Abstract

Raman spectra of Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses with different Yb3+ concentrations have been studied. The results reveal that Yb3+ ions have no effect on the maximum phonon energy. Moreover, this heavy-metal oxide glass has low phonon energy with a value of ∼ 800 cm−1, which is very helpful to obtain strong infrared luminescence. The absorption coefficient of OH- group is small, which is helpful for infrared luminescence. Nb2O5-based glasses have a high refractive index with the nd value over 2. Yb3+ is not good for the refractive properties on the whole. The abbe number can be calculated by using characteristic values. All the glasses with different Yb3+ concentrations show high a Abbe number with the value over 16. Nb2O5-based glasses perform excellent optical properties that satisfy well the requirements of commercial glasses. The amorphous phase is confirmed by XRD and SEM images. Additionally, EDS results indicate the homogeneous distribution of compositions in the glass. A broad and strong near infrared emission centered at ∼ 1850nm ascribed to 3F43H6 is obtained from Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses at 980 nm excitation. The emission intensity first increases and then decreases with Yb3+. When y = 0.03, the emission is the strongest. The luminescence process is the energy transfer from Yb3+ to Tm3+. The lifetime of the excited state for Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses (y = 0.03) is calculated to be 2.292 ms. Such long lifetime is very favorable to get strong luminescence.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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2019 (2)

M. Kochanowicz, J. Zmojda, P. Miluski, A. Baranowska, M. Leich, A. Schwuchow, M. Jager, M. Kuwik, J. Pisarska, W. A. Pisarski, and D. Dorosz, “Tm3+/Ho3+ co-doped germanate glass and double-clad optical fiber for broadband emission and lasing above 2 µm,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(3), 1450–1458 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, J. R. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. H. Gu, and X. W. Qi, “Photoluminescence, transmittance and electrical properties of Eu3+-doped Al2O3-SrO glasses synthesized by an aerodynamic levitation technique,” J. Lumin. 206, 79–83 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

K. Yoshimoto, Y. Ezura, M. Ueda, A. Masuno, and H. Inoue, “2.7 mu m mid-infrared emission in highly erbium-doped lanthanum gallate glasses prepared via an aerodynamic levitation technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701283 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. B. Zhao, L. L. Wu, C. J. Zhang, T. X. Li, Q. L. Jiang, F. Wang, P. Zhao, J. E. Ryu, and Z. H. Guo, “Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of Yb3+-Tm3+ codoped Y7O6F9 petal shaped microcrystals with enhanced upconversion emission,” Mater. Res. Bull. 103, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Han, W. Gao, C. Y. Zhang, X. H. Mi, X. Zhao, Z. L. Zhang, J. Dong, and H. R. Zheng, “Tunable flower-like upconversion emission and directional red radiation in a single NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystal particle,” J. Alloys Compd. 748, 252–257 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. R. Chen, R. S. Lei, H. P. Wang, F. F. Huang, S. L. Zhao, and S. Q. Xu, “Temperature-dependent emission color and temperature sensing behavior in Tm3+/Yb3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 77, 233–239 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

M. H. Zhang, J. D. Yu, W. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Ai, H. Q. Wen, M. Jiang, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Bright white upconversion luminescence from Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+-doped titanate-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. 72, 447–451 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Lia, J. Y. Li, J. Q. Li, H. Lin, and B. Li, “Upconversion 32Nb2O5-10La2O3-16ZrO2 glass activated with Er3+/Yb3+ and dye sensitized solar cell application,” J. Adv. Ceram. 6(4), 312–319 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, C. Y. Wang, J. D. Yu, R. L. Zhang, J. J. Ren, X. F. Liu, and J. R. Qiu, “Structure and optical properties of Er-doped CaO-Al2O3 (Ga2O3) glasses fabricated by aerodynamic levitation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(7), 2852–2858 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, W. G. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. D. Hao, G. H. Pan, L. L. Zhang, Y. S. Luo, and J. H. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of Tm3+:F-3(4) -> H-3(6) transition by backward energy transfer from Yb3+ in Y2O3 for mid-infrared applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 48–53 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Liu, Y. Tian, C. Z. Wang, F. F. Huang, X. F. Jing, J. J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Different dominant transitions in holmium and ytterbium codoped oxyfluoride glass and glass ceramics originating from varying phonon energy environments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19(44), 29833–29839 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Z. Wang, Y. Tian, X. Y. Gao, Q. H. Liu, F. F. Huang, B. P. Li, J. J. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Investigation of broadband mid-infrared emission and quantitative analysis of Dy-Er energy transfer in tellurite glasses under different excitations,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29512–29525 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Zhang, H. Q. Wen, J. D. Yu, F. Ai, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, H. Shao, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Investigation of upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3222–3230 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

