Abstract

Si(bzimpy)$_2$, a fluorescent organic complex, has been demonstrated as a potential electron transport and electroluminescent layer for organic electronic devices. Despite the successful synthesis and encouraging electroluminescence at 560 nm, the complex dielectric function of the water-stable complex has not been reported yet. In this letter, we report on the first spectroscopic ellipsometry data obtained from a Si(bzimpy)$_2$ thin film in the spectral range from 300 nm to 1900 nm (0.65 eV to 4.1 eV). A parameterized model dielectric function composed of a Tauc-Lorentz and Gaussian oscillators is employed to analyze the experimental ellipsometry data. We find a good agreement between the absorption energies observed experimentally here and density functional theory calculations reported earlier.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  2. X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, A. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, “Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a $p$p-doped amorphous hole injection layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 410–412 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  3. V. A. Montes, R. Pohl, J. Shinar, and P. Anzenbacher, “Effective manipulation of the electronic effects and its influence on the emission of 5-substituted tris(8-quinolinolate) aluminum (III) complexes,” Chem. - Eur. J. 12(17), 4523–4535 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. V. M. Manninen, W. A. Omar, J. P. Heiskanen, H. J. Lemmetyinen, and O. E. Hormi, “Synthesis and characterization of tris-(5-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum complexes and their use as anode buffer layers in inverted organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(43), 22971–22982 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. S.-H. Liao, J.-R. Shiu, S.-W. Liu, S.-J. Yeh, Y.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, T. J. Chow, and C.-I. Wu, “Hydroxynaphthyridine-derived group III metal chelates: wide band gap and deep blue analogues of green Alq$_3$3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum) and their versatile applications for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 763–777 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. K. Nayak, N. Agarwal, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Blue and white light electroluminescence in a multilayer oled using a new aluminium complex,” J. Chem. Sci. 122(6), 847–855 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. A. Omar, H. Haverinen, and O. E. Hormi, “New Alq$_3$3 derivatives with efficient photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties for organic light-emitting diodes,” Tetrahedron 65(47), 9707–9712 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Pérez-Bolívar, S.-Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, and P. Anzenbacher, “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq$_3$3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chem. - Eur. J. 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  10. B. Johs, J. A. Woollam, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): II. advanced applications,” Proc. SPIE 10294, 1029404 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Principles and Applications (John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA, 2007).
  12. C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. R. Synowicki and T. E. Tiwald, “Optical properties of bulk c-ZrO$_2$2, c-MgO and a-As$_2$2S$_3$3 determined by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 455-456, 248–255 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Jellison and F. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  15. G. Jellison and F. Modine, “Erratum:“parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region”[Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371 (1996)],” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2137 (1996).
    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

V. M. Manninen, W. A. Omar, J. P. Heiskanen, H. J. Lemmetyinen, and O. E. Hormi, “Synthesis and characterization of tris-(5-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum complexes and their use as anode buffer layers in inverted organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(43), 22971–22982 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

C. Pérez-Bolívar, S.-Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, and P. Anzenbacher, “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq$_3$3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chem. - Eur. J. 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

P. K. Nayak, N. Agarwal, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Blue and white light electroluminescence in a multilayer oled using a new aluminium complex,” J. Chem. Sci. 122(6), 847–855 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

W. A. Omar, H. Haverinen, and O. E. Hormi, “New Alq$_3$3 derivatives with efficient photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties for organic light-emitting diodes,” Tetrahedron 65(47), 9707–9712 (2009).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Liao, J.-R. Shiu, S.-W. Liu, S.-J. Yeh, Y.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, T. J. Chow, and C.-I. Wu, “Hydroxynaphthyridine-derived group III metal chelates: wide band gap and deep blue analogues of green Alq$_3$3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum) and their versatile applications for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 763–777 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

