Abstract

We observed multi-zone light emission in a one-dimensional waveguide based on an individual pearl-like ZnO nanowire with hybrid structures, which was obtained through an electrical breakdown process. E2 (high) mode in Raman spectra revealed a blueshift while a redshift of UV near band edge emission was observed by focusing laser on the polycrystalline parts at room temperature. Strong light emission was observed from the polycrystalline parts except the end in the pearl-like ZnO nanowires as compared with columnar ones, which is associated with the light propagation in the waveguide determined by the different dielectric constants between single crystal and polycrystal.

© 2011 OSA

1. Introduction

Zinc oxide (ZnO), an important II-VI semiconductor with a direct wide band gap (3.37 eV) and a large exciton binding energy (60 meV at room temperature) [1], has become one of the key technological materials of considerable interest due to its biosafety and biocompatibility [2] and its wide applications including piezoelectric devices [3], gas sensors [4], photocatalyst [5], light-emitting diodes [6], photodetectors [7], optical modulator [8], laser diodes with waveguide structure [9], and solar cells [10]. Previously, hexagonal cylindrical ZnO nanowires have been examined as a waveguide due to the transverse nanoscale and longitudinal microscale dimensions [11]. Well-defined faceting nature of such nanostructures enable the observation of unique optical confinement [12]. However, in classical waveguides, different transverse optical modes can be sustained within waveguides of different cross-section [13]. In our previous research, we obtained a pearl-like ZnO NW with a hybrid structure, where a crystal structure transformation occurred [14]. It is thus interesting to examine the propagation of light within ZnO nanowires with cross-sections other than hexagon.

In this letter, we would pay a close attention to the propagation of light within pearl-like nanowires with hybrid structures. Pearl-like ZnO NW was obtained through an electrical breakdown method by increasing longitudinal bias beyond the toleration of individual ZnO NWs and polycrystalline structure was demonstrated in the pearl part. Room temperature Raman and photoluminescence (PL) were performed to compare the physical properties of different structure. Multi zone light emission was observed from the pearl parts and a possible mechanism based on finite element analysis was proposed.

2. Experimental sections

Our experiments are based on ZnO NWs synthesized through a conventional chemical vapor deposition method [15]. After cooling down to room temperature, samples were dispersed into ethanol and then dripped on Si substrate covered with a 300 nm thick SiO2. Pearl-like ZnO NWs were realized inside a scanning electron microscope (JEOL 6490) equipped with a nanomanipulator module (Zyvex S100). The crystal structure was certified by high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM; JEM 2100). We conducted selected-area Raman spectra experiments (He-Ne laser 634 nm) and selected-area PL spectra experiments (He-Cd laser 325 nm) at room temperature in the atmosphere by employing Jobin-Yvon HR800, by focusing laser on the pearl or on the pole. Electromagnetic field distributions in the two-dimensional cross section were simulated by finite element method.

3. Results and discussion

Pearl-like ZnO NWs were achieved through an electrical breakdown method described as follows. For an individual ZnO NW, two terminal I-V measurements were conducted by applying a longitudinal bias. When the bias reached the threshold value, pearl-like ZnO NW was obtained with a decline of current in the I-V curve, as illustrated in Fig. 1 . The SEM images in the figure compared the morphologies of the samples before (left) and after (right) the failure process. Polycrystalline ZnO was demonstrated in the pearl parts while the pole part maintained single crystal structure, as illustrated in HRTEM images. A more detail characterization of crystal structure was given in [14].

 

Fig. 1 I-V curve recorded during the nanodamage process, insert SEM and HRTEM images compare the morphology and crystal structures before and after the failure process.

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Figure 2 shows the position of the E2 (high) mode for pearl and pole parts. The E2 (high) = 437 cm−1 mode of the single-crystal ZnO in pole is at almost the same position as the ZnO standard [16]. However, for polycrystalline ZnO in pearl, a Raman shift of 1 cm−1 had taken place. Lo et al have observed Raman shift with ZnO morphologies, owing to the tensile stress. An increase in the E2 phonon frequency is related to compressive stress, whereas a decrease in the E2 photon frequency is ascribed to tensile stress [17]. For single crystal ZnO, as a wurtizite-type crystal, there is the competition between the long-range electrostatic forces and the short-range forces, due to anisotropy in the interatomic force constants on the vibrational spectrum while polycrystalline ZnO reveals isotropy [18]. Therefore, the presence of different in-plain stress/strain in the single crystal and polycrystal is believed to contribute to the Raman shift. The smaller differences in peak position probably represent real differences between single crystal ZnO and polycrystalline ZnO, which tends to confirm the view that the phonon spectrum of the crystal is largely determined by near-neighbor interactions [19].

 

Fig. 2 Enlarged room temperature Raman spectra at E2 (high) for pearl and pole parts.