Z. P. Zhang, H. B. Li, C. C. Wang, J. Q. Li, and X. G. Ma, “Pseudo-relaxor behavior in 0.35La2O3-0.65Nb2O5 glass prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Mater. Res. Bull. 78, 158–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wen, G. W. Tang, Q. Yang, X. D. Chen, Q. Qian, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, “Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 mu m laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20344 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Z. Cai, Y. Lu, R. J. Cao, Y. Tian, S. Q. Xu, and J. J. Zhang, “2 µm emission properties and hydroxy groups quenching of Tm3+ in germanate-tellurite glass,” Opt. Mater. 57, 236–242 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, X. F. Jing, B. P. Li, P. C. Li, Y. Y. Li, R. S. Lei, J. J. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Synthesis, theoretical analysis, and characterization of highly Er3+ doped fluoroaluminate-tellurite glass with 2.7 mu m emission,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(10), 3274–3285 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Rathaiah, P. Haritha, A. D. Lozano-Gorrin, P. Babu, C. K. Jayasankar, U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, V. Lavin, and V. Venkatramu, “Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets: a study of multipolar interactions and energy transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(21), 14720–14729 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. T. Zhu, G. W. Tang, X. D. Chen, M. Sun, Q. Qian, and Z. M. Yang, “Enhanced 1.8 mu m emission in Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped lead silicate glasses under different excitations for near infrared laser,” J. Rare Earths 34(10), 978–985 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. X. Liu, F. Qin, H. Zhao, T. Q. Lv, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, “Facile synthesis and upconversion luminescence of beta-NaYF4:Yb, Tm nanocrystals with highly tunable and uniform beta-NaYF4 shells,” J. Alloys Compd. 684, 211–216 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Y. Li, J. Q. Li, B. Li, J. D. Yu, and L. H. Qi, “An upconversion niobium pentoxide bulk glass codoped with Er3+/Yb3+ fabricated by aerodynamic levitation method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(6), 1865–1869 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, H. P. Xia, Y. Z. Jiang, J. Z. Zhang, Y. W. Shi, X. M. Gu, J. L. Zhang, Y. P. Zhang, H. C. Jiang, and B. J. Chen, “Tm3+ doped alpha-NaYF4 single crystal for 2 mu m laser application,” J. Alloys Compd. 643, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (3)

X. Han, M. Rico, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, “Efficient infrared (approximate to 1.9-2.0 mu m) laser operation in color-defect-free Tm:NaGd(MoO4)(2) crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045808 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Zhao, Y. Tian, X. Wang, H. Y. Fan, and L. L. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 µm emission in Tm3+ doped bismuth silicate glass,” J. Lumin. 134, 837–841 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Cheng, G. S. Xu, J. D. Yu, X. H. Pen, M. H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Thermal and optical properties of high refractive index xNb2O5-(1-x)La2O3 glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Mater. Sci. Forum 749, 255–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. M. Hau, R. F. Wang, D. C. Zhou, X. Yu, Z. G. Song, Z. W. Yang, Y. Yang, X. J. He, and J. B. Qiu, “Infrared broadband emission of bismuth-thulium co-doped lanthanum-aluminum-silica glasses,” J. Lumin. 132(6), 1353–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Bai, D. Li, Q. Liu, B. Dong, S. Xu, and H. W. Song, “Concentration-controlled emission in LaF3:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals: switching from UV to NIR regions,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(47), 24698–24704 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