V. A. Montes, R. Pohl, J. Shinar, and P. Anzenbacher, “Effective manipulation of the electronic effects and its influence on the emission of 5-substituted tris(8-quinolinolate) aluminum (III) complexes,” Chem. - Eur. J. 12(17), 4523–4535 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. Synowicki and T. E. Tiwald, “Optical properties of bulk c-ZrO$_2$2, c-MgO and a-As$_2$2S$_3$3 determined by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 455-456, 248–255 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, A. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, “Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a $p$p-doped amorphous hole injection layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 410–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

B. Johs, J. A. Woollam, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): II. advanced applications,” Proc. SPIE 10294, 1029404 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

G. Jellison and F. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Jellison and F. Modine, “Erratum:“parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region”[Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371 (1996)],” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2137 (1996).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, N.

P. K. Nayak, N. Agarwal, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Blue and white light electroluminescence in a multilayer oled using a new aluminium complex,” J. Chem. Sci. 122(6), 847–855 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ali, F.

P. K. Nayak, N. Agarwal, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Blue and white light electroluminescence in a multilayer oled using a new aluminium complex,” J. Chem. Sci. 122(6), 847–855 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anzenbacher, P.

C. Pérez-Bolívar, S.-Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, and P. Anzenbacher, “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq$_3$3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chem. - Eur. J. 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. A. Montes, R. Pohl, J. Shinar, and P. Anzenbacher, “Effective manipulation of the electronic effects and its influence on the emission of 5-substituted tris(8-quinolinolate) aluminum (III) complexes,” Chem. - Eur. J. 12(17), 4523–4535 (2006).
[Crossref]

Blochwitz, J.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, A. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, “Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a $p$p-doped amorphous hole injection layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 410–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bungay, C. L.

B. Johs, J. A. Woollam, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): II. advanced applications,” Proc. SPIE 10294, 1029404 (1999).
[Crossref]

Castaneda, J.

M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-T.

S.-H. Liao, J.-R. Shiu, S.-W. Liu, S.-J. Yeh, Y.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, T. J. Chow, and C.-I. Wu, “Hydroxynaphthyridine-derived group III metal chelates: wide band gap and deep blue analogues of green Alq$_3$3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum) and their versatile applications for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 763–777 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-H.

S.-H. Liao, J.-R. Shiu, S.-W. Liu, S.-J. Yeh, Y.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, T. J. Chow, and C.-I. Wu, “Hydroxynaphthyridine-derived group III metal chelates: wide band gap and deep blue analogues of green Alq$_3$3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum) and their versatile applications for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 763–777 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chow, T. J.

S.-H. Liao, J.-R. Shiu, S.-W. Liu, S.-J. Yeh, Y.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, T. J. Chow, and C.-I. Wu, “Hydroxynaphthyridine-derived group III metal chelates: wide band gap and deep blue analogues of green Alq$_3$3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum) and their versatile applications for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 763–777 (2009).
[Crossref]

Donovan-Merkert, B.

M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fritz, T.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, A. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, “Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a $p$p-doped amorphous hole injection layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 410–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Principles and Applications (John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA, 2007).

Haverinen, H.

W. A. Omar, H. Haverinen, and O. E. Hormi, “New Alq$_3$3 derivatives with efficient photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties for organic light-emitting diodes,” Tetrahedron 65(47), 9707–9712 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heiskanen, J. P.

V. M. Manninen, W. A. Omar, J. P. Heiskanen, H. J. Lemmetyinen, and O. E. Hormi, “Synthesis and characterization of tris-(5-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum complexes and their use as anode buffer layers in inverted organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(43), 22971–22982 (2012).
[Crossref]

Herzinger, C.

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Herzinger, C. M.

B. Johs, J. A. Woollam, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): II. advanced applications,” Proc. SPIE 10294, 1029404 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hilfiker, J. N.

B. Johs, J. A. Woollam, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): II. advanced applications,” Proc. SPIE 10294, 1029404 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, T.

M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hormi, O. E.

