Abstract

Bio-integrated organic optoelectronics is an emerging research field that takes advantage of the soft and deformable properties of organic semiconductor materials for applications at the interface of optoelectronics and biology. The results are advanced flexible, and even stretchable, wearable, and implantable systems that allow intimate and long-term integration with biological tissues to enable new opportunities for high-fidelity healthcare monitoring, therapeutics, human-machine interfaces, etc. In this review, we introduce the field, and present an overview of recent advances in materials, devices, integration strategies, current applications, and future challenges of bio-integrated organic optoelectronics.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (9)

T. R. Ray, J. Choi, A. J. Bandodkar, S. Krishnan, P. Gutruf, L. Tian, R. Ghaffari, and J. A. Rogers, “Bio-Integrated Wearable Systems: A Comprehensive Review,” Chem. Rev. 119(8), 5461–5533 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Liu, J. Feng, Y.-G. Bi, D. Yin, and H.-B. Sun, “Recent Developments in Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4(1), 1800371 (2019).
[Crossref]

N. Matsuhisa, X. Chen, Z. Bao, and T. Someya, “Materials and structural designs of stretchable conductors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 48(11), 2946–2966 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Obaid and L. Lu, “Highly Efficient Microscale Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Arrays as Optogenetic Power Options,” IEEE Photonics J. 11(1), 1–8 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Jakešová, M. Silverå Ejneby, V. Đerek, T. Schmidt, M. Gryszel, J. Brask, R. Schindl, D. T. Simon, M. Berggren, F. Elinder, and E. D. Głowacki, “Optoelectronic control of single cells using organic photocapacitors,” Sci. Adv. 5(4), eaav5265 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. B. Srivastava, R. Melikov, M. M. Aria, U. M. Dikbas, I. H. Kavakli, and S. Nizamoglu, “Band Alignment Engineers Faradaic and Capacitive Photostimulation of Neurons Without Surface Modification,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 11(4), 044012 (2019).
[Crossref]

O. S. Abdullaeva, F. Balzer, M. Schulz, J. Parisi, A. Lützen, K. Dedek, and M. Schiek, “Organic Photovoltaic Sensors for Photocapacitive Stimulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Neuroblastoma Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(21), 1805177 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Rezaei-Mazinani, A. I. Ivanov, M. Biele, A. L. Rutz, V. G. Gregoriou, A. Avgeropoulos, S. F. Tedde, C. L. Chochos, C. Bernard, R. P. O’Connor, G. G. Malliaras, and E. Ismailova, “Monitoring fluorescent calcium signals in neural cells with organic photodetectors,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(29), 9049–9056 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Morton, C. Murawski, Y. Deng, C. Keum, G. B. Miles, J. A. Tello, and M. C. Gather, “Photostimulation for In Vitro Optogenetics with High-Power Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Biosyst. 3(3), 1800290 (2019).
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2018 (17)

