G. Goel, “Optimization and Characterization of Direct UV Laser Writing System for Microscale Applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 30(9), 095003 (2020).
[Crossref]

Javed, A.

S. Srikanth, S. Dudala, S. Raut, S. K. Dubey, I. Ishii, A. Javed, and S. G. Goel, “Optimization and Characterization of Direct UV Laser Writing System for Microscale Applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 30(9), 095003 (2020).
[Crossref]

Jeong, H.

B. H. Son, H. S. Kim, H. Jeong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Electron beam induced removal of PMMA layer used for graphene transfer,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 18058 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ji, D.

D. Ji, T. Li, and H. Fuchs, “Nanosphere Lithography for Sub-10-nm Nanogap Electrodes,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 3(1), 1600348 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

H. Ni, G. Yuan, L. Sun, N. Chang, D. Zhang, R. Chen, L. Jiang, H. Chen, Z. Gu, and X. Zhao, “Large-scale high-numerical-aperture super-oscillatory lens fabricated by direct laser writing lithography,” RSC Adv. 8(36), 20117–20123 (2018).
[Crossref]

Joachim, C.

M. S. M. Saifullah, T. Ondarçuhu, D. K. Koltsov, C. Joachim, and M. E. Welland, “A reliable scheme for fabricating sub-5 nm co-planar junctions for single-molecule electronics,” Nanotechnology 13(5), 659–662 (2002).
[Crossref]

Journet, B.

Q. C. Tong, D. T. T. Nguyen, M. T. Do, M. H. Luong, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, and N. D. Lai, “Direct laser writing of polymeric nanostructures via optically induced local thermal effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183104 (2016).
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M. A. Bruk, E. N. Zhikharev, A. E. Rogozhin, D. R. Streltsov, V. A. Kalnov, S. N. Averkin, and A. V. Spirin, “Formation of micro- A nd nanostructures with well-rounded profile by new e-beam lithography principle,” Microelectron. Eng. 155(1), 92–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

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R. Fallica, D. Kazazis, R. Kirchner, A. Voigt, I. Mochi, H. Schift, and Y. Ekinci, “Lithographic performance of ZEP520A and mr-PosEBR resists exposed by electron beam and extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 35(6), 061603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kern, D. P.

M. M. Blideran, M. Häffner, B. E. Schuster, C. Raisch, H. Weigand, M. Fleischer, H. Peisert, T. Chassé, and D. P. Kern, “Improving etch selectivity and stability of novolak based negative resists by fluorine plasma treatment,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 769–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

Khashan, S. A.

M. Z. Mohammed, A. H. I. Mourad, and S. A. Khashan, “Maskless Lithography Using Negative Photoresist Material: Impact of UV Laser Intensity on the Cured Line Width,” Lasers Manuf. Mater. Process. 5(2), 133–142 (2018).
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Kim, D. S.

H. S. Kim, N. Y. Ha, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Phonon-Polaritons in Lead Halide Perovskite Film Hybridized with THz Metamaterials,” Nano Lett. 20(9), 6690–6696 (2020).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

H. S. Kim, N. Y. Ha, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Phonon-Polaritons in Lead Halide Perovskite Film Hybridized with THz Metamaterials,” Nano Lett. 20(9), 6690–6696 (2020).
[Crossref]

B. H. Son, H. S. Kim, H. Jeong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Electron beam induced removal of PMMA layer used for graphene transfer,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 18058 (2017).
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Kim, J.

J. Kim, K. Han, and J. W. Hahn, “Selective dual-band metamaterial perfect absorber for infrared stealth technology,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 6740 (2017).
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Kirchner, R.

R. Fallica, D. Kazazis, R. Kirchner, A. Voigt, I. Mochi, H. Schift, and Y. Ekinci, “Lithographic performance of ZEP520A and mr-PosEBR resists exposed by electron beam and extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 35(6), 061603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kleiman, R. N.

Koltsov, D. K.