V. M. Manninen, W. A. Omar, J. P. Heiskanen, H. J. Lemmetyinen, and O. E. Hormi, “Synthesis and characterization of tris-(5-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum complexes and their use as anode buffer layers in inverted organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(43), 22971–22982 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. A. Omar, H. Haverinen, and O. E. Hormi, “New Alq$_3$3 derivatives with efficient photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties for organic light-emitting diodes,” Tetrahedron 65(47), 9707–9712 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jellison, G.

G. Jellison and F. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Jellison and F. Modine, “Erratum:“parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region”[Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371 (1996)],” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2137 (1996).
[Crossref]

Johs, B.

B. Johs, J. A. Woollam, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): II. advanced applications,” Proc. SPIE 10294, 1029404 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. S.

M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kocherga, M.

M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lemmetyinen, H. J.

V. M. Manninen, W. A. Omar, J. P. Heiskanen, H. J. Lemmetyinen, and O. E. Hormi, “Synthesis and characterization of tris-(5-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum complexes and their use as anode buffer layers in inverted organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(43), 22971–22982 (2012).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, A. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, “Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a $p$p-doped amorphous hole injection layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 410–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Liao, S.-H.

S.-H. Liao, J.-R. Shiu, S.-W. Liu, S.-J. Yeh, Y.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, T. J. Chow, and C.-I. Wu, “Hydroxynaphthyridine-derived group III metal chelates: wide band gap and deep blue analogues of green Alq$_3$3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum) and their versatile applications for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 763–777 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.-W.

S.-H. Liao, J.-R. Shiu, S.-W. Liu, S.-J. Yeh, Y.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, T. J. Chow, and C.-I. Wu, “Hydroxynaphthyridine-derived group III metal chelates: wide band gap and deep blue analogues of green Alq$_3$3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum) and their versatile applications for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 763–777 (2009).
[Crossref]

Manninen, V. M.

V. M. Manninen, W. A. Omar, J. P. Heiskanen, H. J. Lemmetyinen, and O. E. Hormi, “Synthesis and characterization of tris-(5-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum complexes and their use as anode buffer layers in inverted organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(43), 22971–22982 (2012).
[Crossref]

McGahan, W.

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Merkert, J. W.

M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Modine, F.

G. Jellison and F. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Jellison and F. Modine, “Erratum:“parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region”[Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371 (1996)],” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2137 (1996).
[Crossref]

Montes, V. A.

C. Pérez-Bolívar, S.-Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, and P. Anzenbacher, “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq$_3$3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chem. - Eur. J. 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. A. Montes, R. Pohl, J. Shinar, and P. Anzenbacher, “Effective manipulation of the electronic effects and its influence on the emission of 5-substituted tris(8-quinolinolate) aluminum (III) complexes,” Chem. - Eur. J. 12(17), 4523–4535 (2006).
[Crossref]

Narasimhan, K.

P. K. Nayak, N. Agarwal, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Blue and white light electroluminescence in a multilayer oled using a new aluminium complex,” J. Chem. Sci. 122(6), 847–855 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nayak, P. K.

P. K. Nayak, N. Agarwal, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Blue and white light electroluminescence in a multilayer oled using a new aluminium complex,” J. Chem. Sci. 122(6), 847–855 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, G.

C. Pérez-Bolívar, S.-Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, and P. Anzenbacher, “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq$_3$3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chem. - Eur. J. 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nollau, A.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, A. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, “Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a $p$p-doped amorphous hole injection layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 410–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Omar, W. A.

V. M. Manninen, W. A. Omar, J. P. Heiskanen, H. J. Lemmetyinen, and O. E. Hormi, “Synthesis and characterization of tris-(5-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum complexes and their use as anode buffer layers in inverted organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(43), 22971–22982 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. A. Omar, H. Haverinen, and O. E. Hormi, “New Alq$_3$3 derivatives with efficient photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties for organic light-emitting diodes,” Tetrahedron 65(47), 9707–9712 (2009).
[Crossref]

Patankar, M. P.

P. K. Nayak, N. Agarwal, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Blue and white light electroluminescence in a multilayer oled using a new aluminium complex,” J. Chem. Sci. 122(6), 847–855 (2010).
[Crossref]

Paulson, W.