Y. Jiang, X. Li, B. Liu, J. Yi, Y. Fang, F. Shi, X. Gao, E. Sudzilovsky, R. Parameswaran, K. Koehler, V. Nair, J. Yue, K. Guo, Y. Fang, H.-M. Tsai, G. Freyermuth, R. C. S. Wong, C.-M. Kao, C.-T. Chen, A. W. Nicholls, X. Wu, G. M. G. Shepherd, and B. Tian, “Rational design of silicon structures for optically controlled multiscale biointerfaces,” Nat. Biomed. Eng. 2(7), 508–521 (2018).
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R. Parameswaran, J. L. Carvalho-de-Souza, Y. Jiang, M. J. Burke, J. F. Zimmerman, K. Koehler, A. W. Phillips, J. Yi, E. J. Adams, F. Bezanilla, and B. Tian, “Photoelectrochemical modulation of neuronal activity with free-standing coaxial silicon nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 260–266 (2018).
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S. Kwon, H. Kim, S. Choi, E. G. Jeong, D. Kim, S. Lee, H. S. Lee, Y. C. Seo, and K. C. Choi, “Weavable and Highly Efficient Organic Light-Emitting Fibers for Wearable Electronics: A Scalable, Low-Temperature Process,” Nano Lett. 18(1), 347–356 (2018).
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Y. Jeon, H.-R. Choi, M. Lim, S. Choi, H. Kim, J. H. Kwon, K.-C. Park, and K. C. Choi, “A Wearable Photobiomodulation Patch Using a Flexible Red-Wavelength OLED and Its In Vitro Differential Cell Proliferation Effects,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 3(5), 1700391 (2018).
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D. Rand, M. Jakešová, G. Lubin, I. Vėbraitė, M. David-Pur, V. Đerek, T. Cramer, N. S. Sariciftci, Y. Hanein, and E. D. Głowacki, “Direct Electrical Neurostimulation with Organic Pigment Photocapacitors,” Adv. Mater. 30(25), 1707292 (2018).
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Y. Jia, W. Khan, B. Lee, B. Fan, F. Madi, A. Weber, W. Li, and M. Ghovanloo, “Wireless opto-electro neural interface for experiments with small freely behaving animals,” J. Neural Eng. 15(4), 046032 (2018).
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H. Lee, E. Kim, Y. Lee, H. Kim, J. Lee, M. Kim, H.-J. Yoo, and S. Yoo, “Toward all-day wearable health monitoring: An ultralow-power, reflective organic pulse oximetry sensing patch,” Sci. Adv. 4(11), eaas9530 (2018).
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Y. Khan, D. Han, A. Pierre, J. Ting, X. Wang, C. M. Lochner, G. Bovo, N. Yaacobi-Gross, C. Newsome, R. Wilson, and A. C. Arias, “A flexible organic reflectance oximeter array,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 115(47), E11015–E11024 (2018).
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H. Ding, L. Lu, Z. Shi, D. Wang, L. Li, X. Li, Y. Ren, C. Liu, D. Cheng, H. Kim, N. C. Giebink, X. Wang, L. Yin, L. Zhao, M. Luo, and X. Sheng, “Microscale optoelectronic infrared-to-visible upconversion devices and their use as injectable light sources,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 115(26), 6632–6637 (2018).
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L. Lu, Z. Yang, K. Meacham, C. Cvetkovic, E. A. Corbin, A. Vázquez-Guardado, M. Xue, L. Yin, J. Boroumand, G. Pakeltis, T. Sang, K. J. Yu, D. Chanda, R. Bashir, R. W. Gereau IV, X. Sheng, and J. A. Rogers, “Biodegradable Monocrystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Microcells as Power Supplies for Transient Biomedical Implants,” Adv. Energy Mater. 8(16), 1703035 (2018).
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Y. Hung, M. Cai, J. Chen, H. Su, P. Jen, P. Chen, C. Shih, and T. Chang, “High-Voltage Backside-Illuminated CMOS Photovoltaic Module for Powering Implantable Temperature Sensors,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 8(1), 342–347 (2018).
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S. Park, S. W. Heo, W. Lee, D. Inoue, Z. Jiang, K. Yu, H. Jinno, D. Hashizume, M. Sekino, T. Yokota, K. Fukuda, K. Tajima, and T. Someya, “Self-powered ultra-flexible electronics via nano-grating-patterned organic photovoltaics,” Nature 561(7724), 516–521 (2018).
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Y. Lee, J. Y. Oh, W. Xu, O. Kim, T. R. Kim, J. Kang, Y. Kim, D. Son, J. B.-H. Tok, M. J. Park, Z. Bao, and T.-W. Lee, “Stretchable organic optoelectronic sensorimotor synapse,” Sci. Adv. 4(11), eaat7387 (2018).
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A. I. Hofmann, E. Cloutet, and G. Hadziioannou, “Materials for Transparent Electrodes: From Metal Oxides to Organic Alternatives,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 4(10), 1700412 (2018).
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L. Meng, Y. Zhang, X. Wan, C. Li, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, X. Ke, Z. Xiao, L. Ding, R. Xia, H.-L. Yip, Y. Cao, and Y. Chen, “Organic and solution-processed tandem solar cells with 17.3% efficiency,” Science 361(6407), 1094–1098 (2018).
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S. Park, K. Fukuda, M. Wang, C. Lee, T. Yokota, H. Jin, H. Jinno, H. Kimura, P. Zalar, N. Matsuhisa, S. Umezu, G. C. Bazan, and T. Someya, “Ultraflexible Near-Infrared Organic Photodetectors for Conformal Photoplethysmogram Sensors,” Adv. Mater. 30(34), 1802359 (2018).
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B. Tian, S. Xu, J. A. Rogers, S. Cestellos-Blanco, P. Yang, J. L. Carvalho-de-Souza, F. Bezanilla, J. Liu, Z. Bao, M. Hjort, Y. Cao, N. Melosh, G. Lanzani, F. Benfenati, G. Galli, F. Gygi, R. Kautz, A. A. Gorodetsky, S. S. Kim, T. K. Lu, P. Anikeeva, M. Cifra, O. Krivosudský, D. Havelka, and Y. Jiang, “Roadmap on semiconductor–cell biointerfaces,” Phys. Biol. 15(3), 031002 (2018).
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2017 (6)