K. F. Li, H. Y. Fan, G. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Broadband near-infrared emission in Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped bismuthate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(6), 3070–3073 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

W. Wang, Y. S. Xu, C. Shen, Q. Q. Yan, H. D. Zeng, and G. R. Chen, “Infrared luminescence of Tm3+-doped chalcohalide glasses in GeS2-In2S3-CsBr system,” J. Alloys Compd. 490(1-2), L37–L39 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, Q. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Energy transfer and 1.8 mu m emission in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped lanthanum tungsten tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(2), 573–578 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. L. Yang, and L. H. Huang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+-doped and Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

X. L. Zou and H. Toratani, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfers in Tm3+ singly- and Tm3+/Ho3+ doubly-doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 195(1-2), 113–124 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ai, F.

M. H. Zhang, H. Q. Wen, J. D. Yu, F. Ai, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, H. Shao, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Investigation of upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3222–3230 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Zhang, J. D. Yu, W. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Ai, H. Q. Wen, M. Jiang, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Bright white upconversion luminescence from Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+-doped titanate-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. 72, 447–451 (2017).
[Crossref]

Arai, Y.

J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Babu, P.

M. Rathaiah, P. Haritha, A. D. Lozano-Gorrin, P. Babu, C. K. Jayasankar, U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, V. Lavin, and V. Venkatramu, “Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets: a study of multipolar interactions and energy transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(21), 14720–14729 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bai, G. X.

K. F. Li, H. Y. Fan, G. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Broadband near-infrared emission in Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped bismuthate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(6), 3070–3073 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, Q. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Energy transfer and 1.8 mu m emission in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped lanthanum tungsten tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(2), 573–578 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bai, X.

X. Bai, D. Li, Q. Liu, B. Dong, S. Xu, and H. W. Song, “Concentration-controlled emission in LaF3:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals: switching from UV to NIR regions,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(47), 24698–24704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baranowska, A.

Cai, M. Z.

M. Z. Cai, Y. Lu, R. J. Cao, Y. Tian, S. Q. Xu, and J. J. Zhang, “2 µm emission properties and hydroxy groups quenching of Tm3+ in germanate-tellurite glass,” Opt. Mater. 57, 236–242 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, R. J.

M. Z. Cai, Y. Lu, R. J. Cao, Y. Tian, S. Q. Xu, and J. J. Zhang, “2 µm emission properties and hydroxy groups quenching of Tm3+ in germanate-tellurite glass,” Opt. Mater. 57, 236–242 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cao, W. W.

L. X. Liu, F. Qin, H. Zhao, T. Q. Lv, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, “Facile synthesis and upconversion luminescence of beta-NaYF4:Yb, Tm nanocrystals with highly tunable and uniform beta-NaYF4 shells,” J. Alloys Compd. 684, 211–216 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cascales, C.

X. Han, M. Rico, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, “Efficient infrared (approximate to 1.9-2.0 mu m) laser operation in color-defect-free Tm:NaGd(MoO4)(2) crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. J.

S. Yang, H. P. Xia, Y. Z. Jiang, J. Z. Zhang, Y. W. Shi, X. M. Gu, J. L. Zhang, Y. P. Zhang, H. C. Jiang, and B. J. Chen, “Tm3+ doped alpha-NaYF4 single crystal for 2 mu m laser application,” J. Alloys Compd. 643, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. R.

G. R. Chen, R. S. Lei, H. P. Wang, F. F. Huang, S. L. Zhao, and S. Q. Xu, “Temperature-dependent emission color and temperature sensing behavior in Tm3+/Yb3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 77, 233–239 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, Y. S. Xu, C. Shen, Q. Q. Yan, H. D. Zeng, and G. R. Chen, “Infrared luminescence of Tm3+-doped chalcohalide glasses in GeS2-In2S3-CsBr system,” J. Alloys Compd. 490(1-2), L37–L39 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. D.

T. T. Zhu, G. W. Tang, X. D. Chen, M. Sun, Q. Qian, and Z. M. Yang, “Enhanced 1.8 mu m emission in Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped lead silicate glasses under different excitations for near infrared laser,” J. Rare Earths 34(10), 978–985 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wen, G. W. Tang, Q. Yang, X. D. Chen, Q. Qian, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, “Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 mu m laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. X.

