Abstract

Measurements of pulse height spectra and scintillation time profiles performed on Czochralski-grown β-Ga2O3, β-Ga2O3:Ce, and β-Ga2O3:Ce,Si crystals are reported. The highest value of scintillation yield, 7040 ph/MeV, was achieved for pure β-Ga2O3 at a low free electron concentration, nevertheless Ce-doped crystals could also approach high values thereof. Si-codoping, however, decreases the scintillation yield. The presence of Ce, and the more of Ce and Si, in β-Ga2O3 significantly increases the contribution of the fastest components in scintillation time profiles, which makes β-Ga2O3 a very fast scintillator under γ-excitation.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  1. L. de Boisbaudran, “On the chemical and spectroscopic characters of a new metal (gallium),” Philos. Mag. Ser. 4 50(332), 414–416 (1875).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. I. Stepanov, V. I. Nikolaev, V. E. Bougrov, and A. E. Romanov, “Gallium oxide: properties and applications - a review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 44, 63–86 (2016).
  3. Z. Galazka, “β-Ga2O3 for wide-bandgap electronics and optoelectronics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33(11), 113001 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Yanagida, G. Okada, T. Kato, D. Nakauchi, and S. Yanagida, “Fast and high light yield scintillation in the Ga2O3 semiconductor,” Mater,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(4), 042601 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Szalkai, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, P. Tutto, A. Klix, and D. Gehre, “β-Ga2O3 solid state devices for fast neutron detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 64(6), 1574–1579 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Usui, T. Kato, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Comparative study of scintillation properties of Ga2O3 single crystals and ceramics,” J. Lumin. 200, 81–86 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  7. N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Usui, T. Oya, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Ce-doped Ga2O3 single crystalline semiconductor showing scintillation features,” Optik 143, 150–157 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Usui, D. Nakauchi, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Scintillation and optical properties of Sn-doped Ga2O3 single crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 117, 36–41 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. Drozdowski, M. Makowski, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, and R. Schewski, “β-Ga2O3:Ce as a fast scintillator: An unclear role of cerium,” Radiat. Meas. 121, 49–53 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  11. Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.
  12. E. G. Víllora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, T. Ujiie, and K. Aoki, “Electrical conductivity and carrier concentration control in β-Ga2O3 by Si doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202120 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  13. Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, and M. Bickermann, “Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6(2), Q3007–Q3011 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  14. Z. Galazka, S. Ganschow, A. Fiedler, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, M. Albrecht, and M. Bickermann, “Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al,” J. Cryst. Growth 486, 82–90 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  15. L. M. Bollinger and G. E. Thomas, “Measurement of the time dependence of scintillation intensity by a delayed-coincidence method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32(9), 1044–1050 (1961).
    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

W. Drozdowski, M. Makowski, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, and R. Schewski, “β-Ga2O3:Ce as a fast scintillator: An unclear role of cerium,” Radiat. Meas. 121, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

Z. Galazka, S. Ganschow, A. Fiedler, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, M. Albrecht, and M. Bickermann, “Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al,” J. Cryst. Growth 486, 82–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, “β-Ga2O3 for wide-bandgap electronics and optoelectronics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33(11), 113001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Usui, T. Kato, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Comparative study of scintillation properties of Ga2O3 single crystals and ceramics,” J. Lumin. 200, 81–86 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Usui, D. Nakauchi, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Scintillation and optical properties of Sn-doped Ga2O3 single crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 117, 36–41 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

D. Szalkai, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, P. Tutto, A. Klix, and D. Gehre, “β-Ga2O3 solid state devices for fast neutron detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 64(6), 1574–1579 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Usui, T. Oya, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Ce-doped Ga2O3 single crystalline semiconductor showing scintillation features,” Optik 143, 150–157 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, and M. Bickermann, “Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6(2), Q3007–Q3011 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

T. Yanagida, G. Okada, T. Kato, D. Nakauchi, and S. Yanagida, “Fast and high light yield scintillation in the Ga2O3 semiconductor,” Mater,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(4), 042601 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. I. Stepanov, V. I. Nikolaev, V. E. Bougrov, and A. E. Romanov, “Gallium oxide: properties and applications - a review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 44, 63–86 (2016).