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To determine the variation of optical properties of pearl-like ZnO NWs, the room temperature PL spectra were collected by focusing laser on the pearl and pole, respectively, as illustrated in Fig. 3(a) . Inset is the investigated pearl-like ZnO NWs. Generally, the PL spectrum of typical single crystal ZnO nanostructures comprises the weak UV emission band and visible emission band. The visible emission band corresponds to a singly ionized oxygen vacancy in ZnO and results from the recombination of a photogenerated hole with the single ionized charge state of this defect. For the single crystal pole in this experiment, we only observed a strong peak at 375 nm, which indicates that these columnar NWs are free of oxygen vacancy. However, in the polycrystalline pearl, the imperfect boundaries and stacking faults may help the surface state to trap the impurities such as O2, as the test is conducted in the atmosphere. Therefore, the weak emission band of the pearl at around 500~600 nm is attributed to the irradiative recombination of a delocalized electron close to the conduction band [17,20]. Furthermore, the band edge emission from polycrystalline ZnO was positioned at 3.25 eV with a redshift of 60 meV compared with the band edge emission of single crystal ZnO located at 3.31 eV. According to previous reports, the emission spectra of ZnO NWs beyond the quantum confinement region (on the base of uncertainty principle: ∆x≈5 nm for ZnO) showed a blueshift in the energy region with a decrease in the diameter of the nanorods, which was associated with the surface resonance effect caused by the enhanced surface to volume ratio [21]. However, redshift in the energy positions was observed in the emission spectra for polycrystalline ZnO with a smaller surface to volume ratio due to the spherical structure. The redshift in the room temperature PL of polycrystalline could be ascribed to various reasons: (i) different in-plain stress/strain in the single crystal and polycrystal [22], (ii) excitonic emissions and their phonon replicas [23], and (iii) laser heating effect [24]. The PL measurements were conducted under similar conditions for single crystal and polycrystal. Therefore, laser heating effect was not considered to be a cause because the laser power was kept very low (<2 mW) during the PL measurements. Ahn et al [25] and Gu et al [26] have demonstrated that the redshift in the energy position of the band edge emission in the room temperature is not related to an in-plain stress/strain, but associated with the different contributions of the excitonic emission and their phonon replicas which could be influenced by the surface states. Furthermore, the intrinsic ZnO NWs are free of oxygen vacancy as confirmed in the PL spectra and the impurities trapped by imperfect boundaries and stacking faults in polycrystal may modulate the surface state. Therefore, the redshift of PL peak position may be due to the different contributions of excitonic emissions and their phonon replicas. Room temperature PL images of the columnar ZnO NW (top) and the pearl-like ZnO NW (bottom) are shown in Fig. 3(b), by focusing laser on one end of the wires, respectively. Light emission in the pearl regions (marked by white circles) as well as the end was observed in the pearl-like NW, while only emission from the end is collected in the columnar NW. Yang et al have observed the UV emission from both ends of the ZnO ribbon and almost no signal can be detected from the side surfaces, a clear indication of wave guiding of UV emission by the nanoribbon itself, which is also demonstrated in smooth NW [27]. However, as shown in our experiment, strong light emission was also observed from the polycrystalline pearl part within the pearl-like NW, which was associated with crystal structure [28].

 

Fig. 3 (a) Room temperature PL spectra of single crystal and polycrystalline ZnO. Inset: the sample, the red and blue circles indicate the test location. (b) Photoluminescence images of columnar (top) and pearl-like ZnO (bottom) nanowires dispersed on a SiOX/Si substrate, respectively. White circles point out the emission parts except the end.

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To explore the propagation of light within pearl-like nanowires with hybrid structures, we introduce a finite element analysis on the electromagnetic field distribution in the two-dimensional cross section of single crystal and polycrystalline ZnO waveguides, respectively, as illustrated in Fig. 4 . The confinement of light in components with nanoscale cross-sections significantly enhances the magnitude of the optical experienced by these components. Optical forces can be divided into two major categories: radiation pressure and transverse gradient forces. Radiation pressure effects can be understood as momentum exchange between photons and matter, so the force acts along the light propagation direction. The gradient force acts transversely to the propagation direction of the light and enables, for example, optical tweezing in free-space optics [29]. Because of the isotropic in the polycrystalline, the electromagnetic field reveals a concentric circle distribution, meaning the light could propagate in all directions (for the two-dimensional cross section, the light could propagate along radial directions). While in the single crystalline, the different dielectric constants along c axis and a axis for hexagonal ZnO single crystal lead to the confinement of light along the c axis [11,12]. For the nanowire hybrid structures, due to the light propagation in all direction in the polycrystalline parts, we could observe the multi-zone emission in the pearl-like NWs in Fig. 3(b). In addition, due to the biosafety and biocompatibility of ZnO materials [2], we consider that in their present form these nanowire hybrid structures could be exploited as optical nanobarcodes, which could be useful as labels for imaging [30]. Moreover, III-Nitride semiconductors, particularly InGaN and AlGaN based alloys, have the similar wurtzite crystal structure as ZnO [31,32]. Therefore, the similar concept may be applicable in InGaN and AlGaN based materials, which need a further work.

 

Fig. 4 Electromagnetic field distributions in the two-dimensional cross section of single crystalline and polycrystalline ZnO waveguides.

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4. Conclusion

This paper presents observation of multi-zone light emission in pearl-like ZnO nanowire hybrid structure waveguide. For polycrystalline parts, a Raman shift of 1 cm-1 (E2(high)) had taken place compared with the single crystal ZnO, which is attributed to the presence of different in-plain stress/strain in the single crystal and polycrystalline. The imperfect boundaries and stacking faults in polycrystalline ZnO may contribute to the weak emission band at around 500~600 nm and the redshift of PL peak position. Furthermore, with a finite element analysis, we found the propagation of light within pearl-like nanowire hybrid structures is related to the different dielectric constants between single crystal and polycrystal. Strong emission of polycrystalline pearl parts in the pearl-like ZnO NW in room temperature PL image could be attributed to the light propagation in all direction in the polycrystalline parts. These findings provide a novel multi zone light emission structures and could be exploited as optical nanobarcodes for imaging.

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful for the support provided by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2007CB936201), the Funds for International Cooperation and Exchange (Grant No. 50620120439, 2006DFB51000), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (No. 50872008).

References and links

1. A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

2. Y. Lei, X. Q. Yan, N. Luo, Y. Song, and Y. Zhang, “ZnO nanotetrapod network as the adsorption layer for the improvement of glucose detection via multiterminal electron-exchange,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 361(1-3), 169–173 (2010). [CrossRef]  

3. Z. L. Wang and J. H. Song, “Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays,” Science 312(5771), 242–246 (2006). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

4. Y. Zhang, J. Q. Xu, P. C. Xu, Y. H. Zhu, X. D. Chen, and W. J. Yu, “Decoration of ZnO nanowires with Pt nanoparticles and their improved gas sensing and photocatalytic performance,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285501 (2010). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

5. Y. H. Zheng, L. R. Zheng, Y. Y. Zhan, X. Y. Lin, Q. Zheng, and K. Wei, “Ag/ZnO heterostructure nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalysis,” Inorg. Chem. 46(17), 6980–6986 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

6. X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L.-J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009). [CrossRef]  

