Abstract

Nonpolar (100) m-plane n-ZnO/p-GaN light-emitting-diodes (LEDs) were grown by chemical vapor deposition on p-GaN templates which was grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on LiAlO2(100) substrate. Direct current (DC) electroluminescence (EL) measurements yielded a peak at 458nm. The EL peak position was independent of drive current and a full width of half maximum (FWHM) of 21.8 nm was realized at 20mA. The current-voltage characteristics of these diodes showed a forward voltage (Vf) of 6V with a series resistance of 2.2 × 105 Ω.

© 2011 OSA

The current commercial technology for III-nitride-based and ZnO based LEDs employs films grown in the polar c direction [1,2]. However, conventional c-plane III-nitride-based and ZnO based LEDs suffer from the quantum-confined Stark effect [3,4] due to the existence of piezoelectric and spontaneous polarization [5]. The growth of nonpolar (Al, Ga, In)N and ZnO have attracted great interest for its potential use in the fabrication of nonpolar electronic and optoelectronic devices [6,7]. The built-in electric fields along the c-plane direction cause spatial separation of electron and holes that in turn gives rise to restricted carrier recombination efficiency, reduced oscillator strength and red-shifted emission [821]. In the last few years, a lot of research group have also attempted different approaches to avoid the built-in electric field by using non-polar QW [812], c-plane QW with larger optical matrix element [1321], valence subband rearrangement [2225] approaches in III-Nitride semiconductors.

In this study, we report on the growth and electronic and luminescence characteristics of CVD-regrown nonpolar m-plane n-ZnO/m-plane p-GaN hetreojunction LEDs using MOCVD-grown p-GaN/LiAlO2(100) template. In particular, the effect of emission wavelength and linewidth in the electroluminescence (EL) emission spectra were investigated.

The LED structure, as shown in Fig. 1(A) , was regrown by CVD on p-GaN/LiAlO2 template fabricated by metal organic vapor phase deposition (MOCVD). GaN epilayer with p-type dopant were grown on LAO (1 0 0) substrates in a Thomas Swan MOCVD system. This system used a 3 × 2” Close- Coupled Showerhead reactor. TMGa, CP2Mg, and NH3 were used as the sources of Ga, Mg, and N, respectively. Before growth, the substrate loaded in the growth chamber was initially treated at 1000°C for 120 s for further out-gassing in N2 ambient. A two- step growth method was then applied to grow p-GaN epilayer. First, an AlN nucleation layer was grown on the LAO substrate at 660, 680, and 700°C in N2 ambient at 200 mbar for 30 s. The ambient was then changed to H2 and the substrate temperature and pressure were changed to 1050 °C and 100 mbar, respectively, to grow a 0.6-mm-thick p-GaN layer at a growth rate of 1 μm/h [26]. In situ normal incidence reflectance was measured throughout the growth process by illuminating the samples with a tungsten lamp. Light reflected through a spectrometer was collected by a photodiode [27]. The regrowth of ZnO, carried out in a horizontal CVD reactor, Zinc shots(99.9999%) were placed in a quartz boat as the Zn source in the center of a quartz tube in a furnace. The quartz tube was kept at 1 atmosphere pressure by flowing high purity Ar (99.99%) with a flow rate of 100 sccm and heated up to 800°C. When the temperature was reached up to 800°C, high purity oxygen (99.9999%) was introduced with a flow rate of 5 sccm for the growth of the ZnO films. The thickness of n-ZnO layer is independent of the amount of Zn shots because we do believed that the Zn were evaporated in a very short time when the saturated vapor pressure reached. The morphology of the as grown ZnO film on GaN/LiAlO2 template was examined by a JEOL JSM-7000F field emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were carried out on a Bede triple-axis diffractometer system, using Cu Kα1 (λ = 1.5406 Å) radiation. Photoluminescence (PL) was measured with a continuous wave He-Cd 325 nm laser with power density incident on the samples ~1 W/cm2. The carrier concentration of n-ZnO is 5 × 1019 cm−3 and mobility of n-ZnO is 12 cm2/(V-s), which were measured by Hall measurement system (Bio-Rad HL5500PC). Diode mesas were defined by reactive ion etching (ICP). Ni and Cr/Au were used as n-ZnO and p-GaN contacts, respectively. The electrical and luminescence characteristics of the diode were measured by on-wafer probing of the devices. The I-V measurements were performed with Agilent 4156C semiconductor parameter analyzer.

