Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) materials, which commonly have much higher optical nonlinearity and faster carrier dynamics than their bulk counterparts, hold huge potential for use in nonlinear optical devices, especially in ultrafast mode-locked fiber lasers. Graphene has ultrafast carrier dynamics but the optical absorption is low and the modulation depth is small. It is nontrivial to combine graphene with other 2D materials so as to form a heterostructure with improved optical properties. In particular, recent research has shown that the 2D transition metal carbide (TMC) Mo2C has a very large nonlinear absorption coefficient and can be used as a saturable absorber for mode-locking pulse generation. However, the nonlinear optical properties of the graphene-Mo2C heterostructure have not been investigated. In this work, by directly growing Mo2C nanosheets on the monolayer graphene film and forming the heterostructure, a new kind of saturable absorber was prepared with considerate nonlinear absorption coefficient and large modulation depth. Such a new saturable absorber was evanescently interacted with the side-polished fiber and successfully delivered femtosecond pulse generation at 1550 nm. The combination of two semi-metal 2D materials has enabled the ease of mode locking and stable soliton state pulse generation.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (2)

Z. Li, N. Dong, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “Invited Article: Mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by rhenium diselenide as a new saturable absorber,” APL Photon. 8(8), 080802 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Tuo, C. Xu, H. Mu, X. Bao, Y. Wang, S. Xiao, W. Ma, L. Li, D. Tang, H. Zhang, M. Premaratne, B. Sun, H.-M. Cheng, S. Li, W. Ren, and Q. Bao, “Ultrathin 2D transition metal carbides for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1808–1816 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

C. Xu, S. Song, Z. Liu, L. Chen, L. Wang, D. Fan, N. Kang, X. Ma, H.-M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Strongly Coupled High-Quality Graphene/2D Superconducting Mo2C Vertical Heterostructures with Aligned Orientation,” ACS Nano 11(6), 5906–5914 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Anasori, M. R. Lukatskaya, and Y. Gogotsi, “2D metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) for energy storage,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(2), 16098 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

X. Jiang, G. Simon, H. Zhang, Z. Guo, M. J. Withford, and A. Fuerbach, “Bismuth telluride topological insulator nanosheet saturable absorbers for Q-switched mode-locked Tm: ZBLAN waveguide lasers,” Ann. Phys. 528(7–8), 543–550 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhong, X. Xia, F. Shi, J. Zhan, J. Tu, and H. J. Fan, “Transition metal carbides and nitrides in energy storage and conversion,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 3(5), 1500286 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, C. Xu, N. Kang, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, J. Du, Y. Liu, X.-L. Ma, H.-M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Unique domain structure of two-dimensional α-Mo2C superconducting crystals,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4243–4250 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353(6298), aac9439 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (12)

Y. Saito, Y. Kasahara, J. Ye, Y. Iwasa, and T. Nojima, “Metallic ground state in an ion-gated two-dimensional superconductor,” Science 350(6259), 409–413 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Amol, S. Dhingra, B. D’Urso, P. Kannan, and D. P. Shepherd, “Graphene Q-switched mode-locked and Q-switched ion-exchanged waveguide lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 646–649 (2015).