7. G. M. Ali and P. Chakrabarti, “Effect of thermal treatment on the performance of ZnO based metal-insulator-semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031116 (2010). [CrossRef]  

8. T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, “High-order waveguide modes in ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3675–3680 (2007). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

9. H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010). [CrossRef]  

10. H. Y. Li, B. Jiang, R. Schaller, J. F. Wu, and J. Jiao, “Antireflective photoanode made of TiO2 nanobelts and a ZnO nanowire array,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(26), 11375–11380 (2010). [CrossRef]  

11. R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009). [CrossRef]  

12. J. Lee and M. Yoon, “Synthesis of visible light-sensitive ZnO nanostructures: subwavelength waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11952–11958 (2009). [CrossRef]  

13. T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 519–521 (1998). [CrossRef]  

14. Q. Zhang, J. J. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. H. Huang, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Electrical breakdown of ZnO nanowires in metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 253112 (2010). [CrossRef]  

15. Y. H. Huang, Y. Zhang, X. M. Zhang, J. Liu, J. He, and Q. L. Liao, “Structures, growth mechanisms and properties of ZnO nanomaterials fabricated by zinc powder evaporation,” Nanoscience 11, 265–275 (2006).

16. T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, “Raman effect in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966). [CrossRef]  

17. S.-S. Lo and D. Huang, “Morphological variation and Raman spectroscopy of ZnO hollow microspheres prepared by a chemical colloidal process,” Langmuir 26, 6762–6766 (2010).

18. C. A. Arguello, D. L. Rousseau, and S. P. S. Porto, “First-order Raman effect in Wurtzite-type crystals,” Phys. Rev. 181(3), 1351–1363 (1969). [CrossRef]  

19. J. E. Smith Jr., M. H. Brodsky, B. L. Crowder, M. L. Nathan, and A. Pinczuk, “Raman spectra of amorphous si and related tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26(11), 642–646 (1971). [CrossRef]  

20. H.-J. Egelhaaf and D. Oelkrug, “Luminescence and nonradiative deactivation of excited states involving oxygen defect centers in polycrystalline ZnO,” J. Cryst. Growth 161(1-4), 190–194 (1996). [CrossRef]  

21. C.-W. Chen, K.-H. Chen, C.-H. Shen, A. Ganguly, L.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, H.-I. Wen, and W.-F. Pong, “Anomalous blueshift in emission spectra of ZnO nanorods with sizes beyond quantum confinement regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241905 (2006). [CrossRef]  

22. Z. W. Liu, C. K. Ong, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Catalyst-free pulsed-laser-deposited ZnO nanorods and their room-temperature photoluminescence properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 053110 (2006). [CrossRef]  

23. T. Voss, C. Bekeny, L. Wischmeier, H. Gafsi, S. Borner, W. Schade, A. C. Mofor, A. Bakin, and A. Waag, “Influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the energy position of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 182107 (2006). [CrossRef]  

24. Y. J. Xing, Z. H. Xi, Z. Q. Xue, X. D. Zhang, J. H. Song, R. M. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Song, S. L. Zhang, and D. P. Yu, “Optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized via vapor phase growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1689–1691 (2003). [CrossRef]  

25. C. H. Ahn, S. K. Mohanta, N. E. Lee, and H. K. Cho, “Enhanced exciton-phonon interactions in photoluminescence of ZnO nanopencils,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261904 (2009). [CrossRef]  

26. X. Gu, K. Huo, G. Qian, J. Fu, and P. K. Chu, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence from ZnO nanowires and nanosheets on brass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203117 (2008). [CrossRef]  

27. H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. McKinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003). [CrossRef]  

28. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998). [CrossRef]  

29. J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(8), 510–513 (2009). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

30. M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. F. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, “Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics,” Nature 415(6872), 617–620 (2002). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

31. H. P. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010). [CrossRef]  

32. J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010). [CrossRef]  

References

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  1. A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Lei, X. Q. Yan, N. Luo, Y. Song, and Y. Zhang, “ZnO nanotetrapod network as the adsorption layer for the improvement of glucose detection via multiterminal electron-exchange,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 361(1-3), 169–173 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. L. Wang and J. H. Song, “Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays,” Science 312(5771), 242–246 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Zhang, J. Q. Xu, P. C. Xu, Y. H. Zhu, X. D. Chen, and W. J. Yu, “Decoration of ZnO nanowires with Pt nanoparticles and their improved gas sensing and photocatalytic performance,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285501 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. H. Zheng, L. R. Zheng, Y. Y. Zhan, X. Y. Lin, Q. Zheng, and K. Wei, “Ag/ZnO heterostructure nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalysis,” Inorg. Chem. 46(17), 6980–6986 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L.-J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. M. Ali and P. Chakrabarti, “Effect of thermal treatment on the performance of ZnO based metal-insulator-semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031116 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, “High-order waveguide modes in ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3675–3680 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Y. Li, B. Jiang, R. Schaller, J. F. Wu, and J. Jiao, “Antireflective photoanode made of TiO2 nanobelts and a ZnO nanowire array,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(26), 11375–11380 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Lee and M. Yoon, “Synthesis of visible light-sensitive ZnO nanostructures: subwavelength waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11952–11958 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 519–521 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Q. Zhang, J. J. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. H. Huang, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Electrical breakdown of ZnO nanowires in metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 253112 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. H. Huang, Y. Zhang, X. M. Zhang, J. Liu, J. He, and Q. L. Liao, “Structures, growth mechanisms and properties of ZnO nanomaterials fabricated by zinc powder evaporation,” Nanoscience 11, 265–275 (2006).
  16. T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, “Raman effect in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S.-S. Lo and D. Huang, “Morphological variation and Raman spectroscopy of ZnO hollow microspheres prepared by a chemical colloidal process,” Langmuir 26, 6762–6766 (2010).
  18. C. A. Arguello, D. L. Rousseau, and S. P. S. Porto, “First-order Raman effect in Wurtzite-type crystals,” Phys. Rev. 181(3), 1351–1363 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. E. Smith, M. H. Brodsky, B. L. Crowder, M. L. Nathan, and A. Pinczuk, “Raman spectra of amorphous si and related tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26(11), 642–646 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H.-J. Egelhaaf and D. Oelkrug, “Luminescence and nonradiative deactivation of excited states involving oxygen defect centers in polycrystalline ZnO,” J. Cryst. Growth 161(1-4), 190–194 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C.-W. Chen, K.-H. Chen, C.-H. Shen, A. Ganguly, L.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, H.-I. Wen, and W.-F. Pong, “Anomalous blueshift in emission spectra of ZnO nanorods with sizes beyond quantum confinement regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241905 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Z. W. Liu, C. K. Ong, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Catalyst-free pulsed-laser-deposited ZnO nanorods and their room-temperature photoluminescence properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 053110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Voss, C. Bekeny, L. Wischmeier, H. Gafsi, S. Borner, W. Schade, A. C. Mofor, A. Bakin, and A. Waag, “Influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the energy position of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 182107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. J. Xing, Z. H. Xi, Z. Q. Xue, X. D. Zhang, J. H. Song, R. M. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Song, S. L. Zhang, and D. P. Yu, “Optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized via vapor phase growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1689–1691 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. H. Ahn, S. K. Mohanta, N. E. Lee, and H. K. Cho, “Enhanced exciton-phonon interactions in photoluminescence of ZnO nanopencils,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261904 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. X. Gu, K. Huo, G. Qian, J. Fu, and P. K. Chu, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence from ZnO nanowires and nanosheets on brass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203117 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. McKinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(8), 510–513 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. F. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, “Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics,” Nature 415(6872), 617–620 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. H. P. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (10)