A. M. Zamarayeva, A. E. Ostfeld, M. Wang, J. K. Duey, I. Deckman, B. P. Lechêne, G. Davies, D. A. Steingart, and A. C. Arias, “Flexible and stretchable power sources for wearable electronics,” Sci. Adv. 3(6), e1602051 (2017).
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H. Jinno, K. Fukuda, X. Xu, S. Park, Y. Suzuki, M. Koizumi, T. Yokota, I. Osaka, K. Takimiya, and T. Someya, “Stretchable and waterproof elastomer-coated organic photovoltaics for washable electronic textile applications,” Nat. Energy 2(10), 780–785 (2017).
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L. Li, J. Liang, H. Gao, Y. Li, X. Niu, X. Zhu, Y. Xiong, and Q. Pei, “A Solid-State Intrinsically Stretchable Polymer Solar Cell,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(46), 40523–40532 (2017).
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D. Han, Y. Khan, J. Ting, S. M. King, N. Yaacobi-Gross, M. J. Humphries, C. J. Newsome, and A. C. Arias, “Flexible Blade-Coated Multicolor Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes for Optoelectronic Sensors,” Adv. Mater. 29(22), 1606206 (2017).
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F. Lodola, N. Martino, G. Tullii, G. Lanzani, and M. R. Antognazza, “Conjugated polymers mediate effective activation of the Mammalian Ion Channel Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8477 (2017).
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J. H. Koo, S. Jeong, H. J. Shim, D. Son, J. Kim, D. C. Kim, S. Choi, J.-I. Hong, and D.-H. Kim, “Wearable Electrocardiogram Monitor Using Carbon Nanotube Electronics and Color-Tunable Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 11(10), 10032–10041 (2017).
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2016 (14)