 

Fig. 1 (A) Schematic of m-plane n-ZnO/m-plane p-GaN/LiAlO2 heterostructure LEDs, (B) Room-temperature PL spectra of ZnO thin film on m-plane p-type GaN, (C) Top-view FE-SEM image of as-grown ZnO thin films on m-plane p-GaN film, (D) Cross-sectional FE-SEM image of as-grown ZnO films on p-GaN film.

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Figure 1(B) shows photoluminescence spectra measured at 10 K of the m-plane ZnO regrown on m-GaN/LiAlO2 template. A near band-edge emission at 370.5 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 6.5 nm without green emission was observed. This implied that the crystal quality of n-ZnO/p-GaN/ LiAlO2 were good and intrinsic defects and oxygen vacancy inside are low. Figure 1(C) and Fig. 1(D) show the top view and cross section view of SEM images of n-ZnO thin film regrown on p-GaN template under 800°C by CVD with growth time is 1 hour, respectively. As shown in the Fig. 1(C), the n-ZnO thin film showed a smooth surface with roughness is around 16 nm, which is measured by AFM. As shown in Fig. 1(D), the thickness of n-ZnO thin film is around 100 nm, which is so thin and the defect density in the interface between the regrown n-ZnO and p-GaN template is high that the EL intensity will become lower when the driving current excess than 20 mA which will cause some heat in the interface.

Figure 2 shows the XRD θ/2θ scan results of the n-ZnO/p-GaN/LiAlO2 heterojunction structure. The XRD result of the p-GaN/LiAlO2 template exhibits only one diffraction peak corresponding to the m-plane (100) p-GaN. For the n-ZnO regrown on m-plane p-GaN template, two distinct diffraction peaks were observed. One diffraction peak corresponds to (100) m-plane GaN, the other diffraction peak corresponds to the n-ZnO layer, which is (100) m-plane n-ZnO, respectively. Hence, the n-ZnO layer was grown with a relationship of (100) n-ZnO∥ (100) p-GaN. The rocking curve data of m-plane n-ZnO thin films with full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 504 acrsec was also shown in Fig. 2. The rocking curve data of m-plane p-GaN on LAO substrate is larger than c-plane p-GaN on sapphire, so, unexpected defects are present. Compared to the results of the nonpolar n-ZnO film grown on r-plane sapphire [22], the FWHM of rocking curve was about 1000 arcsec. The nonpolar n-ZnO grown on (100) p-GaN had better crystal quality because the ZnO and GaN have a very low lattice mismatch (1.8%).

 

Fig. 2 Left: XRD pattern of as-grown nonpolar ZnO. Right: X-ray rocking curve of nonpolar ZnO.

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The RT I–V characteristics of the n-ZnO/p-GaN heterojunction were shown in Fig. 3 . The forward current is approximately 12uA at 10 V, and the turn-on voltage is 6 V. The break down voltage of our result is much smaller than the reported value, the reason should because the high defect density in the interface between regrown n-ZnO and p-GaN template, which might cause some leakage current when applied even small reversed voltage. The turn-on voltage and power consumption exceed those of conventional LEDs, the relatively low forward and reverse threshold voltages are probably due to the existence of interface defects [28,29].

 

Fig. 3 Current-voltage characteristics of m-plane n-ZnO/m-plane p-GaN/LiAlO2 heterojunction LED at room temperature.

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The EL spectra of the devices were studied as a function of the dc drive current, as shown in Fig. 4 . Emission spectra were measured at drive currents ranging from 10, 20, and 40mA, respectively. The devices emitted in the violet spectral range at 458 nm for all drive currents with minimal linewidth broadening. For our samples, the blue emission located at around 458 nm nearly merges with the UV emission peak, showing a broad emission band. Jin et al suggest that the broad blue luminescence is due to radiative defects related to the interface traps existing at the ZnO grain boundaries [30]. The absence of blueshift in the emission peak with increasing drive current is in contrast to the commonly observed phenomenon of blueshift in c-plane LEDs [31]. We believed the absence of blueshift emission is because of the absence of polarization-induced electric field in the nonpolar m-ZnO thin films [32]. The EL intensity will become lower when the drive current is exceed than 20 mA, this should because the defect density in this device are so high so when the drive current increased, the junction temperature of this device in the interface between n-ZnO and p-GaN template will increase apparently [33].