C. Xu, L. Wang, Z. Liu, L. Chen, J. Guo, N. Kang, X.-L. Ma, H.-M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin Mo2C superconducting crystals,” Nat. Mater. 14(11), 1135–1141 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, F. Bonaccorso, V. Fal’ko, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roche, P. Bøggild, S. Borini, F. H. Koppens, V. Palermo, N. Pugno, J. A. Garrido, R. Sordan, A. Bianco, L. Ballerini, M. Prato, E. Lidorikis, J. Kivioja, C. Marinelli, T. Ryhänen, A. Morpurgo, J. N. Coleman, V. Nicolosi, L. Colombo, A. Fert, M. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Bachtold, G. F. Schneider, F. Guinea, C. Dekker, M. Barbone, Z. Sun, C. Galiotis, A. N. Grigorenko, G. Konstantatos, A. Kis, M. Katsnelson, L. Vandersypen, A. Loiseau, V. Morandi, D. Neumaier, E. Treossi, V. Pellegrini, M. Polini, A. Tredicucci, G. M. Williams, B. H. Hong, J. H. Ahn, J. M. Kim, H. Zirath, B. J. van Wees, H. van der Zant, L. Occhipinti, A. Di Matteo, I. A. Kinloch, T. Seyller, E. Quesnel, X. Feng, K. Teo, N. Rupesinghe, P. Hakonen, S. R. Neil, Q. Tannock, T. Löfwander, and J. Kinaret, “Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems,” Nanoscale 7(11), 4598–4810 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus–polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, R. C. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, “Mode-locking of fiber lasers using novel two-dimensional nanomaterials: graphene and topological insulators,” Photon. Res. 3(2), A56–A63 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11461 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-C. Luo, M. Liu, Z.-N. Guo, X.-F. Jiang, A.-P. Luo, C.-J. Zhao, X.-F. Yu, W.-C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Park, J. Lee, Y. T. Lee, W. K. Choi, J. H. Lee, and Y. W. Song, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction,” Ann. Phys. 527(11-12), 770–776 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (7)

X. Yin, Z. Ye, D. A. Chenet, Y. Ye, K. O’Brien, J. C. Hone, and X. Zhang, “Edge nonlinear optics on a MoS2 atomic monolayer,” Science 344(6183), 488–490 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Liu, A.-P. Luo, F.-Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, C.-J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

G.-K. Lim, Z.-L. Chen, J. Clark, R. G. Goh, W.-H. Ng, H.-W. Tan, R. H. Friend, P. K. Ho, and L.-L. Chua, “Giant broadband nonlinear optical absorption response in dispersed graphene single sheets,” Nat. Photonics 5(9), 554–560 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 042116 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. C. Meyer, A. K. Geim, M. I. Katsnelson, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, and S. Roth, “The structure of suspended graphene sheets,” Nature 446(7131), 60–63 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abramski, K. M.

Ahn, J. H.

A. C. Ferrari, F. Bonaccorso, V. Fal’ko, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roche, P. Bøggild, S. Borini, F. H. Koppens, V. Palermo, N. Pugno, J. A. Garrido, R. Sordan, A. Bianco, L. Ballerini, M. Prato, E. Lidorikis, J. Kivioja, C. Marinelli, T. Ryhänen, A. Morpurgo, J. N. Coleman, V. Nicolosi, L. Colombo, A. Fert, M. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Bachtold, G. F. Schneider, F. Guinea, C. Dekker, M. Barbone, Z. Sun, C. Galiotis, A. N. Grigorenko, G. Konstantatos, A. Kis, M. Katsnelson, L. Vandersypen, A. Loiseau, V. Morandi, D. Neumaier, E. Treossi, V. Pellegrini, M. Polini, A. Tredicucci, G. M. Williams, B. H. Hong, J. H. Ahn, J. M. Kim, H. Zirath, B. J. van Wees, H. van der Zant, L. Occhipinti, A. Di Matteo, I. A. Kinloch, T. Seyller, E. Quesnel, X. Feng, K. Teo, N. Rupesinghe, P. Hakonen, S. R. Neil, Q. Tannock, T. Löfwander, and J. Kinaret, “Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems,” Nanoscale 7(11), 4598–4810 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

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Pan, C.