M. S. M. Saifullah, T. Ondarçuhu, D. K. Koltsov, C. Joachim, and M. E. Welland, “A reliable scheme for fabricating sub-5 nm co-planar junctions for single-molecule electronics,” Nanotechnology 13(5), 659–662 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lai, N. D.

Q. C. Tong, D. T. T. Nguyen, M. T. Do, M. H. Luong, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, and N. D. Lai, “Direct laser writing of polymeric nanostructures via optically induced local thermal effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ledoux-Rak, I.

Q. C. Tong, D. T. T. Nguyen, M. T. Do, M. H. Luong, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, and N. D. Lai, “Direct laser writing of polymeric nanostructures via optically induced local thermal effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

H. S. Kim, N. Y. Ha, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Phonon-Polaritons in Lead Halide Perovskite Film Hybridized with THz Metamaterials,” Nano Lett. 20(9), 6690–6696 (2020).
[Crossref]

B. H. Son, H. S. Kim, H. Jeong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Electron beam induced removal of PMMA layer used for graphene transfer,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 18058 (2017).
[Crossref]

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R. F. Egerton, P. Li, and M. Malac, “Radiation damage in the TEM and SEM,” Micron 35(6), 399–409 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

X. He, T. Li, J. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “STED direct laser writing of 45 nm Width Nanowire,” Micromachines 10(11), 726 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Ji, T. Li, and H. Fuchs, “Nanosphere Lithography for Sub-10-nm Nanogap Electrodes,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 3(1), 1600348 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

L. Qin, Y. Huang, F. Xia, L. Wang, J. Ning, H. Chen, X. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, Q. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography,” Nano Lett. 20(7), 4916–4923 (2020).
[Crossref]

Luong, M. H.

Q. C. Tong, D. T. T. Nguyen, M. T. Do, M. H. Luong, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, and N. D. Lai, “Direct laser writing of polymeric nanostructures via optically induced local thermal effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Malac, M.

R. F. Egerton, P. Li, and M. Malac, “Radiation damage in the TEM and SEM,” Micron 35(6), 399–409 (2004).
[Crossref]

Malinauskas, M.

A. Žukauskas, I. Matulaitiene, D. Paipulas, G. Niaura, M. Malinauskas, and R. Gadonas, “Tuning the refractive index in 3D direct laser writing lithography: Towards GRIN microoptics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 706–712 (2015).
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Matulaitiene, I.

A. Žukauskas, I. Matulaitiene, D. Paipulas, G. Niaura, M. Malinauskas, and R. Gadonas, “Tuning the refractive index in 3D direct laser writing lithography: Towards GRIN microoptics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 706–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

Méndez-Rosales, M. A.

Meyer, H. G.

H. Elsner and H. G. Meyer, “Nanometer and high aspect ratio patterning by electron beam lithography using a simple DUV negative tone resist,” Microelectron. Eng. 57-58(1), 291–296 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Elsner, H. G. Meyer, A. Voigt, and G. Grüitzner, “Evaluation of ma-N 2400 series DUV photoresist for electron beam exposure,” Microelectron. Eng. 46(1-4), 389–392 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mochi, I.

R. Fallica, D. Kazazis, R. Kirchner, A. Voigt, I. Mochi, H. Schift, and Y. Ekinci, “Lithographic performance of ZEP520A and mr-PosEBR resists exposed by electron beam and extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 35(6), 061603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mohammed, M. Z.

M. Z. Mohammed, A. H. I. Mourad, and S. A. Khashan, “Maskless Lithography Using Negative Photoresist Material: Impact of UV Laser Intensity on the Cured Line Width,” Lasers Manuf. Mater. Process. 5(2), 133–142 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mourad, A. H. I.

M. Z. Mohammed, A. H. I. Mourad, and S. A. Khashan, “Maskless Lithography Using Negative Photoresist Material: Impact of UV Laser Intensity on the Cured Line Width,” Lasers Manuf. Mater. Process. 5(2), 133–142 (2018).
[Crossref]

Müller, P.