A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lei, X. Q. Yan, N. Luo, Y. Song, and Y. Zhang, “ZnO nanotetrapod network as the adsorption layer for the improvement of glucose detection via multiterminal electron-exchange,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 361(1-3), 169–173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, J. Q. Xu, P. C. Xu, Y. H. Zhu, X. D. Chen, and W. J. Yu, “Decoration of ZnO nanowires with Pt nanoparticles and their improved gas sensing and photocatalytic performance,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Li, B. Jiang, R. Schaller, J. F. Wu, and J. Jiao, “Antireflective photoanode made of TiO2 nanobelts and a ZnO nanowire array,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(26), 11375–11380 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Ali and P. Chakrabarti, “Effect of thermal treatment on the performance of ZnO based metal-insulator-semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, J. J. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. H. Huang, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Electrical breakdown of ZnO nanowires in metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 253112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-S. Lo and D. Huang, “Morphological variation and Raman spectroscopy of ZnO hollow microspheres prepared by a chemical colloidal process,” Langmuir 26, 6762–6766 (2010).

H. P. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(8), 510–513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Ahn, S. K. Mohanta, N. E. Lee, and H. K. Cho, “Enhanced exciton-phonon interactions in photoluminescence of ZnO nanopencils,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L.-J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee and M. Yoon, “Synthesis of visible light-sensitive ZnO nanostructures: subwavelength waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11952–11958 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

X. Gu, K. Huo, G. Qian, J. Fu, and P. K. Chu, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence from ZnO nanowires and nanosheets on brass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. H. Zheng, L. R. Zheng, Y. Y. Zhan, X. Y. Lin, Q. Zheng, and K. Wei, “Ag/ZnO heterostructure nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalysis,” Inorg. Chem. 46(17), 6980–6986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, “High-order waveguide modes in ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3675–3680 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

Y. H. Huang, Y. Zhang, X. M. Zhang, J. Liu, J. He, and Q. L. Liao, “Structures, growth mechanisms and properties of ZnO nanomaterials fabricated by zinc powder evaporation,” Nanoscience 11, 265–275 (2006).

Z. L. Wang and J. H. Song, “Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays,” Science 312(5771), 242–246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-W. Chen, K.-H. Chen, C.-H. Shen, A. Ganguly, L.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, H.-I. Wen, and W.-F. Pong, “Anomalous blueshift in emission spectra of ZnO nanorods with sizes beyond quantum confinement regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Liu, C. K. Ong, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Catalyst-free pulsed-laser-deposited ZnO nanorods and their room-temperature photoluminescence properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 053110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Voss, C. Bekeny, L. Wischmeier, H. Gafsi, S. Borner, W. Schade, A. C. Mofor, A. Bakin, and A. Waag, “Influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the energy position of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 182107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y. J. Xing, Z. H. Xi, Z. Q. Xue, X. D. Zhang, J. H. Song, R. M. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Song, S. L. Zhang, and D. P. Yu, “Optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized via vapor phase growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. McKinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. F. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, “Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics,” Nature 415(6872), 617–620 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H.-J. Egelhaaf and D. Oelkrug, “Luminescence and nonradiative deactivation of excited states involving oxygen defect centers in polycrystalline ZnO,” J. Cryst. Growth 161(1-4), 190–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. E. Smith, M. H. Brodsky, B. L. Crowder, M. L. Nathan, and A. Pinczuk, “Raman spectra of amorphous si and related tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26(11), 642–646 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

C. A. Arguello, D. L. Rousseau, and S. P. S. Porto, “First-order Raman effect in Wurtzite-type crystals,” Phys. Rev. 181(3), 1351–1363 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, “Raman effect in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, C. H.

C. H. Ahn, S. K. Mohanta, N. E. Lee, and H. K. Cho, “Enhanced exciton-phonon interactions in photoluminescence of ZnO nanopencils,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ali, G. M.

G. M. Ali and P. Chakrabarti, “Effect of thermal treatment on the performance of ZnO based metal-insulator-semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arguello, C. A.

C. A. Arguello, D. L. Rousseau, and S. P. S. Porto, “First-order Raman effect in Wurtzite-type crystals,” Phys. Rev. 181(3), 1351–1363 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(8), 510–513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakin, A.