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A. C. Ferrari, F. Bonaccorso, V. Fal’ko, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roche, P. Bøggild, S. Borini, F. H. Koppens, V. Palermo, N. Pugno, J. A. Garrido, R. Sordan, A. Bianco, L. Ballerini, M. Prato, E. Lidorikis, J. Kivioja, C. Marinelli, T. Ryhänen, A. Morpurgo, J. N. Coleman, V. Nicolosi, L. Colombo, A. Fert, M. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Bachtold, G. F. Schneider, F. Guinea, C. Dekker, M. Barbone, Z. Sun, C. Galiotis, A. N. Grigorenko, G. Konstantatos, A. Kis, M. Katsnelson, L. Vandersypen, A. Loiseau, V. Morandi, D. Neumaier, E. Treossi, V. Pellegrini, M. Polini, A. Tredicucci, G. M. Williams, B. H. Hong, J. H. Ahn, J. M. Kim, H. Zirath, B. J. van Wees, H. van der Zant, L. Occhipinti, A. Di Matteo, I. A. Kinloch, T. Seyller, E. Quesnel, X. Feng, K. Teo, N. Rupesinghe, P. Hakonen, S. R. Neil, Q. Tannock, T. Löfwander, and J. Kinaret, “Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems,” Nanoscale 7(11), 4598–4810 (2015).
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Torrisi, F.

M. Zhang, R. C. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
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Tredicucci, A.

A. C. Ferrari, F. Bonaccorso, V. Fal’ko, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roche, P. Bøggild, S. Borini, F. H. Koppens, V. Palermo, N. Pugno, J. A. Garrido, R. Sordan, A. Bianco, L. Ballerini, M. Prato, E. Lidorikis, J. Kivioja, C. Marinelli, T. Ryhänen, A. Morpurgo, J. N. Coleman, V. Nicolosi, L. Colombo, A. Fert, M. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Bachtold, G. F. Schneider, F. Guinea, C. Dekker, M. Barbone, Z. Sun, C. Galiotis, A. N. Grigorenko, G. Konstantatos, A. Kis, M. Katsnelson, L. Vandersypen, A. Loiseau, V. Morandi, D. Neumaier, E. Treossi, V. Pellegrini, M. Polini, A. Tredicucci, G. M. Williams, B. H. Hong, J. H. Ahn, J. M. Kim, H. Zirath, B. J. van Wees, H. van der Zant, L. Occhipinti, A. Di Matteo, I. A. Kinloch, T. Seyller, E. Quesnel, X. Feng, K. Teo, N. Rupesinghe, P. Hakonen, S. R. Neil, Q. Tannock, T. Löfwander, and J. Kinaret, “Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems,” Nanoscale 7(11), 4598–4810 (2015).
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Tu, J.

Y. Zhong, X. Xia, F. Shi, J. Zhan, J. Tu, and H. J. Fan, “Transition metal carbides and nitrides in energy storage and conversion,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 3(5), 1500286 (2016).
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Tuo, M.