Y. X. Cheng, G. S. Xu, J. D. Yu, X. H. Pen, M. H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Thermal and optical properties of high refractive index xNb2O5-(1-x)La2O3 glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Mater. Sci. Forum 749, 255–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dong, B.

X. Bai, D. Li, Q. Liu, B. Dong, S. Xu, and H. W. Song, “Concentration-controlled emission in LaF3:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals: switching from UV to NIR regions,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(47), 24698–24704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

Q. Y. Han, W. Gao, C. Y. Zhang, X. H. Mi, X. Zhao, Z. L. Zhang, J. Dong, and H. R. Zheng, “Tunable flower-like upconversion emission and directional red radiation in a single NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystal particle,” J. Alloys Compd. 748, 252–257 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dorosz, D.

Ezura, Y.

K. Yoshimoto, Y. Ezura, M. Ueda, A. Masuno, and H. Inoue, “2.7 mu m mid-infrared emission in highly erbium-doped lanthanum gallate glasses prepared via an aerodynamic levitation technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701283 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fan, H. Y.

G. Y. Zhao, Y. Tian, X. Wang, H. Y. Fan, and L. L. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 µm emission in Tm3+ doped bismuth silicate glass,” J. Lumin. 134, 837–841 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, H. Y. Fan, G. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Broadband near-infrared emission in Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped bismuthate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(6), 3070–3073 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fan, S. J.

K. F. Li, H. Y. Fan, G. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Broadband near-infrared emission in Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped bismuthate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(6), 3070–3073 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, Q. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Energy transfer and 1.8 mu m emission in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped lanthanum tungsten tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(2), 573–578 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fukunaga, T.

J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gai, L. J.

M. H. Zhang, J. D. Yu, W. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Ai, H. Q. Wen, M. Jiang, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Bright white upconversion luminescence from Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+-doped titanate-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. 72, 447–451 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Zhang, H. Q. Wen, J. D. Yu, F. Ai, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, H. Shao, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Investigation of upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3222–3230 (2017).
[Crossref]

Gao, W.

Q. Y. Han, W. Gao, C. Y. Zhang, X. H. Mi, X. Zhao, Z. L. Zhang, J. Dong, and H. R. Zheng, “Tunable flower-like upconversion emission and directional red radiation in a single NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystal particle,” J. Alloys Compd. 748, 252–257 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gao, X. Y.

Gu, X. M.

S. Yang, H. P. Xia, Y. Z. Jiang, J. Z. Zhang, Y. W. Shi, X. M. Gu, J. L. Zhang, Y. P. Zhang, H. C. Jiang, and B. J. Chen, “Tm3+ doped alpha-NaYF4 single crystal for 2 mu m laser application,” J. Alloys Compd. 643, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y. H.

X. Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, J. R. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. H. Gu, and X. W. Qi, “Photoluminescence, transmittance and electrical properties of Eu3+-doped Al2O3-SrO glasses synthesized by an aerodynamic levitation technique,” J. Lumin. 206, 79–83 (2019).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z. H.

J. B. Zhao, L. L. Wu, C. J. Zhang, T. X. Li, Q. L. Jiang, F. Wang, P. Zhao, J. E. Ryu, and Z. H. Guo, “Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of Yb3+-Tm3+ codoped Y7O6F9 petal shaped microcrystals with enhanced upconversion emission,” Mater. Res. Bull. 103, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

Han, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Han, W. Gao, C. Y. Zhang, X. H. Mi, X. Zhao, Z. L. Zhang, J. Dong, and H. R. Zheng, “Tunable flower-like upconversion emission and directional red radiation in a single NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystal particle,” J. Alloys Compd. 748, 252–257 (2018).
[Crossref]

Han, X.

X. Han, M. Rico, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, “Efficient infrared (approximate to 1.9-2.0 mu m) laser operation in color-defect-free Tm:NaGd(MoO4)(2) crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hao, Z. D.