T. Voss, C. Bekeny, L. Wischmeier, H. Gafsi, S. Borner, W. Schade, A. C. Mofor, A. Bakin, and A. Waag, “Influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the energy position of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 182107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bekeny, C.

T. Voss, C. Bekeny, L. Wischmeier, H. Gafsi, S. Borner, W. Schade, A. C. Mofor, A. Bakin, and A. Waag, “Influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the energy position of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 182107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Borner, S.

T. Voss, C. Bekeny, L. Wischmeier, H. Gafsi, S. Borner, W. Schade, A. C. Mofor, A. Bakin, and A. Waag, “Influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the energy position of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 182107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brodsky, M. H.

J. E. Smith, M. H. Brodsky, B. L. Crowder, M. L. Nathan, and A. Pinczuk, “Raman spectra of amorphous si and related tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26(11), 642–646 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chakrabarti, P.

G. M. Ali and P. Chakrabarti, “Effect of thermal treatment on the performance of ZnO based metal-insulator-semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(3), 031116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-W.

C.-W. Chen, K.-H. Chen, C.-H. Shen, A. Ganguly, L.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, H.-I. Wen, and W.-F. Pong, “Anomalous blueshift in emission spectra of ZnO nanorods with sizes beyond quantum confinement regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.-H.

C.-W. Chen, K.-H. Chen, C.-H. Shen, A. Ganguly, L.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, H.-I. Wen, and W.-F. Pong, “Anomalous blueshift in emission spectra of ZnO nanorods with sizes beyond quantum confinement regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-C.

C.-W. Chen, K.-H. Chen, C.-H. Shen, A. Ganguly, L.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, H.-I. Wen, and W.-F. Pong, “Anomalous blueshift in emission spectra of ZnO nanorods with sizes beyond quantum confinement regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-J.

A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L.-J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. D.

Y. Zhang, J. Q. Xu, P. C. Xu, Y. H. Zhu, X. D. Chen, and W. J. Yu, “Decoration of ZnO nanowires with Pt nanoparticles and their improved gas sensing and photocatalytic performance,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, H. K.

C. H. Ahn, S. K. Mohanta, N. E. Lee, and H. K. Cho, “Enhanced exciton-phonon interactions in photoluminescence of ZnO nanopencils,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. K.

X. Gu, K. Huo, G. Qian, J. Fu, and P. K. Chu, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence from ZnO nanowires and nanosheets on brass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crowder, B. L.

J. E. Smith, M. H. Brodsky, B. L. Crowder, M. L. Nathan, and A. Pinczuk, “Raman spectra of amorphous si and related tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26(11), 642–646 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, “Raman effect in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
[CrossRef]

De Vlaminck, I.

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(8), 510–513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egelhaaf, H.-J.

H.-J. Egelhaaf and D. Oelkrug, “Luminescence and nonradiative deactivation of excited states involving oxygen defect centers in polycrystalline ZnO,” J. Cryst. Growth 161(1-4), 190–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J.

X. Gu, K. Huo, G. Qian, J. Fu, and P. K. Chu, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence from ZnO nanowires and nanosheets on brass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gafsi, H.

T. Voss, C. Bekeny, L. Wischmeier, H. Gafsi, S. Borner, W. Schade, A. C. Mofor, A. Bakin, and A. Waag, “Influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the energy position of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 182107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ganguly, A.

C.-W. Chen, K.-H. Chen, C.-H. Shen, A. Ganguly, L.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, H.-I. Wen, and W.-F. Pong, “Anomalous blueshift in emission spectra of ZnO nanorods with sizes beyond quantum confinement regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gargas, D.

R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

X. Gu, K. Huo, G. Qian, J. Fu, and P. K. Chu, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence from ZnO nanowires and nanosheets on brass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gudiksen, M. S.

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. F. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, “Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics,” Nature 415(6872), 617–620 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, J.

Y. H. Huang, Y. Zhang, X. M. Zhang, J. Liu, J. He, and Q. L. Liao, “Structures, growth mechanisms and properties of ZnO nanomaterials fabricated by zinc powder evaporation,” Nanoscience 11, 265–275 (2006).

He, R. R.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. McKinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hebner, T. R.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

S.-S. Lo and D. Huang, “Morphological variation and Raman spectroscopy of ZnO hollow microspheres prepared by a chemical colloidal process,” Langmuir 26, 6762–6766 (2010).

Huang, Y. H.

Q. Zhang, J. J. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. H. Huang, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Electrical breakdown of ZnO nanowires in metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 253112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Huang, Y. Zhang, X. M. Zhang, J. Liu, J. He, and Q. L. Liao, “Structures, growth mechanisms and properties of ZnO nanomaterials fabricated by zinc powder evaporation,” Nanoscience 11, 265–275 (2006).

Huo, K.

X. Gu, K. Huo, G. Qian, J. Fu, and P. K. Chu, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence from ZnO nanowires and nanosheets on brass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, B.

H. Y. Li, B. Jiang, R. Schaller, J. F. Wu, and J. Jiao, “Antireflective photoanode made of TiO2 nanobelts and a ZnO nanowire array,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(26), 11375–11380 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, J.

H. Y. Li, B. Jiang, R. Schaller, J. F. Wu, and J. Jiao, “Antireflective photoanode made of TiO2 nanobelts and a ZnO nanowire array,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(26), 11375–11380 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. McKinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knutsen, K.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. McKinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Konjhodzic, D.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, “High-order waveguide modes in ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3675–3680 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagae, L.

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(8), 510–513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauhon, L. J.

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. F. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, “Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics,” Nature 415(6872), 617–620 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Law, M.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. McKinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee and M. Yoon, “Synthesis of visible light-sensitive ZnO nanostructures: subwavelength waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11952–11958 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, N. E.

C. H. Ahn, S. K. Mohanta, N. E. Lee, and H. K. Cho, “Enhanced exciton-phonon interactions in photoluminescence of ZnO nanopencils,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lei, Y.