W. Kim, S. Kwon, Y. C. Han, E. Kim, K. C. Choi, S.-H. Kang, and B.-C. Park, “Reliable Actual Fabric-Based Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: Toward a Wearable Display,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 2(11), 1600220 (2016).
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C. Mignon, N. V. Botchkareva, N. E. Uzunbajakava, and D. J. Tobin, “Photobiomodulation devices for hair regrowth and wound healing: a therapy full of promise but a literature full of confusion,” Exp. Dermatol. 25(10), 745–749 (2016).
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S. Vaquero, C. Bossio, S. Bellani, N. Martino, E. Zucchetti, G. Lanzani, and M. R. Antognazza, “Conjugated polymers for the optical control of the electrical activity of living cells,” J. Mater. Chem. B 4(31), 5272–5283 (2016).
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A. Steude, E. C. Witts, G. B. Miles, and M. C. Gather, “Arrays of microscopic organic LEDs for high-resolution optogenetics,” Sci. Adv. 2(5), e1600061 (2016).
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A. Morton, C. Murawski, S. R. Pulver, and M. C. Gather, “High-brightness organic light-emitting diodes for optogenetic control of Drosophila locomotor behaviour,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31117 (2016).
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S. Thomas, J. Ly, L. Zhang, A. L. Briseno, and J.-L. Bredas, “Improving the Stability of Organic Semiconductors: Distortion Energy versus Aromaticity in Substituted Bistetracene,” Chem. Mater. 28(23), 8504–8512 (2016).
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T. Yokota, P. Zalar, M. Kaltenbrunner, H. Jinno, N. Matsuhisa, H. Kitanosako, Y. Tachibana, W. Yukita, M. Koizumi, and T. Someya, “Ultraflexible organic photonic skin,” Sci. Adv. 2(4), e1501856 (2016).
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D. McCoul, W. Hu, M. Gao, V. Mehta, and Q. Pei, “Recent Advances in Stretchable and Transparent Electronic Materials,” Adv. Electron. Mater. 2(5), 1500407 (2016).
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D. Yin, J. Feng, R. Ma, Y.-F. Liu, Y.-L. Zhang, X.-L. Zhang, Y.-G. Bi, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, “Efficient and mechanically robust stretchable organic light-emitting devices by a laser-programmable buckling process,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 11573 (2016).
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D. Yin, J. Feng, N.-R. Jiang, R. Ma, Y.-F. Liu, and H.-B. Sun, “Two-Dimensional Stretchable Organic Light-Emitting Devices with High Efficiency,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(45), 31166–31171 (2016).
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K. Song, J. H. Han, T. Lim, N. Kim, S. Shin, J. Kim, H. Choo, S. Jeong, Y.-C. Kim, Z. L. Wang, and J. Lee, “Subdermal Flexible Solar Cell Arrays for Powering Medical Electronic Implants,” Adv. Healthcare Mater. 5(13), 1572–1580 (2016).
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Y.-S. Hsiao, Y.-H. Liao, H.-L. Chen, P. Chen, and F.-C. Chen, “Organic Photovoltaics and Bioelectrodes Providing Electrical Stimulation for PC12 Cell Differentiation and Neurite Outgrowth,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(14), 9275–9284 (2016).
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D. T. Simon, E. O. Gabrielsson, K. Tybrandt, and M. Berggren, “Organic bioelectronics: bridging the signaling gap between biology and technology,” Chem. Rev. 116(21), 13009–13041 (2016).
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T. Someya, Z. Bao, and G. G. Malliaras, “The rise of plastic bioelectronics,” Nature 540(7633), 379–385 (2016).
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2015 (7)