M. Tuo, C. Xu, H. Mu, X. Bao, Y. Wang, S. Xiao, W. Ma, L. Li, D. Tang, H. Zhang, M. Premaratne, B. Sun, H.-M. Cheng, S. Li, W. Ren, and Q. Bao, “Ultrathin 2D transition metal carbides for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1808–1816 (2018).
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M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
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A. C. Ferrari, F. Bonaccorso, V. Fal’ko, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roche, P. Bøggild, S. Borini, F. H. Koppens, V. Palermo, N. Pugno, J. A. Garrido, R. Sordan, A. Bianco, L. Ballerini, M. Prato, E. Lidorikis, J. Kivioja, C. Marinelli, T. Ryhänen, A. Morpurgo, J. N. Coleman, V. Nicolosi, L. Colombo, A. Fert, M. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Bachtold, G. F. Schneider, F. Guinea, C. Dekker, M. Barbone, Z. Sun, C. Galiotis, A. N. Grigorenko, G. Konstantatos, A. Kis, M. Katsnelson, L. Vandersypen, A. Loiseau, V. Morandi, D. Neumaier, E. Treossi, V. Pellegrini, M. Polini, A. Tredicucci, G. M. Williams, B. H. Hong, J. H. Ahn, J. M. Kim, H. Zirath, B. J. van Wees, H. van der Zant, L. Occhipinti, A. Di Matteo, I. A. Kinloch, T. Seyller, E. Quesnel, X. Feng, K. Teo, N. Rupesinghe, P. Hakonen, S. R. Neil, Q. Tannock, T. Löfwander, and J. Kinaret, “Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems,” Nanoscale 7(11), 4598–4810 (2015).
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A. C. Ferrari, F. Bonaccorso, V. Fal’ko, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roche, P. Bøggild, S. Borini, F. H. Koppens, V. Palermo, N. Pugno, J. A. Garrido, R. Sordan, A. Bianco, L. Ballerini, M. Prato, E. Lidorikis, J. Kivioja, C. Marinelli, T. Ryhänen, A. Morpurgo, J. N. Coleman, V. Nicolosi, L. Colombo, A. Fert, M. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Bachtold, G. F. Schneider, F. Guinea, C. Dekker, M. Barbone, Z. Sun, C. Galiotis, A. N. Grigorenko, G. Konstantatos, A. Kis, M. Katsnelson, L. Vandersypen, A. Loiseau, V. Morandi, D. Neumaier, E. Treossi, V. Pellegrini, M. Polini, A. Tredicucci, G. M. Williams, B. H. Hong, J. H. Ahn, J. M. Kim, H. Zirath, B. J. van Wees, H. van der Zant, L. Occhipinti, A. Di Matteo, I. A. Kinloch, T. Seyller, E. Quesnel, X. Feng, K. Teo, N. Rupesinghe, P. Hakonen, S. R. Neil, Q. Tannock, T. Löfwander, and J. Kinaret, “Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems,” Nanoscale 7(11), 4598–4810 (2015).
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A. C. Ferrari, F. Bonaccorso, V. Fal’ko, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roche, P. Bøggild, S. Borini, F. H. Koppens, V. Palermo, N. Pugno, J. A. Garrido, R. Sordan, A. Bianco, L. Ballerini, M. Prato, E. Lidorikis, J. Kivioja, C. Marinelli, T. Ryhänen, A. Morpurgo, J. N. Coleman, V. Nicolosi, L. Colombo, A. Fert, M. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Bachtold, G. F. Schneider, F. Guinea, C. Dekker, M. Barbone, Z. Sun, C. Galiotis, A. N. Grigorenko, G. Konstantatos, A. Kis, M. Katsnelson, L. Vandersypen, A. Loiseau, V. Morandi, D. Neumaier, E. Treossi, V. Pellegrini, M. Polini, A. Tredicucci, G. M. Williams, B. H. Hong, J. H. Ahn, J. M. Kim, H. Zirath, B. J. van Wees, H. van der Zant, L. Occhipinti, A. Di Matteo, I. A. Kinloch, T. Seyller, E. Quesnel, X. Feng, K. Teo, N. Rupesinghe, P. Hakonen, S. R. Neil, Q. Tannock, T. Löfwander, and J. Kinaret, “Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems,” Nanoscale 7(11), 4598–4810 (2015).
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Wang, A.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S.-F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S.-K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z.-X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
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Wang, F.-Z.

Wang, H.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
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Wang, J.

