Abstract

Additive manufacturing enables new fiber preform geometries to be built that were either impossible or extremely difficult with traditional subtractive manufacturing methods. Additionally fiber thermal drawing is undergoing an explosion of interest due to new materials and fiber functions. We fabricate a retroreflective fiber that possesses a complex cross-section and material combination not achievable with other textile fiber fabrication methods such melt extrusion. This is the first such 3D-printing-derived fiber to demonstrate optical scattering properties with a non-circular, non-convex cross-section.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

Y. Qu, T. Nguyen-Dang, A. G. Page, W. Yan, T. Das Gupta, G. M. Rotaru, R. M. Rossi, V. D. Favrod, N. Bartolomei, and F. Sorin, “Superelastic multimaterial electronic and photonic fibers and devices via thermal drawing,” Adv. Mater. 30(27), 1707251 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Babaeian, L. R. Diaz, S. Namnabat, T. S. Kleine, A. Azarm, J. Pyun, N. Peyghambarian, and R. A. Norwood, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide hybrid inorganic/organic polymers (CHIPs) using the Z-scan technique,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(9), 2510–2519 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

P. M. Toal, L. J. Holmes, R. X. Rodriguez, and E. D. Wetzel, “Microstructured monofilament via thermal drawing of additively manufactured preforms,” Addit. Manuf. 16, 12–23 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Khudiyev, C. Hou, A. M. Stolyarov, and Y. Fink, “Sub-micrometer surface-patterned ribbon fibers and textiles,” Adv. Mater. 29(22), 1605868 (2017).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

J.-G. Liu and M. Ueda, “High refractive index polymers: fundamental research and practical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(47), 8907–8919 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. S. Deng, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, A. M. Stolyarov, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Stone, and Y. Fink, “In-fiber semiconductor filament arrays,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4265–4269 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Bayindir, F. Sorin, A. F. Abouraddy, J. Viens, S. D. Hart, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor,” Nature 431(7010), 826–829 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

H. R. Philipp, D. G. Le Grand, H. S. Cole, and Y. S. Liu, “The optical properties of a polyetherimide,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29(22), 1574–1578 (1989).
[Crossref]

Abouraddy, A. F.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Deng, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, A. M. Stolyarov, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Stone, and Y. Fink, “In-fiber semiconductor filament arrays,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4265–4269 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Bayindir, F. Sorin, A. F. Abouraddy, J. Viens, S. D. Hart, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor,” Nature 431(7010), 826–829 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aranda, F. J.

Archambault, D. M.

Argyros, A.

Atakaramians, S.

Azarm, A.

Babaeian, M.

Badding, J. V.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ballato, J.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bartolomei, N.

Y. Qu, T. Nguyen-Dang, A. G. Page, W. Yan, T. Das Gupta, G. M. Rotaru, R. M. Rossi, V. D. Favrod, N. Bartolomei, and F. Sorin, “Superelastic multimaterial electronic and photonic fibers and devices via thermal drawing,” Adv. Mater. 30(27), 1707251 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bayindir, M.

M. Bayindir, F. Sorin, A. F. Abouraddy, J. Viens, S. D. Hart, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor,” Nature 431(7010), 826–829 (2004).
[Crossref]

Belton, L.

Canning, J.

Carlson, J. B.

Cole, H. S.

H. R. Philipp, D. G. Le Grand, H. S. Cole, and Y. S. Liu, “The optical properties of a polyetherimide,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29(22), 1574–1578 (1989).
[Crossref]

Comatti, J.-E.

Constable, E.

Cook, K.

Danto, S.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

Das Gupta, T.

Y. Qu, T. Nguyen-Dang, A. G. Page, W. Yan, T. Das Gupta, G. M. Rotaru, R. M. Rossi, V. D. Favrod, N. Bartolomei, and F. Sorin, “Superelastic multimaterial electronic and photonic fibers and devices via thermal drawing,” Adv. Mater. 30(27), 1707251 (2018).
[Crossref]

Deng, D. S.

D. S. Deng, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, A. M. Stolyarov, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Stone, and Y. Fink, “In-fiber semiconductor filament arrays,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4265–4269 (2008).
[Crossref]

Diaz, L. R.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

Favrod, V. D.

Y. Qu, T. Nguyen-Dang, A. G. Page, W. Yan, T. Das Gupta, G. M. Rotaru, R. M. Rossi, V. D. Favrod, N. Bartolomei, and F. Sorin, “Superelastic multimaterial electronic and photonic fibers and devices via thermal drawing,” Adv. Mater. 30(27), 1707251 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fink, Y.

T. Khudiyev, C. Hou, A. M. Stolyarov, and Y. Fink, “Sub-micrometer surface-patterned ribbon fibers and textiles,” Adv. Mater. 29(22), 1605868 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Deng, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, A. M. Stolyarov, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Stone, and Y. Fink, “In-fiber semiconductor filament arrays,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4265–4269 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Bayindir, F. Sorin, A. F. Abouraddy, J. Viens, S. D. Hart, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor,” Nature 431(7010), 826–829 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fleming, S.

Fleming, S. C.

Ghebrebrhan, M.