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pérez-Bolívar, C.

C. Pérez-Bolívar, S.-Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, and P. Anzenbacher, “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq$_3$3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chem. - Eur. J. 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
[Crossref]

Periasamy, N.

P. K. Nayak, N. Agarwal, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Blue and white light electroluminescence in a multilayer oled using a new aluminium complex,” J. Chem. Sci. 122(6), 847–855 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pfeiffer, M.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, A. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, “Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a $p$p-doped amorphous hole injection layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 410–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pohl, R.

V. A. Montes, R. Pohl, J. Shinar, and P. Anzenbacher, “Effective manipulation of the electronic effects and its influence on the emission of 5-substituted tris(8-quinolinolate) aluminum (III) complexes,” Chem. - Eur. J. 12(17), 4523–4535 (2006).
[Crossref]

Saleh, N.-A.

M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Schmedake, T. A.

M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shinar, J.

V. A. Montes, R. Pohl, J. Shinar, and P. Anzenbacher, “Effective manipulation of the electronic effects and its influence on the emission of 5-substituted tris(8-quinolinolate) aluminum (III) complexes,” Chem. - Eur. J. 12(17), 4523–4535 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shiu, J.-R.

S.-H. Liao, J.-R. Shiu, S.-W. Liu, S.-J. Yeh, Y.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, T. J. Chow, and C.-I. Wu, “Hydroxynaphthyridine-derived group III metal chelates: wide band gap and deep blue analogues of green Alq$_3$3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum) and their versatile applications for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 763–777 (2009).
[Crossref]

Synowicki, R.

R. Synowicki and T. E. Tiwald, “Optical properties of bulk c-ZrO$_2$2, c-MgO and a-As$_2$2S$_3$3 determined by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 455-456, 248–255 (2004).
[Crossref]

Synowicki, R. A.

B. Johs, J. A. Woollam, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): II. advanced applications,” Proc. SPIE 10294, 1029404 (1999).
[Crossref]

Takizawa, S.-Y.

C. Pérez-Bolívar, S.-Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, and P. Anzenbacher, “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq$_3$3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chem. - Eur. J. 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Tiwald, T. E.

R. Synowicki and T. E. Tiwald, “Optical properties of bulk c-ZrO$_2$2, c-MgO and a-As$_2$2S$_3$3 determined by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 455-456, 248–255 (2004).
[Crossref]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Walter, M. G.

M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Werner, A.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, A. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, “Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a $p$p-doped amorphous hole injection layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 410–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Woollam, J. A.

B. Johs, J. A. Woollam, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): II. advanced applications,” Proc. SPIE 10294, 1029404 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-I.

S.-H. Liao, J.-R. Shiu, S.-W. Liu, S.-J. Yeh, Y.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, T. J. Chow, and C.-I. Wu, “Hydroxynaphthyridine-derived group III metal chelates: wide band gap and deep blue analogues of green Alq$_3$3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum) and their versatile applications for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 763–777 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yeh, S.-J.

S.-H. Liao, J.-R. Shiu, S.-W. Liu, S.-J. Yeh, Y.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, T. J. Chow, and C.-I. Wu, “Hydroxynaphthyridine-derived group III metal chelates: wide band gap and deep blue analogues of green Alq$_3$3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum) and their versatile applications for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 763–777 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, A. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, “Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a $p$p-doped amorphous hole injection layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 410–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. Blochwitz, A. Werner, A. Nollau, T. Fritz, and K. Leo, “Very-low-operating-voltage organic light-emitting diodes using a $p$p-doped amorphous hole injection layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(4), 410–412 (2001).
[Crossref]

G. Jellison and F. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Jellison and F. Modine, “Erratum:“parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region”[Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 371 (1996)],” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(14), 2137 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chem. - Eur. J. (2)