2008 (1)

E. G. Víllora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, T. Ujiie, and K. Aoki, “Electrical conductivity and carrier concentration control in β-Ga2O3 by Si doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202120 (2008).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

L. M. Bollinger and G. E. Thomas, “Measurement of the time dependence of scintillation intensity by a delayed-coincidence method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32(9), 1044–1050 (1961).
[Crossref]

1875 (1)

L. de Boisbaudran, “On the chemical and spectroscopic characters of a new metal (gallium),” Philos. Mag. Ser. 4 50(332), 414–416 (1875).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, M.

Z. Galazka, S. Ganschow, A. Fiedler, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, M. Albrecht, and M. Bickermann, “Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al,” J. Cryst. Growth 486, 82–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aoki, K.

E. G. Víllora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, T. Ujiie, and K. Aoki, “Electrical conductivity and carrier concentration control in β-Ga2O3 by Si doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202120 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bertram, R.

Z. Galazka, S. Ganschow, A. Fiedler, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, M. Albrecht, and M. Bickermann, “Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al,” J. Cryst. Growth 486, 82–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, and M. Bickermann, “Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6(2), Q3007–Q3011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bickermann, M.

Z. Galazka, S. Ganschow, A. Fiedler, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, M. Albrecht, and M. Bickermann, “Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al,” J. Cryst. Growth 486, 82–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, and M. Bickermann, “Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6(2), Q3007–Q3011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Bollinger, L. M.

L. M. Bollinger and G. E. Thomas, “Measurement of the time dependence of scintillation intensity by a delayed-coincidence method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32(9), 1044–1050 (1961).
[Crossref]

Bougrov, V. E.

S. I. Stepanov, V. I. Nikolaev, V. E. Bougrov, and A. E. Romanov, “Gallium oxide: properties and applications - a review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 44, 63–86 (2016).

Chen, L.

N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

de Boisbaudran, L.

L. de Boisbaudran, “On the chemical and spectroscopic characters of a new metal (gallium),” Philos. Mag. Ser. 4 50(332), 414–416 (1875).
[Crossref]

Dittmar, A.

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Drozdowski, W.

W. Drozdowski, M. Makowski, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, and R. Schewski, “β-Ga2O3:Ce as a fast scintillator: An unclear role of cerium,” Radiat. Meas. 121, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Fiedler, A.

Z. Galazka, S. Ganschow, A. Fiedler, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, M. Albrecht, and M. Bickermann, “Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al,” J. Cryst. Growth 486, 82–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Galazka, Z.

W. Drozdowski, M. Makowski, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, and R. Schewski, “β-Ga2O3:Ce as a fast scintillator: An unclear role of cerium,” Radiat. Meas. 121, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, “β-Ga2O3 for wide-bandgap electronics and optoelectronics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33(11), 113001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, S. Ganschow, A. Fiedler, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, M. Albrecht, and M. Bickermann, “Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al,” J. Cryst. Growth 486, 82–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, and M. Bickermann, “Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6(2), Q3007–Q3011 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Szalkai, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, P. Tutto, A. Klix, and D. Gehre, “β-Ga2O3 solid state devices for fast neutron detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 64(6), 1574–1579 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Ganschow, S.

Z. Galazka, S. Ganschow, A. Fiedler, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, M. Albrecht, and M. Bickermann, “Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al,” J. Cryst. Growth 486, 82–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, and M. Bickermann, “Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6(2), Q3007–Q3011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Gehre, D.

D. Szalkai, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, P. Tutto, A. Klix, and D. Gehre, “β-Ga2O3 solid state devices for fast neutron detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 64(6), 1574–1579 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Guo, C.

N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hanke, I. M.

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

He, N.

N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Irmscher, K.

W. Drozdowski, M. Makowski, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, and R. Schewski, “β-Ga2O3:Ce as a fast scintillator: An unclear role of cerium,” Radiat. Meas. 121, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, S. Ganschow, A. Fiedler, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, M. Albrecht, and M. Bickermann, “Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al,” J. Cryst. Growth 486, 82–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, and M. Bickermann, “Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6(2), Q3007–Q3011 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Szalkai, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, P. Tutto, A. Klix, and D. Gehre, “β-Ga2O3 solid state devices for fast neutron detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 64(6), 1574–1579 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Kato, T.