Y. Lei, X. Q. Yan, N. Luo, Y. Song, and Y. Zhang, “ZnO nanotetrapod network as the adsorption layer for the improvement of glucose detection via multiterminal electron-exchange,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 361(1-3), 169–173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. Y.

H. Y. Li, B. Jiang, R. Schaller, J. F. Wu, and J. Jiao, “Antireflective photoanode made of TiO2 nanobelts and a ZnO nanowire array,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(26), 11375–11380 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Q. Zhang, J. J. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. H. Huang, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Electrical breakdown of ZnO nanowires in metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 253112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H. K.

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Q. L.

Y. H. Huang, Y. Zhang, X. M. Zhang, J. Liu, J. He, and Q. L. Liao, “Structures, growth mechanisms and properties of ZnO nanomaterials fabricated by zinc powder evaporation,” Nanoscience 11, 265–275 (2006).

Lieber, C. M.

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. F. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, “Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics,” Nature 415(6872), 617–620 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, X. Y.

Y. H. Zheng, L. R. Zheng, Y. Y. Zhan, X. Y. Lin, Q. Zheng, and K. Wei, “Ag/ZnO heterostructure nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalysis,” Inorg. Chem. 46(17), 6980–6986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Y. H. Huang, Y. Zhang, X. M. Zhang, J. Liu, J. He, and Q. L. Liao, “Structures, growth mechanisms and properties of ZnO nanomaterials fabricated by zinc powder evaporation,” Nanoscience 11, 265–275 (2006).

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, C. K. Ong, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Catalyst-free pulsed-laser-deposited ZnO nanorods and their room-temperature photoluminescence properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 053110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lo, S.-S.

S.-S. Lo and D. Huang, “Morphological variation and Raman spectroscopy of ZnO hollow microspheres prepared by a chemical colloidal process,” Langmuir 26, 6762–6766 (2010).

Lu, M. H.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M. Y.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L.-J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.-Y.

A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, N.

Y. Lei, X. Q. Yan, N. Luo, Y. Song, and Y. Zhang, “ZnO nanotetrapod network as the adsorption layer for the improvement of glucose detection via multiterminal electron-exchange,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 361(1-3), 169–173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maes, B.

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(8), 510–513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manekkathodi, A.

A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcy, D.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marlow, F.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, “High-order waveguide modes in ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3675–3680 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, “High-order waveguide modes in ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3675–3680 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKinney, J. R.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. McKinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mofor, A. C.

T. Voss, C. Bekeny, L. Wischmeier, H. Gafsi, S. Borner, W. Schade, A. C. Mofor, A. Bakin, and A. Waag, “Influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the energy position of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 182107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mohanta, S. K.

C. H. Ahn, S. K. Mohanta, N. E. Lee, and H. K. Cho, “Enhanced exciton-phonon interactions in photoluminescence of ZnO nanopencils,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Müller, S.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, “High-order waveguide modes in ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3675–3680 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nathan, M. L.

J. E. Smith, M. H. Brodsky, B. L. Crowder, M. L. Nathan, and A. Pinczuk, “Raman spectra of amorphous si and related tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26(11), 642–646 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Oelkrug, D.

H.-J. Egelhaaf and D. Oelkrug, “Luminescence and nonradiative deactivation of excited states involving oxygen defect centers in polycrystalline ZnO,” J. Cryst. Growth 161(1-4), 190–194 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ong, C. K.

Z. W. Liu, C. K. Ong, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Catalyst-free pulsed-laser-deposited ZnO nanorods and their room-temperature photoluminescence properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 053110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ong, H. C.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pham, J.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. McKinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pinczuk, A.

J. E. Smith, M. H. Brodsky, B. L. Crowder, M. L. Nathan, and A. Pinczuk, “Raman spectra of amorphous si and related tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26(11), 642–646 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Pong, W.-F.

C.-W. Chen, K.-H. Chen, C.-H. Shen, A. Ganguly, L.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, H.-I. Wen, and W.-F. Pong, “Anomalous blueshift in emission spectra of ZnO nanorods with sizes beyond quantum confinement regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Porto, S. P. S.

C. A. Arguello, D. L. Rousseau, and S. P. S. Porto, “First-order Raman effect in Wurtzite-type crystals,” Phys. Rev. 181(3), 1351–1363 (1969).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, “Raman effect in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Qi, J. J.

Q. Zhang, J. J. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. H. Huang, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Electrical breakdown of ZnO nanowires in metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 253112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qian, G.

X. Gu, K. Huo, G. Qian, J. Fu, and P. K. Chu, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence from ZnO nanowires and nanosheets on brass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roels, J.

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(8), 510–513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ronning, C.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, “High-order waveguide modes in ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3675–3680 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rousseau, D. L.

C. A. Arguello, D. L. Rousseau, and S. P. S. Porto, “First-order Raman effect in Wurtzite-type crystals,” Phys. Rev. 181(3), 1351–1363 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Saykally, R.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. McKinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schade, W.

T. Voss, C. Bekeny, L. Wischmeier, H. Gafsi, S. Borner, W. Schade, A. C. Mofor, A. Bakin, and A. Waag, “Influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the energy position of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 182107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, R.

H. Y. Li, B. Jiang, R. Schaller, J. F. Wu, and J. Jiao, “Antireflective photoanode made of TiO2 nanobelts and a ZnO nanowire array,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(26), 11375–11380 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C.-H.

C.-W. Chen, K.-H. Chen, C.-H. Shen, A. Ganguly, L.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, H.-I. Wen, and W.-F. Pong, “Anomalous blueshift in emission spectra of ZnO nanorods with sizes beyond quantum confinement regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Z. W. Liu, C. K. Ong, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Catalyst-free pulsed-laser-deposited ZnO nanorods and their room-temperature photoluminescence properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 053110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. C.

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. F. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, “Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics,” Nature 415(6872), 617–620 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, J. E.

J. E. Smith, M. H. Brodsky, B. L. Crowder, M. L. Nathan, and A. Pinczuk, “Raman spectra of amorphous si and related tetrahedrally bonded semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 26(11), 642–646 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. H.