D. Wu, W. G. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. D. Hao, G. H. Pan, L. L. Zhang, Y. S. Luo, and J. H. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of Tm3+:F-3(4) -> H-3(6) transition by backward energy transfer from Yb3+ in Y2O3 for mid-infrared applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 48–53 (2017).
[Crossref]

Haritha, P.

M. Rathaiah, P. Haritha, A. D. Lozano-Gorrin, P. Babu, C. K. Jayasankar, U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, V. Lavin, and V. Venkatramu, “Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets: a study of multipolar interactions and energy transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(21), 14720–14729 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hau, T. M.

T. M. Hau, R. F. Wang, D. C. Zhou, X. Yu, Z. G. Song, Z. W. Yang, Y. Yang, X. J. He, and J. B. Qiu, “Infrared broadband emission of bismuth-thulium co-doped lanthanum-aluminum-silica glasses,” J. Lumin. 132(6), 1353–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

He, X. J.

T. M. Hau, R. F. Wang, D. C. Zhou, X. Yu, Z. G. Song, Z. W. Yang, Y. Yang, X. J. He, and J. B. Qiu, “Infrared broadband emission of bismuth-thulium co-doped lanthanum-aluminum-silica glasses,” J. Lumin. 132(6), 1353–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, L. L.

G. Y. Zhao, Y. Tian, X. Wang, H. Y. Fan, and L. L. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 µm emission in Tm3+ doped bismuth silicate glass,” J. Lumin. 134, 837–841 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, H. Y. Fan, G. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Broadband near-infrared emission in Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped bismuthate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(6), 3070–3073 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, Q. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Energy transfer and 1.8 mu m emission in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped lanthanum tungsten tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(2), 573–578 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, F. F.

G. R. Chen, R. S. Lei, H. P. Wang, F. F. Huang, S. L. Zhao, and S. Q. Xu, “Temperature-dependent emission color and temperature sensing behavior in Tm3+/Yb3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 77, 233–239 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Z. Wang, Y. Tian, X. Y. Gao, Q. H. Liu, F. F. Huang, B. P. Li, J. J. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Investigation of broadband mid-infrared emission and quantitative analysis of Dy-Er energy transfer in tellurite glasses under different excitations,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29512–29525 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Liu, Y. Tian, C. Z. Wang, F. F. Huang, X. F. Jing, J. J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Different dominant transitions in holmium and ytterbium codoped oxyfluoride glass and glass ceramics originating from varying phonon energy environments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19(44), 29833–29839 (2017).
[Crossref]

Huang, L. H.

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. L. Yang, and L. H. Huang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+-doped and Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Inoue, H.

K. Yoshimoto, Y. Ezura, M. Ueda, A. Masuno, and H. Inoue, “2.7 mu m mid-infrared emission in highly erbium-doped lanthanum gallate glasses prepared via an aerodynamic levitation technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701283 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Masuno, H. Inoue, K. Yoshimoto, and Y. Watanabe, “Thermal and optical properties of La2O3- Nb2O5 high refractive index glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 710–718 (2014).
[Crossref]

Itoh, K.

J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Itoh, M.

J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jager, M.

Jayasankar, C. K.

M. Rathaiah, P. Haritha, A. D. Lozano-Gorrin, P. Babu, C. K. Jayasankar, U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, V. Lavin, and V. Venkatramu, “Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets: a study of multipolar interactions and energy transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(21), 14720–14729 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. C.

S. Yang, H. P. Xia, Y. Z. Jiang, J. Z. Zhang, Y. W. Shi, X. M. Gu, J. L. Zhang, Y. P. Zhang, H. C. Jiang, and B. J. Chen, “Tm3+ doped alpha-NaYF4 single crystal for 2 mu m laser application,” J. Alloys Compd. 643, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, M.

M. H. Zhang, J. D. Yu, W. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Ai, H. Q. Wen, M. Jiang, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Bright white upconversion luminescence from Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+-doped titanate-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. 72, 447–451 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Q. L.