Y. Usui, T. Kato, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Comparative study of scintillation properties of Ga2O3 single crystals and ceramics,” J. Lumin. 200, 81–86 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Yanagida, G. Okada, T. Kato, D. Nakauchi, and S. Yanagida, “Fast and high light yield scintillation in the Ga2O3 semiconductor,” Mater,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(4), 042601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kawaguchi, N.

Y. Usui, T. Kato, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Comparative study of scintillation properties of Ga2O3 single crystals and ceramics,” J. Lumin. 200, 81–86 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Usui, D. Nakauchi, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Scintillation and optical properties of Sn-doped Ga2O3 single crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 117, 36–41 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Usui, T. Oya, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Ce-doped Ga2O3 single crystalline semiconductor showing scintillation features,” Optik 143, 150–157 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kawano, N.

Y. Usui, D. Nakauchi, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Scintillation and optical properties of Sn-doped Ga2O3 single crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 117, 36–41 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Usui, T. Kato, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Comparative study of scintillation properties of Ga2O3 single crystals and ceramics,” J. Lumin. 200, 81–86 (2018).
[Crossref]

Klimm, D.

Z. Galazka, S. Ganschow, A. Fiedler, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, M. Albrecht, and M. Bickermann, “Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al,” J. Cryst. Growth 486, 82–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, and M. Bickermann, “Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6(2), Q3007–Q3011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Klix, A.

D. Szalkai, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, P. Tutto, A. Klix, and D. Gehre, “β-Ga2O3 solid state devices for fast neutron detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 64(6), 1574–1579 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kwasniewski, A.

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, and M. Bickermann, “Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6(2), Q3007–Q3011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Makowski, M.

W. Drozdowski, M. Makowski, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, and R. Schewski, “β-Ga2O3:Ce as a fast scintillator: An unclear role of cerium,” Radiat. Meas. 121, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Nakauchi, D.

Y. Usui, D. Nakauchi, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Scintillation and optical properties of Sn-doped Ga2O3 single crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 117, 36–41 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Yanagida, G. Okada, T. Kato, D. Nakauchi, and S. Yanagida, “Fast and high light yield scintillation in the Ga2O3 semiconductor,” Mater,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(4), 042601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Naumann, M.

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, and M. Bickermann, “Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6(2), Q3007–Q3011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nikolaev, V. I.

S. I. Stepanov, V. I. Nikolaev, V. E. Bougrov, and A. E. Romanov, “Gallium oxide: properties and applications - a review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 44, 63–86 (2016).

Okada, G.

Y. Usui, T. Kato, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Comparative study of scintillation properties of Ga2O3 single crystals and ceramics,” J. Lumin. 200, 81–86 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Usui, D. Nakauchi, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Scintillation and optical properties of Sn-doped Ga2O3 single crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 117, 36–41 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Usui, T. Oya, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Ce-doped Ga2O3 single crystalline semiconductor showing scintillation features,” Optik 143, 150–157 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Yanagida, G. Okada, T. Kato, D. Nakauchi, and S. Yanagida, “Fast and high light yield scintillation in the Ga2O3 semiconductor,” Mater,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(4), 042601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ouyang, X.

N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Oya, T.

Y. Usui, T. Oya, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Ce-doped Ga2O3 single crystalline semiconductor showing scintillation features,” Optik 143, 150–157 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pietsch, M.

Z. Galazka, S. Ganschow, A. Fiedler, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, M. Albrecht, and M. Bickermann, “Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al,” J. Cryst. Growth 486, 82–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, and M. Bickermann, “Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6(2), Q3007–Q3011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Romanov, A. E.

S. I. Stepanov, V. I. Nikolaev, V. E. Bougrov, and A. E. Romanov, “Gallium oxide: properties and applications - a review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 44, 63–86 (2016).

Schewski, R.

W. Drozdowski, M. Makowski, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, and R. Schewski, “β-Ga2O3:Ce as a fast scintillator: An unclear role of cerium,” Radiat. Meas. 121, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, S. Ganschow, A. Fiedler, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, M. Albrecht, and M. Bickermann, “Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al,” J. Cryst. Growth 486, 82–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Schröder, T.