 

Fig. 4 EL spectra of nonpolar ZnO /p-GaN heterostructure at various drive DC current at 10, 20, and 40mA, respectively.

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In conclusion, nonpolar m-plane n-ZnO thin films were grown on m-plane p-GaN templates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) without employing a catalyst. The ZnO thin film has a heteroepitaxial relationship of (100)n-ZnO∥(100)p-GaN. The p-GaN/n-ZnO heterojunction, the forward turn-on and reverse breakdown voltages was: ~6V and ~-6V, respectively. The relatively low forward and reverse threshold voltages are probably due to the existence of interface defects, as shown in the SEM image in Fig. 1(D). Under forward bias, the EL peak at 458 nm could be attributed to radiative recombination at defects related to the interface traps existing at the ZnO grain boundaries.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan under grant number NSC97-2112-M-008-016-MY3.

References and links

1. S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer, 1997).

2. S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1–77 (1999). [CrossRef]  

3. T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997). [CrossRef]  

4. D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985). [CrossRef]  

5. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997). [CrossRef]  

6. A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004). [CrossRef]  

7. M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002). [CrossRef]  

8. M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007). [CrossRef]  

9. R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007). [CrossRef]  

10. R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010). [CrossRef]  

11. T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011). [CrossRef]  

12. J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010). [CrossRef]  

13. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009). [CrossRef]  

15. H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010). [CrossRef]  

16. C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010). [CrossRef]  

17. S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, and Y.-T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011). [CrossRef]  

18. R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007). [CrossRef]  

19. R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous Emission and Characteristics of Staggered InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 573–580 (2008). [CrossRef]  

20. S.-H. Park, Y.-T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009). [CrossRef]  

21. S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, and J.-E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010). [CrossRef]  

22. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010). [CrossRef]  

23. T. K. Sharma and E. Towe, “Impact of strain on deep ultraviolet nitride laser and light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 086104 (2011). [CrossRef]  

24. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011). [CrossRef]  

25. T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011). [CrossRef]  

26. C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009). [CrossRef]  

27. C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009). [CrossRef]  

28. J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008). [CrossRef]  

29. J. Jang, J. Kim, and W. Jung, “Synthesis of ZnO nanorods on GaN epitaxial layer and Si (100) substrate using a simple hydrothermal process,” Thin Solid Films 516(23), 8524–8529 (2008). [CrossRef]  

30. B. J. Jin, S. Im, and S. Y. Lee, “Violet and UV luminescence emitted from ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 366(1-2), 107–110 (2000). [CrossRef]  

31. T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Epitaxially Laterally Overgrown GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999). [CrossRef]  

32. A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004). [CrossRef]  

33. P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer, 1997).
  2. S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1–77 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, and Y.-T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous Emission and Characteristics of Staggered InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 573–580 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S.-H. Park, Y.-T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, and J.-E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. K. Sharma and E. Towe, “Impact of strain on deep ultraviolet nitride laser and light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 086104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Jang, J. Kim, and W. Jung, “Synthesis of ZnO nanorods on GaN epitaxial layer and Si (100) substrate using a simple hydrothermal process,” Thin Solid Films 516(23), 8524–8529 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. B. J. Jin, S. Im, and S. Y. Lee, “Violet and UV luminescence emitted from ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 366(1-2), 107–110 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Epitaxially Laterally Overgrown GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (6)

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, and Y.-T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Sharma and E. Towe, “Impact of strain on deep ultraviolet nitride laser and light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 086104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, and J.-E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, Y.-T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Jang, J. Kim, and W. Jung, “Synthesis of ZnO nanorods on GaN epitaxial layer and Si (100) substrate using a simple hydrothermal process,” Thin Solid Films 516(23), 8524–8529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous Emission and Characteristics of Staggered InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. J. Jin, S. Im, and S. Y. Lee, “Violet and UV luminescence emitted from ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 366(1-2), 107–110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Epitaxially Laterally Overgrown GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Abare, A.

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, and Y.-T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, and J.-E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous Emission and Characteristics of Staggered InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, A.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. Y.