J. B. Zhao, L. L. Wu, C. J. Zhang, T. X. Li, Q. L. Jiang, F. Wang, P. Zhao, J. E. Ryu, and Z. H. Guo, “Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of Yb3+-Tm3+ codoped Y7O6F9 petal shaped microcrystals with enhanced upconversion emission,” Mater. Res. Bull. 103, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W.

M. H. Zhang, J. D. Yu, W. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Ai, H. Q. Wen, M. Jiang, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Bright white upconversion luminescence from Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+-doped titanate-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. 72, 447–451 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, Y. Z.

S. Yang, H. P. Xia, Y. Z. Jiang, J. Z. Zhang, Y. W. Shi, X. M. Gu, J. L. Zhang, Y. P. Zhang, H. C. Jiang, and B. J. Chen, “Tm3+ doped alpha-NaYF4 single crystal for 2 mu m laser application,” J. Alloys Compd. 643, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jing, X. F.

Q. H. Liu, Y. Tian, C. Z. Wang, F. F. Huang, X. F. Jing, J. J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Different dominant transitions in holmium and ytterbium codoped oxyfluoride glass and glass ceramics originating from varying phonon energy environments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19(44), 29833–29839 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, X. F. Jing, B. P. Li, P. C. Li, Y. Y. Li, R. S. Lei, J. J. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Synthesis, theoretical analysis, and characterization of highly Er3+ doped fluoroaluminate-tellurite glass with 2.7 mu m emission,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(10), 3274–3285 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kochanowicz, M.

Kohara, S.

J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koshihara, S.

J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuroiwa, Y.

J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kuwik, M.

Lavin, V.

M. Rathaiah, P. Haritha, A. D. Lozano-Gorrin, P. Babu, C. K. Jayasankar, U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, V. Lavin, and V. Venkatramu, “Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets: a study of multipolar interactions and energy transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(21), 14720–14729 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lei, R. S.

G. R. Chen, R. S. Lei, H. P. Wang, F. F. Huang, S. L. Zhao, and S. Q. Xu, “Temperature-dependent emission color and temperature sensing behavior in Tm3+/Yb3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 77, 233–239 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, X. F. Jing, B. P. Li, P. C. Li, Y. Y. Li, R. S. Lei, J. J. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Synthesis, theoretical analysis, and characterization of highly Er3+ doped fluoroaluminate-tellurite glass with 2.7 mu m emission,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(10), 3274–3285 (2016).
[Crossref]

Leich, M.

Li, B.

X. Y. Lia, J. Y. Li, J. Q. Li, H. Lin, and B. Li, “Upconversion 32Nb2O5-10La2O3-16ZrO2 glass activated with Er3+/Yb3+ and dye sensitized solar cell application,” J. Adv. Ceram. 6(4), 312–319 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Li, J. Q. Li, B. Li, J. D. Yu, and L. H. Qi, “An upconversion niobium pentoxide bulk glass codoped with Er3+/Yb3+ fabricated by aerodynamic levitation method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(6), 1865–1869 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, B. P.

Li, D.

X. Bai, D. Li, Q. Liu, B. Dong, S. Xu, and H. W. Song, “Concentration-controlled emission in LaF3:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals: switching from UV to NIR regions,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(47), 24698–24704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, H. B.

Z. P. Zhang, H. B. Li, C. C. Wang, J. Q. Li, and X. G. Ma, “Pseudo-relaxor behavior in 0.35La2O3-0.65Nb2O5 glass prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Mater. Res. Bull. 78, 158–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, J. Q.

X. Y. Lia, J. Y. Li, J. Q. Li, H. Lin, and B. Li, “Upconversion 32Nb2O5-10La2O3-16ZrO2 glass activated with Er3+/Yb3+ and dye sensitized solar cell application,” J. Adv. Ceram. 6(4), 312–319 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Zhang, H. B. Li, C. C. Wang, J. Q. Li, and X. G. Ma, “Pseudo-relaxor behavior in 0.35La2O3-0.65Nb2O5 glass prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Mater. Res. Bull. 78, 158–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Li, J. Q. Li, B. Li, J. D. Yu, and L. H. Qi, “An upconversion niobium pentoxide bulk glass codoped with Er3+/Yb3+ fabricated by aerodynamic levitation method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(6), 1865–1869 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, J. Y.