P. Müller, R. Müller, L. Hammer, C. Barner-Kowollik, M. Wegener, and E. Blasco, “STED-Inspired Laser Lithography Based on Photoswitchable Spirothiopyran Moieties,” Chem. Mater. 31(6), 1966–1972 (2019).
[Crossref]

Müller, R.

P. Müller, R. Müller, L. Hammer, C. Barner-Kowollik, M. Wegener, and E. Blasco, “STED-Inspired Laser Lithography Based on Photoswitchable Spirothiopyran Moieties,” Chem. Mater. 31(6), 1966–1972 (2019).
[Crossref]

Neubrech, F.

S. Bagheri, K. Weber, T. Gissibl, T. Weiss, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “Fabrication of Square-Centimeter Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays by Femtosecond Direct Laser Writing Lithography: Effects of Collective Excitations on SEIRA Enhancement,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 779–786 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, D. T. T.

Q. C. Tong, D. T. T. Nguyen, M. T. Do, M. H. Luong, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, and N. D. Lai, “Direct laser writing of polymeric nanostructures via optically induced local thermal effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ni, H.

H. Ni, G. Yuan, L. Sun, N. Chang, D. Zhang, R. Chen, L. Jiang, H. Chen, Z. Gu, and X. Zhao, “Large-scale high-numerical-aperture super-oscillatory lens fabricated by direct laser writing lithography,” RSC Adv. 8(36), 20117–20123 (2018).
[Crossref]

Niaura, G.

A. Žukauskas, I. Matulaitiene, D. Paipulas, G. Niaura, M. Malinauskas, and R. Gadonas, “Tuning the refractive index in 3D direct laser writing lithography: Towards GRIN microoptics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 706–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ning, J.

L. Qin, Y. Huang, F. Xia, L. Wang, J. Ning, H. Chen, X. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, Q. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography,” Nano Lett. 20(7), 4916–4923 (2020).
[Crossref]

Ondarçuhu, T.

M. S. M. Saifullah, T. Ondarçuhu, D. K. Koltsov, C. Joachim, and M. E. Welland, “A reliable scheme for fabricating sub-5 nm co-planar junctions for single-molecule electronics,” Nanotechnology 13(5), 659–662 (2002).
[Crossref]

Paipulas, D.

A. Žukauskas, I. Matulaitiene, D. Paipulas, G. Niaura, M. Malinauskas, and R. Gadonas, “Tuning the refractive index in 3D direct laser writing lithography: Towards GRIN microoptics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 706–712 (2015).
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Palmer, R. E.

D. X. Yang, A. Frommhold, X. Xue, R. E. Palmer, and A. P. G. Robinson, “Chemically amplified phenolic fullerene electron beam resist,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(8), 1505–1512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Park, J. Y.

H. S. Kim, N. Y. Ha, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Phonon-Polaritons in Lead Halide Perovskite Film Hybridized with THz Metamaterials,” Nano Lett. 20(9), 6690–6696 (2020).
[Crossref]

B. H. Son, H. S. Kim, H. Jeong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Electron beam induced removal of PMMA layer used for graphene transfer,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 18058 (2017).
[Crossref]

Park, S. J.

Peisert, H.

M. M. Blideran, M. Häffner, B. E. Schuster, C. Raisch, H. Weigand, M. Fleischer, H. Peisert, T. Chassé, and D. P. Kern, “Improving etch selectivity and stability of novolak based negative resists by fluorine plasma treatment,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 769–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

Peng, Y.