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Schulz, T.

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Shimamura, K.

E. G. Víllora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, T. Ujiie, and K. Aoki, “Electrical conductivity and carrier concentration control in β-Ga2O3 by Si doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202120 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, S. I.

S. I. Stepanov, V. I. Nikolaev, V. E. Bougrov, and A. E. Romanov, “Gallium oxide: properties and applications - a review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 44, 63–86 (2016).

Szalkai, D.

D. Szalkai, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, P. Tutto, A. Klix, and D. Gehre, “β-Ga2O3 solid state devices for fast neutron detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 64(6), 1574–1579 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tang, H.

N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Thomas, G. E.

L. M. Bollinger and G. E. Thomas, “Measurement of the time dependence of scintillation intensity by a delayed-coincidence method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32(9), 1044–1050 (1961).
[Crossref]

Tutto, P.

D. Szalkai, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, P. Tutto, A. Klix, and D. Gehre, “β-Ga2O3 solid state devices for fast neutron detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 64(6), 1574–1579 (2017).
[Crossref]

Uecker, R.

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, and M. Bickermann, “Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6(2), Q3007–Q3011 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ujiie, T.

E. G. Víllora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, T. Ujiie, and K. Aoki, “Electrical conductivity and carrier concentration control in β-Ga2O3 by Si doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202120 (2008).
[Crossref]

Usui, Y.

Y. Usui, T. Kato, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Comparative study of scintillation properties of Ga2O3 single crystals and ceramics,” J. Lumin. 200, 81–86 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Usui, D. Nakauchi, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Scintillation and optical properties of Sn-doped Ga2O3 single crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 117, 36–41 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Usui, T. Oya, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Ce-doped Ga2O3 single crystalline semiconductor showing scintillation features,” Optik 143, 150–157 (2017).
[Crossref]

Víllora, E. G.

E. G. Víllora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, T. Ujiie, and K. Aoki, “Electrical conductivity and carrier concentration control in β-Ga2O3 by Si doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202120 (2008).
[Crossref]

Witkowski, M. E.

W. Drozdowski, M. Makowski, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, and R. Schewski, “β-Ga2O3:Ce as a fast scintillator: An unclear role of cerium,” Radiat. Meas. 121, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Wojtowicz, A. J.

W. Drozdowski, M. Makowski, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, and R. Schewski, “β-Ga2O3:Ce as a fast scintillator: An unclear role of cerium,” Radiat. Meas. 121, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

Xu, J.

N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, M.

N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yanagida, S.

T. Yanagida, G. Okada, T. Kato, D. Nakauchi, and S. Yanagida, “Fast and high light yield scintillation in the Ga2O3 semiconductor,” Mater,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(4), 042601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yanagida, T.

Y. Usui, T. Kato, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Comparative study of scintillation properties of Ga2O3 single crystals and ceramics,” J. Lumin. 200, 81–86 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Usui, D. Nakauchi, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Scintillation and optical properties of Sn-doped Ga2O3 single crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 117, 36–41 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Usui, T. Oya, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Ce-doped Ga2O3 single crystalline semiconductor showing scintillation features,” Optik 143, 150–157 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Yanagida, G. Okada, T. Kato, D. Nakauchi, and S. Yanagida, “Fast and high light yield scintillation in the Ga2O3 semiconductor,” Mater,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(4), 042601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, Y.

E. G. Víllora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, T. Ujiie, and K. Aoki, “Electrical conductivity and carrier concentration control in β-Ga2O3 by Si doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202120 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Yanagida, G. Okada, T. Kato, D. Nakauchi, and S. Yanagida, “Fast and high light yield scintillation in the Ga2O3 semiconductor,” Mater,” Appl. Phys. Express 9(4), 042601 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. G. Víllora, K. Shimamura, Y. Yoshikawa, T. Ujiie, and K. Aoki, “Electrical conductivity and carrier concentration control in β-Ga2O3 by Si doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 202120 (2008).
[Crossref]

ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. (1)