X. Y. Lia, J. Y. Li, J. Q. Li, H. Lin, and B. Li, “Upconversion 32Nb2O5-10La2O3-16ZrO2 glass activated with Er3+/Yb3+ and dye sensitized solar cell application,” J. Adv. Ceram. 6(4), 312–319 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Li, J. Q. Li, B. Li, J. D. Yu, and L. H. Qi, “An upconversion niobium pentoxide bulk glass codoped with Er3+/Yb3+ fabricated by aerodynamic levitation method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(6), 1865–1869 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, K. F.

K. F. Li, H. Y. Fan, G. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Broadband near-infrared emission in Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped bismuthate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(6), 3070–3073 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, Q. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Energy transfer and 1.8 mu m emission in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped lanthanum tungsten tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(2), 573–578 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, P. C.

Li, T. X.

J. B. Zhao, L. L. Wu, C. J. Zhang, T. X. Li, Q. L. Jiang, F. Wang, P. Zhao, J. E. Ryu, and Z. H. Guo, “Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of Yb3+-Tm3+ codoped Y7O6F9 petal shaped microcrystals with enhanced upconversion emission,” Mater. Res. Bull. 103, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

X. Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, J. R. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. H. Gu, and X. W. Qi, “Photoluminescence, transmittance and electrical properties of Eu3+-doped Al2O3-SrO glasses synthesized by an aerodynamic levitation technique,” J. Lumin. 206, 79–83 (2019).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. Y.

Lia, X. Y.

X. Y. Lia, J. Y. Li, J. Q. Li, H. Lin, and B. Li, “Upconversion 32Nb2O5-10La2O3-16ZrO2 glass activated with Er3+/Yb3+ and dye sensitized solar cell application,” J. Adv. Ceram. 6(4), 312–319 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

X. Y. Lia, J. Y. Li, J. Q. Li, H. Lin, and B. Li, “Upconversion 32Nb2O5-10La2O3-16ZrO2 glass activated with Er3+/Yb3+ and dye sensitized solar cell application,” J. Adv. Ceram. 6(4), 312–319 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. L. Yang, and L. H. Huang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+-doped and Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, L. X.

L. X. Liu, F. Qin, H. Zhao, T. Q. Lv, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, “Facile synthesis and upconversion luminescence of beta-NaYF4:Yb, Tm nanocrystals with highly tunable and uniform beta-NaYF4 shells,” J. Alloys Compd. 684, 211–216 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q.

X. Bai, D. Li, Q. Liu, B. Dong, S. Xu, and H. W. Song, “Concentration-controlled emission in LaF3:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals: switching from UV to NIR regions,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(47), 24698–24704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, Q. H.

C. Z. Wang, Y. Tian, X. Y. Gao, Q. H. Liu, F. F. Huang, B. P. Li, J. J. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Investigation of broadband mid-infrared emission and quantitative analysis of Dy-Er energy transfer in tellurite glasses under different excitations,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29512–29525 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Liu, Y. Tian, C. Z. Wang, F. F. Huang, X. F. Jing, J. J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Different dominant transitions in holmium and ytterbium codoped oxyfluoride glass and glass ceramics originating from varying phonon energy environments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19(44), 29833–29839 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. F.

C. Xu, C. Y. Wang, J. D. Yu, R. L. Zhang, J. J. Ren, X. F. Liu, and J. R. Qiu, “Structure and optical properties of Er-doped CaO-Al2O3 (Ga2O3) glasses fabricated by aerodynamic levitation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(7), 2852–2858 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

M. H. Zhang, J. D. Yu, W. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Ai, H. Q. Wen, M. Jiang, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Bright white upconversion luminescence from Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+-doped titanate-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. 72, 447–451 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Cheng, G. S. Xu, J. D. Yu, X. H. Pen, M. H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Thermal and optical properties of high refractive index xNb2O5-(1-x)La2O3 glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Mater. Sci. Forum 749, 255–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lozano-Gorrin, A. D.