L. Qin, Y. Huang, F. Xia, L. Wang, J. Ning, H. Chen, X. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, Q. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography,” Nano Lett. 20(7), 4916–4923 (2020).
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A. Pimpin and W. Srituravanich, “Reviews on micro- and nanolithography techniques and their applications,” Eng. J. 16(1), 37–56 (2012).
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L. Qin, Y. Huang, F. Xia, L. Wang, J. Ning, H. Chen, X. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, Q. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography,” Nano Lett. 20(7), 4916–4923 (2020).
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D. Roy, P. K. Basu, P. Raghunathan, and S. V. Eswaran, “Photo-induced cross-linking mechanism in azide-novolac negative photoresists: Molecular level investigation using NMR spectroscopy,” Magn. Reson. Chem. 41(9), 671–678 (2003).
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M. M. Blideran, M. Häffner, B. E. Schuster, C. Raisch, H. Weigand, M. Fleischer, H. Peisert, T. Chassé, and D. P. Kern, “Improving etch selectivity and stability of novolak based negative resists by fluorine plasma treatment,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 769–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

Raut, S.

S. Srikanth, S. Dudala, S. Raut, S. K. Dubey, I. Ishii, A. Javed, and S. G. Goel, “Optimization and Characterization of Direct UV Laser Writing System for Microscale Applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 30(9), 095003 (2020).
[Crossref]

Robinson, A. P. G.

D. X. Yang, A. Frommhold, X. Xue, R. E. Palmer, and A. P. G. Robinson, “Chemically amplified phenolic fullerene electron beam resist,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(8), 1505–1512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rogozhin, A. E.

M. A. Bruk, E. N. Zhikharev, A. E. Rogozhin, D. R. Streltsov, V. A. Kalnov, S. N. Averkin, and A. V. Spirin, “Formation of micro- A nd nanostructures with well-rounded profile by new e-beam lithography principle,” Microelectron. Eng. 155(1), 92–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

Roy, D.

D. Roy, P. K. Basu, P. Raghunathan, and S. V. Eswaran, “Photo-induced cross-linking mechanism in azide-novolac negative photoresists: Molecular level investigation using NMR spectroscopy,” Magn. Reson. Chem. 41(9), 671–678 (2003).
[Crossref]

Saifullah, M. S. M.

M. S. M. Saifullah, T. Ondarçuhu, D. K. Koltsov, C. Joachim, and M. E. Welland, “A reliable scheme for fabricating sub-5 nm co-planar junctions for single-molecule electronics,” Nanotechnology 13(5), 659–662 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sakai, W.

Schift, H.

R. Fallica, D. Kazazis, R. Kirchner, A. Voigt, I. Mochi, H. Schift, and Y. Ekinci, “Lithographic performance of ZEP520A and mr-PosEBR resists exposed by electron beam and extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 35(6), 061603 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schuster, B. E.

M. M. Blideran, M. Häffner, B. E. Schuster, C. Raisch, H. Weigand, M. Fleischer, H. Peisert, T. Chassé, and D. P. Kern, “Improving etch selectivity and stability of novolak based negative resists by fluorine plasma treatment,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 769–772 (2009).
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Smith, D. D.

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B. H. Son, H. S. Kim, H. Jeong, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, and Y. H. Ahn, “Electron beam induced removal of PMMA layer used for graphene transfer,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 18058 (2017).
[Crossref]

Spirin, A. V.

M. A. Bruk, E. N. Zhikharev, A. E. Rogozhin, D. R. Streltsov, V. A. Kalnov, S. N. Averkin, and A. V. Spirin, “Formation of micro- A nd nanostructures with well-rounded profile by new e-beam lithography principle,” Microelectron. Eng. 155(1), 92–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

Srikanth, S.

S. Srikanth, S. Dudala, S. Raut, S. K. Dubey, I. Ishii, A. Javed, and S. G. Goel, “Optimization and Characterization of Direct UV Laser Writing System for Microscale Applications,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 30(9), 095003 (2020).
[Crossref]

Srituravanich, W.

A. Pimpin and W. Srituravanich, “Reviews on micro- and nanolithography techniques and their applications,” Eng. J. 16(1), 37–56 (2012).
[Crossref]

Streltsov, D. R.