Hart, S. D.

M. Bayindir, F. Sorin, A. F. Abouraddy, J. Viens, S. D. Hart, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor,” Nature 431(7010), 826–829 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, J. G.

Hoey, M. L.

Hoke, L. C.

Holmes, L. J.

P. M. Toal, L. J. Holmes, R. X. Rodriguez, and E. D. Wetzel, “Microstructured monofilament via thermal drawing of additively manufactured preforms,” Addit. Manuf. 16, 12–23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hossain, M. A.

Hou, C.

T. Khudiyev, C. Hou, A. M. Stolyarov, and Y. Fink, “Sub-micrometer surface-patterned ribbon fibers and textiles,” Adv. Mater. 29(22), 1605868 (2017).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

D. S. Deng, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, A. M. Stolyarov, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Stone, and Y. Fink, “In-fiber semiconductor filament arrays,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4265–4269 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Bayindir, F. Sorin, A. F. Abouraddy, J. Viens, S. D. Hart, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor,” Nature 431(7010), 826–829 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[Crossref]

Khudiyev, T.

T. Khudiyev, C. Hou, A. M. Stolyarov, and Y. Fink, “Sub-micrometer surface-patterned ribbon fibers and textiles,” Adv. Mater. 29(22), 1605868 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kimball, B. R.

Kleine, T. S.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Le Grand, D. G.

H. R. Philipp, D. G. Le Grand, H. S. Cole, and Y. S. Liu, “The optical properties of a polyetherimide,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29(22), 1574–1578 (1989).
[Crossref]

Leon-Saval, S.

Lewis, R. A.

Liu, J.-G.

J.-G. Liu and M. Ueda, “High refractive index polymers: fundamental research and practical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(47), 8907–8919 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. S.

H. R. Philipp, D. G. Le Grand, H. S. Cole, and Y. S. Liu, “The optical properties of a polyetherimide,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29(22), 1574–1578 (1989).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

Lwin, R.

Maskaly, G. R.

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[Crossref]

Namnabat, S.

Nguyen-Dang, T.

Y. Qu, T. Nguyen-Dang, A. G. Page, W. Yan, T. Das Gupta, G. M. Rotaru, R. M. Rossi, V. D. Favrod, N. Bartolomei, and F. Sorin, “Superelastic multimaterial electronic and photonic fibers and devices via thermal drawing,” Adv. Mater. 30(27), 1707251 (2018).
[Crossref]

Norwood, R. A.

Orf, N. D.

D. S. Deng, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, A. M. Stolyarov, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Stone, and Y. Fink, “In-fiber semiconductor filament arrays,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4265–4269 (2008).
[Crossref]

Page, A. G.

Y. Qu, T. Nguyen-Dang, A. G. Page, W. Yan, T. Das Gupta, G. M. Rotaru, R. M. Rossi, V. D. Favrod, N. Bartolomei, and F. Sorin, “Superelastic multimaterial electronic and photonic fibers and devices via thermal drawing,” Adv. Mater. 30(27), 1707251 (2018).
[Crossref]

Peng, G.-D.

Perry, J.

Peyghambarian, N.

Philipp, H. R.

H. R. Philipp, D. G. Le Grand, H. S. Cole, and Y. S. Liu, “The optical properties of a polyetherimide,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29(22), 1574–1578 (1989).
[Crossref]

Pogson, E. M.

Prideaux, P. H.

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pyun, J.

Qu, Y.

Y. Qu, T. Nguyen-Dang, A. G. Page, W. Yan, T. Das Gupta, G. M. Rotaru, R. M. Rossi, V. D. Favrod, N. Bartolomei, and F. Sorin, “Superelastic multimaterial electronic and photonic fibers and devices via thermal drawing,” Adv. Mater. 30(27), 1707251 (2018).
[Crossref]

Reid, Z.

Rodriguez, R. X.

P. M. Toal, L. J. Holmes, R. X. Rodriguez, and E. D. Wetzel, “Microstructured monofilament via thermal drawing of additively manufactured preforms,” Addit. Manuf. 16, 12–23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rossi, R. M.

Y. Qu, T. Nguyen-Dang, A. G. Page, W. Yan, T. Das Gupta, G. M. Rotaru, R. M. Rossi, V. D. Favrod, N. Bartolomei, and F. Sorin, “Superelastic multimaterial electronic and photonic fibers and devices via thermal drawing,” Adv. Mater. 30(27), 1707251 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rotaru, G. M.

Y. Qu, T. Nguyen-Dang, A. G. Page, W. Yan, T. Das Gupta, G. M. Rotaru, R. M. Rossi, V. D. Favrod, N. Bartolomei, and F. Sorin, “Superelastic multimaterial electronic and photonic fibers and devices via thermal drawing,” Adv. Mater. 30(27), 1707251 (2018).
[Crossref]

Singh, N.

Sorin, F.

Y. Qu, T. Nguyen-Dang, A. G. Page, W. Yan, T. Das Gupta, G. M. Rotaru, R. M. Rossi, V. D. Favrod, N. Bartolomei, and F. Sorin, “Superelastic multimaterial electronic and photonic fibers and devices via thermal drawing,” Adv. Mater. 30(27), 1707251 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Bayindir, F. Sorin, A. F. Abouraddy, J. Viens, S. D. Hart, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor,” Nature 431(7010), 826–829 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stolyarov, A. M.