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-C.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. M. C.

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clifton, P. H.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, D. A.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Craig, R.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Craven, M. D.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y.-K.

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous Emission and Characteristics of Staggered InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feezell, D. F.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentini, V.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. K.

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Haeger, D. A.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, B. A.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, P. S.

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, T. H.

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G. S.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Im, S.

B. J. Jin, S. Im, and S. Y. Lee, “Violet and UV luminescence emitted from ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 366(1-2), 107–110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iso, K.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iveland, J.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

J. Jang, J. Kim, and W. Jung, “Synthesis of ZnO nanorods on GaN epitaxial layer and Si (100) substrate using a simple hydrothermal process,” Thin Solid Films 516(23), 8524–8529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.-M.

J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, B. J.

B. J. Jin, S. Im, and S. Y. Lee, “Violet and UV luminescence emitted from ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 366(1-2), 107–110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W.

J. Jang, J. Kim, and W. Jung, “Synthesis of ZnO nanorods on GaN epitaxial layer and Si (100) substrate using a simple hydrothermal process,” Thin Solid Films 516(23), 8524–8529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W.-G.

J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katsuragawa, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kelchner, K. M.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C.-R.

J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Jang, J. Kim, and W. Jung, “Synthesis of ZnO nanorods on GaN epitaxial layer and Si (100) substrate using a simple hydrothermal process,” Thin Solid Films 516(23), 8524–8529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-C.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Komori, M.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koo, B.-H.

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, and J.-E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kozodoy, P.

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. W.

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-K.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. Y.

B. J. Jin, S. Im, and S. Y. Lee, “Violet and UV luminescence emitted from ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 366(1-2), 107–110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-T.

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, and Y.-T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, Y.-T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.-H.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-T.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. H.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liou, B.-T.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. L.

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mack, M.

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mondry, M. J.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Epitaxially Laterally Overgrown GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Epitaxially Laterally Overgrown GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Naveh, D.

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J.-E.

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, and J.-E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. J.

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, and Y.-T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, Y.-T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.-H.

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, and Y.-T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, and J.-E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, Y.-T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Penn, S. T.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poblenz, C.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prosa, T. J.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raring, J. W.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rudy, P.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H.

J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. C.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, T. K.

T. K. Sharma and E. Towe, “Impact of strain on deep ultraviolet nitride laser and light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 086104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shivaraman, R.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shul, R. J.

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sink, R. K.

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sota, S.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J. S.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D.

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, H.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous Emission and Characteristics of Staggered InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Towe, E.

T. K. Sharma and E. Towe, “Impact of strain on deep ultraviolet nitride laser and light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 086104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.-C.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, F. C.

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tun, C. J.

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tyagi, A.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vanderbilt, D.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Walters, B.

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wood, T.

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H.

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yen, S.-H.

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous Emission and Characteristics of Staggered InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, H.

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zolper, J. C.

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

J. W. Raring, M. C. Schmidt, C. Poblenz, Y.-C. Chang, M. J. Mondry, B. Li, J. Iveland, B. Walters, M. R. Krames, R. Craig, P. Rudy, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-efficiency blue and true-green-emitting laser diodes based on non-c-plane oriented GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(11), 112101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

R. M. Farrell, P. S. Hsu, D. A. Haeger, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, and S. Nakamura, “Low-threshold-current-density AlGaN-cladding-free m-plane InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(23), 231113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Prosa, P. H. Clifton, H. Zhong, A. Tyagi, R. Shivaraman, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “Atom probe analysis of interfacial abruptness and clustering within a single InxGa1−xN quantum well device on semipolar (1011) GaN substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(19), 191903 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, X.-H. Li, G. S. Huang, J. D. Poplawsky, S. T. Penn, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Growths of staggered InGaN quantum wells light-emitting diodes emitting at 520–525 nm employing graded growth temperature profile,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 061104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of InGaN-delta-InN quantum wells for light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(13), 131114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, and S. P. DenBaars, “Structural characterization of nonpolar (112̄0) a-plane GaN thin films grown on (11̄02) r-plane sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(3), 469–471 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, B.-H. Koo, and J.-E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Large optical gain AlGaN-delta-GaN quantum wells laser active regions in mid- and deep-ultraviolet spectral regimes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(17), 171111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and U. K. Mishra, “Nonpolar InGaN∕GaN emitters on reduced-defect lateral epitaxially overgrown a-plane GaN with drive-current-independent electroluminescence emission peak,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5143–5145 (2004).
[CrossRef]