Z. Li, N. Dong, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “Invited Article: Mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by rhenium diselenide as a new saturable absorber,” APL Photon. 8(8), 080802 (2018).
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K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11453–11461 (2015).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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C. Xu, S. Song, Z. Liu, L. Chen, L. Wang, D. Fan, N. Kang, X. Ma, H.-M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Strongly Coupled High-Quality Graphene/2D Superconducting Mo2C Vertical Heterostructures with Aligned Orientation,” ACS Nano 11(6), 5906–5914 (2017).
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Z. Liu, C. Xu, N. Kang, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, J. Du, Y. Liu, X.-L. Ma, H.-M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Unique domain structure of two-dimensional α-Mo2C superconducting crystals,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4243–4250 (2016).
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C. Xu, L. Wang, Z. Liu, L. Chen, J. Guo, N. Kang, X.-L. Ma, H.-M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin Mo2C superconducting crystals,” Nat. Mater. 14(11), 1135–1141 (2015).
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H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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M. Tuo, C. Xu, H. Mu, X. Bao, Y. Wang, S. Xiao, W. Ma, L. Li, D. Tang, H. Zhang, M. Premaratne, B. Sun, H.-M. Cheng, S. Li, W. Ren, and Q. Bao, “Ultrathin 2D transition metal carbides for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1808–1816 (2018).
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H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus–polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
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C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
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H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
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A. C. Ferrari, F. Bonaccorso, V. Fal’ko, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roche, P. Bøggild, S. Borini, F. H. Koppens, V. Palermo, N. Pugno, J. A. Garrido, R. Sordan, A. Bianco, L. Ballerini, M. Prato, E. Lidorikis, J. Kivioja, C. Marinelli, T. Ryhänen, A. Morpurgo, J. N. Coleman, V. Nicolosi, L. Colombo, A. Fert, M. Garcia-Hernandez, A. Bachtold, G. F. Schneider, F. Guinea, C. Dekker, M. Barbone, Z. Sun, C. Galiotis, A. N. Grigorenko, G. Konstantatos, A. Kis, M. Katsnelson, L. Vandersypen, A. Loiseau, V. Morandi, D. Neumaier, E. Treossi, V. Pellegrini, M. Polini, A. Tredicucci, G. M. Williams, B. H. Hong, J. H. Ahn, J. M. Kim, H. Zirath, B. J. van Wees, H. van der Zant, L. Occhipinti, A. Di Matteo, I. A. Kinloch, T. Seyller, E. Quesnel, X. Feng, K. Teo, N. Rupesinghe, P. Hakonen, S. R. Neil, Q. Tannock, T. Löfwander, and J. Kinaret, “Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems,” Nanoscale 7(11), 4598–4810 (2015).
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M. Zhang, R. C. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er: fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8(5), 1522–1534 (2015).
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Wu, K.

Xia, F.

F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
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Y. Zhong, X. Xia, F. Shi, J. Zhan, J. Tu, and H. J. Fan, “Transition metal carbides and nitrides in energy storage and conversion,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 3(5), 1500286 (2016).
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F. Xia, H. Wang, D. Xiao, M. Dubey, and A. Ramasubramaniam, “Two-dimensional material nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 899–907 (2014).
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M. Tuo, C. Xu, H. Mu, X. Bao, Y. Wang, S. Xiao, W. Ma, L. Li, D. Tang, H. Zhang, M. Premaratne, B. Sun, H.-M. Cheng, S. Li, W. Ren, and Q. Bao, “Ultrathin 2D transition metal carbides for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1808–1816 (2018).
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H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus–polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
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Xing, G.

Xu, C.

M. Tuo, C. Xu, H. Mu, X. Bao, Y. Wang, S. Xiao, W. Ma, L. Li, D. Tang, H. Zhang, M. Premaratne, B. Sun, H.-M. Cheng, S. Li, W. Ren, and Q. Bao, “Ultrathin 2D transition metal carbides for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1808–1816 (2018).
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C. Xu, S. Song, Z. Liu, L. Chen, L. Wang, D. Fan, N. Kang, X. Ma, H.-M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Strongly Coupled High-Quality Graphene/2D Superconducting Mo2C Vertical Heterostructures with Aligned Orientation,” ACS Nano 11(6), 5906–5914 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, C. Xu, N. Kang, L. Wang, Y. Jiang, J. Du, Y. Liu, X.-L. Ma, H.-M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Unique domain structure of two-dimensional α-Mo2C superconducting crystals,” Nano Lett. 16(7), 4243–4250 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, L. Wang, Z. Liu, L. Chen, J. Guo, N. Kang, X.-L. Ma, H.-M. Cheng, and W. Ren, “Large-area high-quality 2D ultrathin Mo2C superconducting crystals,” Nat. Mater. 14(11), 1135–1141 (2015).
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Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Yang, H.