T. Khudiyev, C. Hou, A. M. Stolyarov, and Y. Fink, “Sub-micrometer surface-patterned ribbon fibers and textiles,” Adv. Mater. 29(22), 1605868 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. S. Deng, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, A. M. Stolyarov, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Stone, and Y. Fink, “In-fiber semiconductor filament arrays,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4265–4269 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stone, H. A.

D. S. Deng, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, A. M. Stolyarov, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Stone, and Y. Fink, “In-fiber semiconductor filament arrays,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4265–4269 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tao, G.

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

Temelkuran, B.

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[Crossref]

Toal, P. M.

P. M. Toal, L. J. Holmes, R. X. Rodriguez, and E. D. Wetzel, “Microstructured monofilament via thermal drawing of additively manufactured preforms,” Addit. Manuf. 16, 12–23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tuniz, A.

Ueda, M.

J.-G. Liu and M. Ueda, “High refractive index polymers: fundamental research and practical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(47), 8907–8919 (2009).
[Crossref]

Viens, J.

M. Bayindir, F. Sorin, A. F. Abouraddy, J. Viens, S. D. Hart, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor,” Nature 431(7010), 826–829 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wetzel, E. D.

P. M. Toal, L. J. Holmes, R. X. Rodriguez, and E. D. Wetzel, “Microstructured monofilament via thermal drawing of additively manufactured preforms,” Addit. Manuf. 16, 12–23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yan, W.

Y. Qu, T. Nguyen-Dang, A. G. Page, W. Yan, T. Das Gupta, G. M. Rotaru, R. M. Rossi, V. D. Favrod, N. Bartolomei, and F. Sorin, “Superelastic multimaterial electronic and photonic fibers and devices via thermal drawing,” Adv. Mater. 30(27), 1707251 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, D.

Addit. Manuf. (1)

P. M. Toal, L. J. Holmes, R. X. Rodriguez, and E. D. Wetzel, “Microstructured monofilament via thermal drawing of additively manufactured preforms,” Addit. Manuf. 16, 12–23 (2017).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (2)

T. Khudiyev, C. Hou, A. M. Stolyarov, and Y. Fink, “Sub-micrometer surface-patterned ribbon fibers and textiles,” Adv. Mater. 29(22), 1605868 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Qu, T. Nguyen-Dang, A. G. Page, W. Yan, T. Das Gupta, G. M. Rotaru, R. M. Rossi, V. D. Favrod, N. Bartolomei, and F. Sorin, “Superelastic multimaterial electronic and photonic fibers and devices via thermal drawing,” Adv. Mater. 30(27), 1707251 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

G. Tao, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, A. M. Stolyarov, S. Danto, J. V. Badding, Y. Fink, J. Ballato, and A. F. Abouraddy, “Infrared fibers,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 7(2), 379–458 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J.-G. Liu and M. Ueda, “High refractive index polymers: fundamental research and practical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(47), 8907–8919 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

D. S. Deng, N. D. Orf, A. F. Abouraddy, A. M. Stolyarov, J. D. Joannopoulos, H. A. Stone, and Y. Fink, “In-fiber semiconductor filament arrays,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4265–4269 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Bayindir, F. Sorin, A. F. Abouraddy, J. Viens, S. D. Hart, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Metal-insulator-semiconductor,” Nature 431(7010), 826–829 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (3)

Polym. Eng. Sci. (1)

H. R. Philipp, D. G. Le Grand, H. S. Cole, and Y. S. Liu, “The optical properties of a polyetherimide,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 29(22), 1574–1578 (1989).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

S. D. Hart, G. R. Maskaly, B. Temelkuran, P. H. Prideaux, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “External reflection from omnidirectional dielectric mirror fibers,” Science 296(5567), 510–513 (2002).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

https://www.stratasys.com/materials/search/pc-iso

J. R. Rumble, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL99th Ed., accessed February 2019.

https://www.stratasys.com/ Accessed March 8th, 2019.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. a) Top view of the 3D printed polycarbonate (PC) preform with five indium strips in the channels. The outer cross-section of the preform contains a curvy serpentine outline. b) Side view of same preform. c) Epoxy-embedded drawn fiber under a microscope (transmitted light image). d) Same sample but reflected light. Both images in c and d illustrate the same curvy serpentine indium architecture as that constructed in the preform
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Evolution of 3D printed preform cross-section: 1) two bridges to connect outer ring to inner PC core, 2) five bridges to reinforce outer ring, 3) similar to 2 but reduction of channel volume to reduce indium volume and outwards stress during draw, 4) similar to 3 but with thicker bridges for further reinforcement.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Measured RRR of a single 3D-printed-derived retroreflective fiber across the visible spectrum.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. a) Ray-trace illustrating retro-reflection. b) RRR versus refractive index of outer ring. The red line indicates our fiber (n = 1.58, RRR = 260). The peak RRR value occurs for a refractive index just over 1.9.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Draw conditions

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