B. J. Worfolk, S. C. Andrews, S. Park, J. Reinspach, N. Liu, M. F. Toney, S. C. B. Mannsfeld, and Z. Bao, “Ultrahigh electrical conductivity in solution-sheared polymeric transparent films,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(46), 14138–14143 (2015).
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L. Lu, T. Zheng, Q. Wu, A. M. Schneider, D. Zhao, and L. Yu, “Recent Advances in Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells,” Chem. Rev. 115(23), 12666–12731 (2015).
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A. K. Bansal, S. Hou, O. Kulyk, E. M. Bowman, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Wearable Organic Optoelectronic Sensors for Medicine,” Adv. Mater. 27(46), 7638–7644 (2015).
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S. Savagatrup, D. Rodriquez, A. D. Printz, A. B. Sieval, J. C. Hummelen, and D. J. Lipomi, “[70]PCBM and Incompletely Separated Grades of Methanofullerenes Produce Bulk Heterojunctions with Increased Robustness for Ultra-Flexible and Stretchable Electronics,” Chem. Mater. 27(11), 3902–3911 (2015).
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S. I. Park, D. S. Brenner, G. Shin, C. D. Morgan, B. A. Copits, H. U. Chung, M. Y. Pullen, K. N. Noh, S. Davidson, S. J. Oh, J. Yoon, K.-I. Jang, V. K. Samineni, M. Norman, J. G. Grajales-Reyes, S. K. Vogt, S. S. Sundaram, K. M. Wilson, J. S. Ha, R. Xu, T. Pan, T.-i. Kim, Y. Huang, M. C. Montana, J. P. Golden, M. R. Bruchas, R. W. Gereau, and J. A. Rogers, “Soft, stretchable, fully implantable miniaturized optoelectronic systems for wireless optogenetics,” Nat. Biotechnol. 33(12), 1280–1286 (2015).
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A. Steude, M. Jahnel, M. Thomschke, M. Schober, and M. C. Gather, “Controlling the Behavior of Single Live Cells with High Density Arrays of Microscopic OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 27(46), 7657–7661 (2015).
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N. Martino, P. Feyen, M. Porro, C. Bossio, E. Zucchetti, D. Ghezzi, F. Benfenati, G. Lanzani, and M. R. Antognazza, “Photothermal cellular stimulation in functional bio-polymer interfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8911 (2015).
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2014 (5)

W. Cao, J. Li, H. Chen, and J. Xue, “Transparent electrodes for organic optoelectronic devices: a review,” J. Photonics Energy 4(1), 040990 (2014).
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J. Rivnay, R. M. Owens, and G. G. Malliaras, “The Rise of Organic Bioelectronics,” Chem. Mater. 26(1), 679–685 (2014).
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C. M. Lochner, Y. Khan, A. Pierre, and A. C. Arias, “All-organic optoelectronic sensor for pulse oximetry,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5745 (2014).
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J. Liang, L. Li, K. Tong, Z. Ren, W. Hu, X. Niu, Y. Chen, and Q. Pei, “Silver Nanowire Percolation Network Soldered with Graphene Oxide at Room Temperature and Its Application for Fully Stretchable Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano 8(2), 1590–1600 (2014).
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S. Savagatrup, A. S. Makaram, D. J. Burke, and D. J. Lipomi, “Mechanical Properties of Conjugated Polymers and Polymer-Fullerene Composites as a Function of Molecular Structure,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(8), 1169–1181 (2014).
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2013 (2)

M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 811–816 (2013).
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T.-i. Kim, J. G. McCall, Y. H. Jung, X. Huang, E. R. Siuda, Y. Li, J. Song, Y. M. Song, H. A. Pao, R.-H. Kim, C. Lu, S. D. Lee, I.-S. Song, G. Shin, R. Al-Hasani, S. Kim, M. P. Tan, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, J. A. Rogers, and M. R. Bruchas, “Injectable, Cellular-Scale Optoelectronics with Applications for Wireless Optogenetics,” Science 340(6129), 211–216 (2013).
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2012 (3)

K. Mathieson, J. Loudin, G. Goetz, P. Huie, L. Wang, T. I. Kamins, L. Galambos, R. Smith, J. S. Harris, A. Sher, and D. Palanker, “Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 391–397 (2012).
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D. J. Lipomi, H. Chong, M. Vosgueritchian, J. Mei, and Z. Bao, “Toward mechanically robust and intrinsically stretchable organic solar cells: Evolution of photovoltaic properties with tensile strain,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 107, 355–365 (2012).
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D.-H. Kim, R. Ghaffari, N. Lu, and J. A. Rogers, “Flexible and Stretchable Electronics for Biointegrated Devices,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 14(1), 113–128 (2012).
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2011 (3)

D. J. Lipomi, B. C.-K. Tee, M. Vosgueritchian, and Z. Bao, “Stretchable Organic Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(15), 1771–1775 (2011).
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2007 (1)

E. Vogel, “Technology and metrology of new electronic materials and devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(1), 25–32 (2007).
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2006 (1)