M. A. Bruk, E. N. Zhikharev, A. E. Rogozhin, D. R. Streltsov, V. A. Kalnov, S. N. Averkin, and A. V. Spirin, “Formation of micro- A nd nanostructures with well-rounded profile by new e-beam lithography principle,” Microelectron. Eng. 155(1), 92–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, L.

H. Ni, G. Yuan, L. Sun, N. Chang, D. Zhang, R. Chen, L. Jiang, H. Chen, Z. Gu, and X. Zhao, “Large-scale high-numerical-aperture super-oscillatory lens fabricated by direct laser writing lithography,” RSC Adv. 8(36), 20117–20123 (2018).
[Crossref]

Tong, Q. C.

Q. C. Tong, D. T. T. Nguyen, M. T. Do, M. H. Luong, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, and N. D. Lai, “Direct laser writing of polymeric nanostructures via optically induced local thermal effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183104 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tsutsumi, N.

Voigt, A.

R. Fallica, D. Kazazis, R. Kirchner, A. Voigt, I. Mochi, H. Schift, and Y. Ekinci, “Lithographic performance of ZEP520A and mr-PosEBR resists exposed by electron beam and extreme ultraviolet lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 35(6), 061603 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Elsner, H. G. Meyer, A. Voigt, and G. Grüitzner, “Evaluation of ma-N 2400 series DUV photoresist for electron beam exposure,” Microelectron. Eng. 46(1-4), 389–392 (1999).
[Crossref]

von Freymann, G.

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Qin, Y. Huang, F. Xia, L. Wang, J. Ning, H. Chen, X. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, Q. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography,” Nano Lett. 20(7), 4916–4923 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

L. Qin, Y. Huang, F. Xia, L. Wang, J. Ning, H. Chen, X. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, Q. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography,” Nano Lett. 20(7), 4916–4923 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

X. He, T. Li, J. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “STED direct laser writing of 45 nm Width Nanowire,” Micromachines 10(11), 726 (2019).
[Crossref]

Weber, K.

S. Bagheri, K. Weber, T. Gissibl, T. Weiss, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “Fabrication of Square-Centimeter Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays by Femtosecond Direct Laser Writing Lithography: Effects of Collective Excitations on SEIRA Enhancement,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 779–786 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wegener, M.

P. Müller, R. Müller, L. Hammer, C. Barner-Kowollik, M. Wegener, and E. Blasco, “STED-Inspired Laser Lithography Based on Photoswitchable Spirothiopyran Moieties,” Chem. Mater. 31(6), 1966–1972 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional optical laser lithography beyond the diffraction limit,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 22–44 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010).
[Crossref]

Weigand, H.

M. M. Blideran, M. Häffner, B. E. Schuster, C. Raisch, H. Weigand, M. Fleischer, H. Peisert, T. Chassé, and D. P. Kern, “Improving etch selectivity and stability of novolak based negative resists by fluorine plasma treatment,” Microelectron. Eng. 86(4-6), 769–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weiss, T.

S. Bagheri, K. Weber, T. Gissibl, T. Weiss, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “Fabrication of Square-Centimeter Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays by Femtosecond Direct Laser Writing Lithography: Effects of Collective Excitations on SEIRA Enhancement,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 779–786 (2015).
[Crossref]

Welland, M. E.

M. S. M. Saifullah, T. Ondarçuhu, D. K. Koltsov, C. Joachim, and M. E. Welland, “A reliable scheme for fabricating sub-5 nm co-planar junctions for single-molecule electronics,” Nanotechnology 13(5), 659–662 (2002).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

L. Qin, Y. Huang, F. Xia, L. Wang, J. Ning, H. Chen, X. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, Q. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography,” Nano Lett. 20(7), 4916–4923 (2020).
[Crossref]

Xue, X.

D. X. Yang, A. Frommhold, X. Xue, R. E. Palmer, and A. P. G. Robinson, “Chemically amplified phenolic fullerene electron beam resist,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(8), 1505–1512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. X.