H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. Wee, and W. Ji, “Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2622–2627 (2011).
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I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
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Z. Li, N. Dong, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “Invited Article: Mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by rhenium diselenide as a new saturable absorber,” APL Photon. 8(8), 080802 (2018).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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Yu, X.

Yu, X.-F.

Zhan, J.

Y. Zhong, X. Xia, F. Shi, J. Zhan, J. Tu, and H. J. Fan, “Transition metal carbides and nitrides in energy storage and conversion,” Adv. Sci. (Weinh.) 3(5), 1500286 (2016).
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Zhang, H.

M. Tuo, C. Xu, H. Mu, X. Bao, Y. Wang, S. Xiao, W. Ma, L. Li, D. Tang, H. Zhang, M. Premaratne, B. Sun, H.-M. Cheng, S. Li, W. Ren, and Q. Bao, “Ultrathin 2D transition metal carbides for ultrafast pulsed fiber lasers,” ACS Photonics 5(5), 1808–1816 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, G. Simon, H. Zhang, Z. Guo, M. J. Withford, and A. Fuerbach, “Bismuth telluride topological insulator nanosheet saturable absorbers for Q-switched mode-locked Tm: ZBLAN waveguide lasers,” Ann. Phys. 528(7–8), 543–550 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, S. Lin, Z. Wang, S. Xiao, P. Li, Y. Chen, H. Zhang, H. Bao, S. P. Lau, C. Pan, D. Fan, and Q. Bao, “Black phosphorus–polymer composites for pulsed lasers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3(10), 1447–1453 (2015).
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Z.-C. Luo, M. Liu, Z.-N. Guo, X.-F. Jiang, A.-P. Luo, C.-J. Zhao, X.-F. Yu, W.-C. Xu, and H. Zhang, “Microfiber-based few-layer black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultra-fast fiber laser,” Opt. Express 23(15), 20030–20039 (2015).
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Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
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H. Liu, A.-P. Luo, F.-Z. Wang, R. Tang, M. Liu, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, C.-J. Zhao, and H. Zhang, “Femtosecond pulse erbium-doped fiber laser by a few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4591–4594 (2014).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Materials characterizations of Mo2C-graphene hetero-structure. (a) Optical image of Mo2C nanosheets on graphene. (b) AFM image of a Mo2C nanosheet on the graphene film. (c) Optical image of the Mo2C-graphene hetero-structure film on the side-polished fiber. (d) TEM image of a Mo2C nanosheet on the graphene film. (e) The corresponding high-resolution TEM image. (f) The corresponding diffraction pattern.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Raman spectra (a) and optical absorption spectra (b) of graphene (Red line), Mo2C (Blue line) and their heterostructure sample (Black line).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Z-scan spectrum (a) of the Mo2C-graphene hetero-structure sample and its corresponding saturable absorption spectrum (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Laser cavity schematic. LD: 980 nm laser diode; WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; EDF: Er-doped fiber; ISO: Isolator; PC: Polarization controller.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The mode-locked fiber laser based on the Mo2C-graphene hetero-structure saturable absorber. (a) Optical spectrum. (b) Pulse trains. (c) Autocorrelation curve of the single mode-locking pulse. (d) Radio-frequency (RF) spectrum. (e) Output power with the increase of input power. (f) long-stability measurement of the laser optical spectrum.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparisons of nonlinear optical absorption of graphene, Mo2C and their heterostructure

Equations (2)

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  T OA ( z )= 1 π q 0 In[L+ q 0 e x 2 ]dx
 T=(1 α s 1+ I I S βIL)/(1 α s )