M. A. Trelles and I. Allones, “Red light-emitting diode (LED) therapy accelerates wound healing post-blepharoplasty and periocular laser ablative resurfacing,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 8(1), 39–42 (2006).
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1998 (1)

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1993 (1)

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1987 (1)

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H. Shirakawa, E. J. Louis, A. G. MacDiarmid, C. K. Chiang, and A. J. Heeger, “Synthesis of electrically conducting organic polymers: halogen derivatives of polyacetylene, (CH)x,” J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 16, 578–580 (1977).
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M. S. White, M. Kaltenbrunner, E. D. Głowacki, K. Gutnichenko, G. Kettlgruber, I. Graz, S. Aazou, C. Ulbricht, D. A. M. Egbe, M. C. Miron, Z. Major, M. C. Scharber, T. Sekitani, T. Someya, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Ultrathin, highly flexible and stretchable PLEDs,” Nat. Photonics 7(10), 811–816 (2013).
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Abdullaeva, O. S.

O. S. Abdullaeva, F. Balzer, M. Schulz, J. Parisi, A. Lützen, K. Dedek, and M. Schiek, “Organic Photovoltaic Sensors for Photocapacitive Stimulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Neuroblastoma Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(21), 1805177 (2019).
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Adams, E. J.

R. Parameswaran, J. L. Carvalho-de-Souza, Y. Jiang, M. J. Burke, J. F. Zimmerman, K. Koehler, A. W. Phillips, J. Yi, E. J. Adams, F. Bezanilla, and B. Tian, “Photoelectrochemical modulation of neuronal activity with free-standing coaxial silicon nanowires,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 260–266 (2018).
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Al-Hasani, R.

T.-i. Kim, J. G. McCall, Y. H. Jung, X. Huang, E. R. Siuda, Y. Li, J. Song, Y. M. Song, H. A. Pao, R.-H. Kim, C. Lu, S. D. Lee, I.-S. Song, G. Shin, R. Al-Hasani, S. Kim, M. P. Tan, Y. Huang, F. G. Omenetto, J. A. Rogers, and M. R. Bruchas, “Injectable, Cellular-Scale Optoelectronics with Applications for Wireless Optogenetics,” Science 340(6129), 211–216 (2013).
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Allones, I.

M. A. Trelles and I. Allones, “Red light-emitting diode (LED) therapy accelerates wound healing post-blepharoplasty and periocular laser ablative resurfacing,” J. Cosmet. Laser Ther. 8(1), 39–42 (2006).
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Andrews, S. C.