V. A. Montes, R. Pohl, J. Shinar, and P. Anzenbacher, “Effective manipulation of the electronic effects and its influence on the emission of 5-substituted tris(8-quinolinolate) aluminum (III) complexes,” Chem. - Eur. J. 12(17), 4523–4535 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Pérez-Bolívar, S.-Y. Takizawa, G. Nishimura, V. A. Montes, and P. Anzenbacher, “High-efficiency tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq$_3$3) complexes for organic white-light-emitting diodes and solid-state lighting,” Chem. - Eur. J. 17(33), 9076–9082 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chem. Commun. (1)

M. Kocherga, J. Castaneda, M. G. Walter, Y. Zhang, N.-A. Saleh, L. Wang, D. S. Jones, J. W. Merkert, B. Donovan-Merkert, Y. Li, T. Hofmann, and T. A. Schmedake, “Si (bzimpy)$_ 2$2–a hexacoordinate silicon pincer complex for electron transport and electroluminescence,” Chem. Commun. 54(100), 14073–14076 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S.-H. Liao, J.-R. Shiu, S.-W. Liu, S.-J. Yeh, Y.-H. Chen, C.-T. Chen, T. J. Chow, and C.-I. Wu, “Hydroxynaphthyridine-derived group III metal chelates: wide band gap and deep blue analogues of green Alq$_3$3 (tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum) and their versatile applications for organic light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(2), 763–777 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323–3336 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Sci. (1)

P. K. Nayak, N. Agarwal, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Blue and white light electroluminescence in a multilayer oled using a new aluminium complex,” J. Chem. Sci. 122(6), 847–855 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

V. M. Manninen, W. A. Omar, J. P. Heiskanen, H. J. Lemmetyinen, and O. E. Hormi, “Synthesis and characterization of tris-(5-amino-8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum complexes and their use as anode buffer layers in inverted organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(43), 22971–22982 (2012).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Johs, J. A. Woollam, C. M. Herzinger, J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and C. L. Bungay, “Overview of variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE): II. advanced applications,” Proc. SPIE 10294, 1029404 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tetrahedron (1)

W. A. Omar, H. Haverinen, and O. E. Hormi, “New Alq$_3$3 derivatives with efficient photoluminescence and electroluminescence properties for organic light-emitting diodes,” Tetrahedron 65(47), 9707–9712 (2009).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Synowicki and T. E. Tiwald, “Optical properties of bulk c-ZrO$_2$2, c-MgO and a-As$_2$2S$_3$3 determined by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 455-456, 248–255 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Principles and Applications (John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken, NJ 07030, USA, 2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental (green dashed line) and best-model (red solid line) $\varPsi$ -spectra for the Si(bzimpy) $_2$ sample measured at three different angles of incidence $\Phi _a=65^\circ ,70^\circ ,$ and $75^\circ$ in spectral range from 0.65 eV to 4.1 eV.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Same as Fig. 1 but for the $\varDelta$ -spectra obtained for the Si(bzimpy) $_2$ sample at three different angles of incidence.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Real $\varepsilon _1$ (solid red line) and imaginary $\varepsilon _2$ part (dotted green line) of the model dielectric function given in Eqn. (1) using the best-fit model parameters summarized in Table 1. The transition energies for the Tauc-Lorentz and the Gaussian oscillators are indicated as vertical lines.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of the best-model parameters obtained for the dielectric function of Si(bzimpy) $_2$ during the optical model analysis. The error limits correspond to 90% confidence limits.

Equations (3)

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ε ( E ) = ε 1 ( E ) + i ε 2 ( E )   , = 1 + A E 0 2 E 2 + i = 1 2 Gau ( E , A , E 0 , Γ ) + TL ( E , A , E 0 , Γ , E g ) ,
ε 2 TL ( E ) = { A E 0 Γ ( E E g ) 2 ( E 2 E 0 2 ) 2 + Γ 2 E 2 1 E E > E g 0 E E g ,
ε 2 Gau ( E ) = A e ( E E 0 f Γ ) 2 A e ( E + E 0 f Γ ) 2 ,

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