Z. L. Wang and J. H. Song, “Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays,” Science 312(5771), 242–246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Xing, Z. H. Xi, Z. Q. Xue, X. D. Zhang, J. H. Song, R. M. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Song, S. L. Zhang, and D. P. Yu, “Optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized via vapor phase growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.

Y. Lei, X. Q. Yan, N. Luo, Y. Song, and Y. Zhang, “ZnO nanotetrapod network as the adsorption layer for the improvement of glucose detection via multiterminal electron-exchange,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 361(1-3), 169–173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Xing, Z. H. Xi, Z. Q. Xue, X. D. Zhang, J. H. Song, R. M. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Song, S. L. Zhang, and D. P. Yu, “Optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized via vapor phase growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Svacha, G. T.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, “High-order waveguide modes in ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3675–3680 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tansu, N.

H. P. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tell, B.

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, “Raman effect in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. 142(2), 570–574 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Tunable optical forces between nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 4(8), 510–513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voss, T.

T. Voss, G. T. Svacha, E. Mazur, S. Müller, C. Ronning, D. Konjhodzic, and F. Marlow, “High-order waveguide modes in ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3675–3680 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Voss, C. Bekeny, L. Wischmeier, H. Gafsi, S. Borner, W. Schade, A. C. Mofor, A. Bakin, and A. Waag, “Influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the energy position of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 182107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waag, A.

T. Voss, C. Bekeny, L. Wischmeier, H. Gafsi, S. Borner, W. Schade, A. C. Mofor, A. Bakin, and A. Waag, “Influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the energy position of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 182107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. W.

A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J. F.

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. F. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, “Growth of nanowire superlattice structures for nanoscale photonics and electronics,” Nature 415(6872), 617–620 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R. M.

Y. J. Xing, Z. H. Xi, Z. Q. Xue, X. D. Zhang, J. H. Song, R. M. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Song, S. L. Zhang, and D. P. Yu, “Optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized via vapor phase growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L.-J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Wang and J. H. Song, “Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays,” Science 312(5771), 242–246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, K.

Y. H. Zheng, L. R. Zheng, Y. Y. Zhan, X. Y. Lin, Q. Zheng, and K. Wei, “Ag/ZnO heterostructure nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalysis,” Inorg. Chem. 46(17), 6980–6986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, H.-I.

C.-W. Chen, K.-H. Chen, C.-H. Shen, A. Ganguly, L.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, H.-I. Wen, and W.-F. Pong, “Anomalous blueshift in emission spectra of ZnO nanorods with sizes beyond quantum confinement regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wischmeier, L.

T. Voss, C. Bekeny, L. Wischmeier, H. Gafsi, S. Borner, W. Schade, A. C. Mofor, A. Bakin, and A. Waag, “Influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the energy position of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 182107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

T. R. Hebner, C. C. Wu, D. Marcy, M. H. Lu, and J. C. Sturm, “Ink-jet printing of doped polymers for organic light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(5), 519–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. F.

H. Y. Li, B. Jiang, R. Schaller, J. F. Wu, and J. Jiao, “Antireflective photoanode made of TiO2 nanobelts and a ZnO nanowire array,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(26), 11375–11380 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.-J.

C.-W. Chen, K.-H. Chen, C.-H. Shen, A. Ganguly, L.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, H.-I. Wen, and W.-F. Pong, “Anomalous blueshift in emission spectra of ZnO nanorods with sizes beyond quantum confinement regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xi, Z. H.

Y. J. Xing, Z. H. Xi, Z. Q. Xue, X. D. Zhang, J. H. Song, R. M. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Song, S. L. Zhang, and D. P. Yu, “Optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized via vapor phase growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xing, Y. J.

Y. J. Xing, Z. H. Xi, Z. Q. Xue, X. D. Zhang, J. H. Song, R. M. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Song, S. L. Zhang, and D. P. Yu, “Optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized via vapor phase growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Y. J. Xing, Z. H. Xi, Z. Q. Xue, X. D. Zhang, J. H. Song, R. M. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Song, S. L. Zhang, and D. P. Yu, “Optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized via vapor phase growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. Q.

Y. Zhang, J. Q. Xu, P. C. Xu, Y. H. Zhu, X. D. Chen, and W. J. Yu, “Decoration of ZnO nanowires with Pt nanoparticles and their improved gas sensing and photocatalytic performance,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, P. C.

Y. Zhang, J. Q. Xu, P. C. Xu, Y. H. Zhu, X. D. Chen, and W. J. Yu, “Decoration of ZnO nanowires with Pt nanoparticles and their improved gas sensing and photocatalytic performance,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, Z. Q.

Y. J. Xing, Z. H. Xi, Z. Q. Xue, X. D. Zhang, J. H. Song, R. M. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Song, S. L. Zhang, and D. P. Yu, “Optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized via vapor phase growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H. Q.

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. McKinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yan, R. X.

R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X. Q.

Y. Lei, X. Q. Yan, N. Luo, Y. Song, and Y. Zhang, “ZnO nanotetrapod network as the adsorption layer for the improvement of glucose detection via multiterminal electron-exchange,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 361(1-3), 169–173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. Y.

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. D.

R. X. Yan, D. Gargas, and P. D. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(10), 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. McKinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Q. Zhang, J. J. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. H. Huang, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Electrical breakdown of ZnO nanowires in metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 253112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, M.

J. Lee and M. Yoon, “Synthesis of visible light-sensitive ZnO nanostructures: subwavelength waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(27), 11952–11958 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D. P.

Y. J. Xing, Z. H. Xi, Z. Q. Xue, X. D. Zhang, J. H. Song, R. M. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Song, S. L. Zhang, and D. P. Yu, “Optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized via vapor phase growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

H. K. Liang, S. F. Yu, and H. Y. Yang, “ZnO random laser diode arrays for stable single-mode operation at high power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(24), 241107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

Z. W. Liu, C. K. Ong, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Catalyst-free pulsed-laser-deposited ZnO nanorods and their room-temperature photoluminescence properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 053110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W. J.