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B. Tian, S. Xu, J. A. Rogers, S. Cestellos-Blanco, P. Yang, J. L. Carvalho-de-Souza, F. Bezanilla, J. Liu, Z. Bao, M. Hjort, Y. Cao, N. Melosh, G. Lanzani, F. Benfenati, G. Galli, F. Gygi, R. Kautz, A. A. Gorodetsky, S. S. Kim, T. K. Lu, P. Anikeeva, M. Cifra, O. Krivosudský, D. Havelka, and Y. Jiang, “Roadmap on semiconductor–cell biointerfaces,” Phys. Biol. 15(3), 031002 (2018).
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F. Lodola, N. Martino, G. Tullii, G. Lanzani, and M. R. Antognazza, “Conjugated polymers mediate effective activation of the Mammalian Ion Channel Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8477 (2017).
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S. Vaquero, C. Bossio, S. Bellani, N. Martino, E. Zucchetti, G. Lanzani, and M. R. Antognazza, “Conjugated polymers for the optical control of the electrical activity of living cells,” J. Mater. Chem. B 4(31), 5272–5283 (2016).
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N. Martino, P. Feyen, M. Porro, C. Bossio, E. Zucchetti, D. Ghezzi, F. Benfenati, G. Lanzani, and M. R. Antognazza, “Photothermal cellular stimulation in functional bio-polymer interfaces,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8911 (2015).
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D. Han, Y. Khan, J. Ting, S. M. King, N. Yaacobi-Gross, M. J. Humphries, C. J. Newsome, and A. C. Arias, “Flexible Blade-Coated Multicolor Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes for Optoelectronic Sensors,” Adv. Mater. 29(22), 1606206 (2017).
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A. M. Zamarayeva, A. E. Ostfeld, M. Wang, J. K. Duey, I. Deckman, B. P. Lechêne, G. Davies, D. A. Steingart, and A. C. Arias, “Flexible and stretchable power sources for wearable electronics,” Sci. Adv. 3(6), e1602051 (2017).
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C. M. Lochner, Y. Khan, A. Pierre, and A. C. Arias, “All-organic optoelectronic sensor for pulse oximetry,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5745 (2014).
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O. S. Abdullaeva, F. Balzer, M. Schulz, J. Parisi, A. Lützen, K. Dedek, and M. Schiek, “Organic Photovoltaic Sensors for Photocapacitive Stimulation of Voltage-Gated Ion Channels in Neuroblastoma Cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(21), 1805177 (2019).
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T. R. Ray, J. Choi, A. J. Bandodkar, S. Krishnan, P. Gutruf, L. Tian, R. Ghaffari, and J. A. Rogers, “Bio-Integrated Wearable Systems: A Comprehensive Review,” Chem. Rev. 119(8), 5461–5533 (2019).
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A. K. Bansal, S. Hou, O. Kulyk, E. M. Bowman, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Wearable Organic Optoelectronic Sensors for Medicine,” Adv. Mater. 27(46), 7638–7644 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic representations of the structures of an OSC/OPD (a) and a bottom emitting OLED (b).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. OSC based power supplies for bioelectronics. (a) Structure of a four-cell OSC module. (b) Current-voltage characteristics of the module in (a) under different indoor lighting conditions. Reproduced with permission from [36]. Copyright 2017, The Authors. (c) Optical image of the washing process with the OSCs conformed to a dress shirt. (d) Normalized PCE as a function of the dipping time. Reproduced with permission from [37]. Copyright 2017, Springer Nature. (e) Schematic demonstration of an OECT integrated with a double-grating-patterned OSC. (f) Optical image of the self-powered integrated optoelectronic device attached to a rat heart for ECG measurement. Reproduced with permission from [38]. Copyright 2018, Springer Nature.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Organic pulse oximeters. (a) A transmission mode pulse oximeter with red and green OLEDs and one OPD placed on subject’s finger. (b) Pulsating photoplethysmogram signals recorded from the pulse oximeter in (a). Reproduced with permission from [41]. Copyright 2014, Springer Nature. (c) Schematic of a pulse oximeter consisted of an OLED and two OPDs. (d) Optical responses at two wavelengths from forearm skeletal muscle of a subject during ischemia and subsequent recovery. Reproduced with permission from [18]. Copyright 2014 The Authors, published by, Wiley-VCH. (e) Photos of a flexible reflectance oximeter array. Reproduced with permission from [44]. Copyright 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS. (f) Smart organic optoelectronic e-skin comprising pulse oximeters and displays. (g) Output signals from a pulse oximeter with 90% of oxygenation of blood. Reproduced with permission from [46]. Copyright 2016, The Authors.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic of an OLED microarray with cells adhered on top. Reproduced with permission from [53]. Copyright 2016, The Authors.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Schemes of the photosensing interfaces based on (a) polymer bulk heterojunction layer. Reproduced with permission from [58]. Copyright 2011, Springer Nature. (b) small molecule bilayers. Reproduced with permission from [60]. Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Wearable OLED displays. (a) Schematic illustration of a wearable cardiac-monitoring system. (b) Optical images showing color tuned emission of a wearable OLED display according to the measured real time ECG signal shapes. Reproduced with permission from [66]. Copyright 2017, American Chemical Society. (c) Demonstration of fiber OLEDs in clothes and textiles. Reproduced with permission from [68]. Copyright 2018, American Chemical Society.

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