ECS Trans. (1)

C. W. Chen, C. J. Pan, F. C. Tsao, Y. L. Liu, G. C. Chi, C. Y. Chang, and T. H. Hsueh, “Nanostructured Surface Morphology of ZnO Grown on A-plane GaN,” ECS Trans. 25(12), 113–116 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Spontaneous Emission and Characteristics of Staggered InGaN Quantum-Well Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(6), 573–580 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

J.-M. Jang, C.-R. Kim, H. Ryu, M. Razeghi, and W.-G. Jung, “ZnO 3D flower-like nanostructure synthesized on GaN epitaxial layer by simple route hydrothermal process,” J. Alloy. Comp. 463(1-2), 503–510 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

T. K. Sharma and E. Towe, “Impact of strain on deep ultraviolet nitride laser and light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 086104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Pearton, J. C. Zolper, R. J. Shul, and F. Ren, “GaN: Processing, defects, and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 1–77 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C.-T. Liao, M.-C. Tsai, B.-T. Liou, S.-H. Yen, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Improvement in output power of a 460 nm InGaN light-emitting diode using staggered quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(6), 063107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

C. J. Tun, C. H. Kuo, Y. K. Fu, C. W. Kuo, M. M. C. Chou, and G. C. Chi, “Growth and characterization of c-plane AlGaN on γ-LiAlO2,” J. Cryst. Growth 311(14), 3726–3730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (5)

T. Mukai and S. Nakamura, “Ultraviolet InGaN and GaN Single-Quantum-Well-Structure Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Epitaxially Laterally Overgrown GaN Substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 10), 5735–5739 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, and Y.-T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Takeuchi, S. Sota, M. Katsuragawa, M. Komori, H. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect due to Piezoelectric Fields in GaInN Strained Quantum Wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36(Part 2, No. 4A), L382–L385 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Schmidt, K.-C. Kim, R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, D. A. Cohen, M. Saito, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Demonstration of Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(9), L190–L191 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Farrell, D. F. Feezell, M. C. Schmidt, D. A. Haeger, K. M. Kelchner, K. Iso, H. Yamada, M. Saito, K. Fujito, D. A. Cohen, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Continuous-wave Operation of AlGaN-cladding-free Nonpolar m -Plane InGaN/GaN Laser Diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(32), L761–L763 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

P. Kozodoy, A. Abare, R. K. Sink, M. Mack, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, and D. Steigerwald, “MOCVD growth of high output power InGaN multiple quantum well light emitting diode,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 468, 481–486 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

S.-H. Park, Y.-T. Lee, and J. Park, “Optical properties of type-II InGaN/GaAsN/GaN quantum wells,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 41(11-13), 779–785 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Miller, D. Chemla, T. Damen, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. Wood, and C. Burrus, “Electric field dependence of optical absorption near the band gap of quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 32(2), 1043–1060 (1985).
[CrossRef]

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B 56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

J. Jang, J. Kim, and W. Jung, “Synthesis of ZnO nanorods on GaN epitaxial layer and Si (100) substrate using a simple hydrothermal process,” Thin Solid Films 516(23), 8524–8529 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Jin, S. Im, and S. Y. Lee, “Violet and UV luminescence emitted from ZnO thin films grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition,” Thin Solid Films 366(1-2), 107–110 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer, 1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Schematic of m-plane n-ZnO/m-plane p-GaN/LiAlO2 heterostructure LEDs, (B) Room-temperature PL spectra of ZnO thin film on m-plane p-type GaN, (C) Top-view FE-SEM image of as-grown ZnO thin films on m-plane p-GaN film, (D) Cross-sectional FE-SEM image of as-grown ZnO films on p-GaN film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left: XRD pattern of as-grown nonpolar ZnO. Right: X-ray rocking curve of nonpolar ZnO.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Current-voltage characteristics of m-plane n-ZnO/m-plane p-GaN/LiAlO2 heterojunction LED at room temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

EL spectra of nonpolar ZnO /p-GaN heterostructure at various drive DC current at 10, 20, and 40mA, respectively.

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