Y. Zhang, J. Q. Xu, P. C. Xu, Y. H. Zhu, X. D. Chen, and W. J. Yu, “Decoration of ZnO nanowires with Pt nanoparticles and their improved gas sensing and photocatalytic performance,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhan, Y. Y.

Y. H. Zheng, L. R. Zheng, Y. Y. Zhan, X. Y. Lin, Q. Zheng, and K. Wei, “Ag/ZnO heterostructure nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalysis,” Inorg. Chem. 46(17), 6980–6986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, J. J. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. H. Huang, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Electrical breakdown of ZnO nanowires in metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 253112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S. L.

Y. J. Xing, Z. H. Xi, Z. Q. Xue, X. D. Zhang, J. H. Song, R. M. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Song, S. L. Zhang, and D. P. Yu, “Optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized via vapor phase growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. D.

Y. J. Xing, Z. H. Xi, Z. Q. Xue, X. D. Zhang, J. H. Song, R. M. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Song, S. L. Zhang, and D. P. Yu, “Optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized via vapor phase growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. M.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L.-J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Huang, Y. Zhang, X. M. Zhang, J. Liu, J. He, and Q. L. Liao, “Structures, growth mechanisms and properties of ZnO nanomaterials fabricated by zinc powder evaporation,” Nanoscience 11, 265–275 (2006).

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, J. Q. Xu, P. C. Xu, Y. H. Zhu, X. D. Chen, and W. J. Yu, “Decoration of ZnO nanowires with Pt nanoparticles and their improved gas sensing and photocatalytic performance,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lei, X. Q. Yan, N. Luo, Y. Song, and Y. Zhang, “ZnO nanotetrapod network as the adsorption layer for the improvement of glucose detection via multiterminal electron-exchange,” Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 361(1-3), 169–173 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zhang, J. J. Qi, Y. Yang, Y. H. Huang, X. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Electrical breakdown of ZnO nanowires in metal-semiconductor-metal structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 253112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L.-J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Huang, Y. Zhang, X. M. Zhang, J. Liu, J. He, and Q. L. Liao, “Structures, growth mechanisms and properties of ZnO nanomaterials fabricated by zinc powder evaporation,” Nanoscience 11, 265–275 (2006).

Zhao, H. P.

H. P. Zhao and N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, H. P. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Effect of crystal-field split-off hole and heavy-hole bands crossover on gain characteristics of high Al-content AlGaN quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(11), 111105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L. R.

Y. H. Zheng, L. R. Zheng, Y. Y. Zhan, X. Y. Lin, Q. Zheng, and K. Wei, “Ag/ZnO heterostructure nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalysis,” Inorg. Chem. 46(17), 6980–6986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Q.

Y. H. Zheng, L. R. Zheng, Y. Y. Zhan, X. Y. Lin, Q. Zheng, and K. Wei, “Ag/ZnO heterostructure nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalysis,” Inorg. Chem. 46(17), 6980–6986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y. H.

Y. H. Zheng, L. R. Zheng, Y. Y. Zhan, X. Y. Lin, Q. Zheng, and K. Wei, “Ag/ZnO heterostructure nanocrystals: synthesis, characterization, and photocatalysis,” Inorg. Chem. 46(17), 6980–6986 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y. H.

Y. Zhang, J. Q. Xu, P. C. Xu, Y. H. Zhu, X. D. Chen, and W. J. Yu, “Decoration of ZnO nanowires with Pt nanoparticles and their improved gas sensing and photocatalytic performance,” Nanotechnology 21(28), 285501 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (3)

A. Manekkathodi, M.-Y. Lu, C. W. Wang, and L.-J. Chen, “Direct growth of aligned zinc oxide nanorods on paper substrates for low-cost flexible electronics,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(36), 4059–4063 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L.-J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN Thin Film,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Q. Yan, J. Johnson, M. Law, R. R. He, K. Knutsen, J. R. McKinney, J. Pham, R. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, “ZnO nanoribbon microcavity lasers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 15(22), 1907–1911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(25), 3656–3658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chen, K.-H. Chen, C.-H. Shen, A. Ganguly, L.-C. Chen, J.-J. Wu, H.-I. Wen, and W.-F. Pong, “Anomalous blueshift in emission spectra of ZnO nanorods with sizes beyond quantum confinement regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. W. Liu, C. K. Ong, T. Yu, and Z. X. Shen, “Catalyst-free pulsed-laser-deposited ZnO nanorods and their room-temperature photoluminescence properties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 053110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Voss, C. Bekeny, L. Wischmeier, H. Gafsi, S. Borner, W. Schade, A. C. Mofor, A. Bakin, and A. Waag, “Influence of exciton-phonon coupling on the energy position of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of ZnO nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 182107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Xing, Z. H. Xi, Z. Q. Xue, X. D. Zhang, J. H. Song, R. M. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Song, S. L. Zhang, and D. P. Yu, “Optical properties of the ZnO nanotubes synthesized via vapor phase growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1689–1691 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ahn, S. K. Mohanta, N. E. Lee, and H. K. Cho, “Enhanced exciton-phonon interactions in photoluminescence of ZnO nanopencils,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 261904 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Gu, K. Huo, G. Qian, J. Fu, and P. K. Chu, “Temperature dependent photoluminescence from ZnO nanowires and nanosheets on brass substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(20), 203117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

I-V curve recorded during the nanodamage process, insert SEM and HRTEM images compare the morphology and crystal structures before and after the failure process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Enlarged room temperature Raman spectra at E2 (high) for pearl and pole parts.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Room temperature PL spectra of single crystal and polycrystalline ZnO. Inset: the sample, the red and blue circles indicate the test location. (b) Photoluminescence images of columnar (top) and pearl-like ZnO (bottom) nanowires dispersed on a SiOX/Si substrate, respectively. White circles point out the emission parts except the end.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electromagnetic field distributions in the two-dimensional cross section of single crystalline and polycrystalline ZnO waveguides.

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