D. X. Yang, A. Frommhold, X. Xue, R. E. Palmer, and A. P. G. Robinson, “Chemically amplified phenolic fullerene electron beam resist,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(8), 1505–1512 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yuan, G.

H. Ni, G. Yuan, L. Sun, N. Chang, D. Zhang, R. Chen, L. Jiang, H. Chen, Z. Gu, and X. Zhao, “Large-scale high-numerical-aperture super-oscillatory lens fabricated by direct laser writing lithography,” RSC Adv. 8(36), 20117–20123 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

H. Ni, G. Yuan, L. Sun, N. Chang, D. Zhang, R. Chen, L. Jiang, H. Chen, Z. Gu, and X. Zhao, “Large-scale high-numerical-aperture super-oscillatory lens fabricated by direct laser writing lithography,” RSC Adv. 8(36), 20117–20123 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

X. He, T. Li, J. Zhang, and Z. Wang, “STED direct laser writing of 45 nm Width Nanowire,” Micromachines 10(11), 726 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

L. Qin, Y. Huang, F. Xia, L. Wang, J. Ning, H. Chen, X. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, Q. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography,” Nano Lett. 20(7), 4916–4923 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

L. Qin, Y. Huang, F. Xia, L. Wang, J. Ning, H. Chen, X. Wang, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, Q. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography,” Nano Lett. 20(7), 4916–4923 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X.

H. Ni, G. Yuan, L. Sun, N. Chang, D. Zhang, R. Chen, L. Jiang, H. Chen, Z. Gu, and X. Zhao, “Large-scale high-numerical-aperture super-oscillatory lens fabricated by direct laser writing lithography,” RSC Adv. 8(36), 20117–20123 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhikharev, E. N.

M. A. Bruk, E. N. Zhikharev, A. E. Rogozhin, D. R. Streltsov, V. A. Kalnov, S. N. Averkin, and A. V. Spirin, “Formation of micro- A nd nanostructures with well-rounded profile by new e-beam lithography principle,” Microelectron. Eng. 155(1), 92–96 (2016).
[Crossref]

Žukauskas, A.

A. Žukauskas, I. Matulaitiene, D. Paipulas, G. Niaura, M. Malinauskas, and R. Gadonas, “Tuning the refractive index in 3D direct laser writing lithography: Towards GRIN microoptics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(6), 706–712 (2015).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (1)

S. Bagheri, K. Weber, T. Gissibl, T. Weiss, F. Neubrech, and H. Giessen, “Fabrication of Square-Centimeter Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays by Femtosecond Direct Laser Writing Lithography: Effects of Collective Excitations on SEIRA Enhancement,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 779–786 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Electron. Mater. (1)

D. Ji, T. Li, and H. Fuchs, “Nanosphere Lithography for Sub-10-nm Nanogap Electrodes,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 3(1), 1600348 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Q. C. Tong, D. T. T. Nguyen, M. T. Do, M. H. Luong, B. Journet, I. Ledoux-Rak, and N. D. Lai, “Direct laser writing of polymeric nanostructures via optically induced local thermal effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(18), 183104 (2016).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic of the direct laser writing process. (b) Absorbance spectrum for ma-N 2405. (inset) Semi-logarithmic plot of absorbance. (c) AFM image of array patterns fabricated on Au films with periodicities of 1 µm (top) and 600 nm (bottom).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) SEM images of the N-ER after the developing processes with different doses (D = 15–7.5 J/cm2 from left to right). (b) Linewidth versus dose for different e-beam and photo-resists. P-PR (black triangles), N-PR (blue circles), and N-ER (red squares) refer to GXR 601, ma-N 1410, and ma-N 2405, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Resist height versus dose for the two different negative resists of N-PR (blue circles) and N-ER (red squares). The solid lines represent sigmoidal interpolations of the data. (b) Aspect ratio as a function of dose for N-PR and N-ER.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Linewidth, (b) height, and (c) aspect ratio as a function of dose for different baking temperatures (70–150 °C). The inset in (b) shows the contrast as a function of the baking temperature.

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