Z. Galazka, R. Uecker, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, M. Naumann, M. Pietsch, A. Kwasniewski, R. Bertram, S. Ganschow, and M. Bickermann, “Scaling-Up of Bulk β-Ga2O3 Single Crystals by the Czochralski Method,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol. 6(2), Q3007–Q3011 (2017).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (1)

D. Szalkai, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, P. Tutto, A. Klix, and D. Gehre, “β-Ga2O3 solid state devices for fast neutron detection,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 64(6), 1574–1579 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Z. Galazka, S. Ganschow, A. Fiedler, R. Bertram, D. Klimm, K. Irmscher, R. Schewski, M. Pietsch, M. Albrecht, and M. Bickermann, “Doping of Czochralski-grown bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals with Cr, Ce and Al,” J. Cryst. Growth 486, 82–90 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

Y. Usui, T. Kato, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Comparative study of scintillation properties of Ga2O3 single crystals and ceramics,” J. Lumin. 200, 81–86 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

Y. Usui, D. Nakauchi, N. Kawano, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Scintillation and optical properties of Sn-doped Ga2O3 single crystals,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 117, 36–41 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A (1)

N. He, H. Tang, B. Liu, Z. Zhu, Q. Li, C. Guo, M. Gu, J. Xu, J. Liu, M. Xu, L. Chen, and X. Ouyang, “Ultra-fast scintillation properties of β-Ga2O3 single crystals grown by floating zone method,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 888, 9–12 (2018).
[Crossref]

Optik (1)

Y. Usui, T. Oya, G. Okada, N. Kawaguchi, and T. Yanagida, “Ce-doped Ga2O3 single crystalline semiconductor showing scintillation features,” Optik 143, 150–157 (2017).
[Crossref]

Philos. Mag. Ser. 4 (1)

L. de Boisbaudran, “On the chemical and spectroscopic characters of a new metal (gallium),” Philos. Mag. Ser. 4 50(332), 414–416 (1875).
[Crossref]

Radiat. Meas. (1)

W. Drozdowski, M. Makowski, M. E. Witkowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, Z. Galazka, K. Irmscher, and R. Schewski, “β-Ga2O3:Ce as a fast scintillator: An unclear role of cerium,” Radiat. Meas. 121, 49–53 (2019).
[Crossref]

Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. (1)

S. I. Stepanov, V. I. Nikolaev, V. E. Bougrov, and A. E. Romanov, “Gallium oxide: properties and applications - a review,” Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci. 44, 63–86 (2016).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. M. Bollinger and G. E. Thomas, “Measurement of the time dependence of scintillation intensity by a delayed-coincidence method,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 32(9), 1044–1050 (1961).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

Z. Galazka, “β-Ga2O3 for wide-bandgap electronics and optoelectronics,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 33(11), 113001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

Z. Galazka, R. Schewski, K. Irmscher, W. Drozdowski, M. E. Witkowski, M. Makowski, A. J. Wojtowicz, I. M. Hanke, M. Pietsch, T. Schulz, D. Klimm, S. Ganschow, A. Dittmar, A. Fiedler, M. Bickermann, and T. Schröder, “Bulk β-Ga2O3 single crystals doped with Ce, Ce + Si, Ce + Al, and Ce + Al + Si obtained by the Czochralski method for detection of nuclear radiation,” submitted to J. Alloys Compd.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Representative pulse height spectra of β-Ga2O3, β-Ga2O3:Ce, and β-Ga2O3:Ce,Si.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Scintillation yield of β-Ga2O3, β-Ga2O3:Ce, and β-Ga2O3:Ce,Si as a function of free electron concentration.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Representative scintillation time profiles of β-Ga2O3, β-Ga2O3:Ce, and β-Ga2O3:Ce,Si.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Scintillation mean decay time of β-Ga2O3, β-Ga2O3:Ce, and β-Ga2O3:Ce,Si as a function of free electron concentration.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of properties of the studied β-Ga2O3 crystals (n - free electron concentration, Y - scintillation yield, R - energy resolution at 662 keV, τi - scintillation decay time constants with their contributions in brackets, τmean - scintillation mean decay time)

Equations (1)

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τ m e a n = i = 1 4 A i τ i 2 i = 1 4 A i τ i

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