M. Rathaiah, P. Haritha, A. D. Lozano-Gorrin, P. Babu, C. K. Jayasankar, U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, V. Lavin, and V. Venkatramu, “Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets: a study of multipolar interactions and energy transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(21), 14720–14729 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

M. Z. Cai, Y. Lu, R. J. Cao, Y. Tian, S. Q. Xu, and J. J. Zhang, “2 µm emission properties and hydroxy groups quenching of Tm3+ in germanate-tellurite glass,” Opt. Mater. 57, 236–242 (2016).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y. S.

D. Wu, W. G. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. D. Hao, G. H. Pan, L. L. Zhang, Y. S. Luo, and J. H. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of Tm3+:F-3(4) -> H-3(6) transition by backward energy transfer from Yb3+ in Y2O3 for mid-infrared applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 48–53 (2017).
[Crossref]

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L. X. Liu, F. Qin, H. Zhao, T. Q. Lv, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, “Facile synthesis and upconversion luminescence of beta-NaYF4:Yb, Tm nanocrystals with highly tunable and uniform beta-NaYF4 shells,” J. Alloys Compd. 684, 211–216 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ma, X. G.

Z. P. Zhang, H. B. Li, C. C. Wang, J. Q. Li, and X. G. Ma, “Pseudo-relaxor behavior in 0.35La2O3-0.65Nb2O5 glass prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Mater. Res. Bull. 78, 158–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Masuno, A.

K. Yoshimoto, Y. Ezura, M. Ueda, A. Masuno, and H. Inoue, “2.7 mu m mid-infrared emission in highly erbium-doped lanthanum gallate glasses prepared via an aerodynamic levitation technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701283 (2018).
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A. Masuno, H. Inoue, K. Yoshimoto, and Y. Watanabe, “Thermal and optical properties of La2O3- Nb2O5 high refractive index glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 710–718 (2014).
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J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
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Q. Y. Han, W. Gao, C. Y. Zhang, X. H. Mi, X. Zhao, Z. L. Zhang, J. Dong, and H. R. Zheng, “Tunable flower-like upconversion emission and directional red radiation in a single NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystal particle,” J. Alloys Compd. 748, 252–257 (2018).
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Miyoshi, S.

J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
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J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
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D. Wu, W. G. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. D. Hao, G. H. Pan, L. L. Zhang, Y. S. Luo, and J. H. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of Tm3+:F-3(4) -> H-3(6) transition by backward energy transfer from Yb3+ in Y2O3 for mid-infrared applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 48–53 (2017).
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Pan, X. H.

M. H. Zhang, H. Q. Wen, J. D. Yu, F. Ai, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, H. Shao, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Investigation of upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3222–3230 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Zhang, J. D. Yu, W. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Ai, H. Q. Wen, M. Jiang, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Bright white upconversion luminescence from Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+-doped titanate-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. 72, 447–451 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pen, X. H.

Y. X. Cheng, G. S. Xu, J. D. Yu, X. H. Pen, M. H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Thermal and optical properties of high refractive index xNb2O5-(1-x)La2O3 glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Mater. Sci. Forum 749, 255–259 (2013).
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Pisarski, W. A.

Pun, E. Y. B.

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. L. Yang, and L. H. Huang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+-doped and Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
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J. Y. Li, J. Q. Li, B. Li, J. D. Yu, and L. H. Qi, “An upconversion niobium pentoxide bulk glass codoped with Er3+/Yb3+ fabricated by aerodynamic levitation method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(6), 1865–1869 (2015).
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Qi, X. W.

X. Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, J. R. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. H. Gu, and X. W. Qi, “Photoluminescence, transmittance and electrical properties of Eu3+-doped Al2O3-SrO glasses synthesized by an aerodynamic levitation technique,” J. Lumin. 206, 79–83 (2019).
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Qian, Q.

T. T. Zhu, G. W. Tang, X. D. Chen, M. Sun, Q. Qian, and Z. M. Yang, “Enhanced 1.8 mu m emission in Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped lead silicate glasses under different excitations for near infrared laser,” J. Rare Earths 34(10), 978–985 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wen, G. W. Tang, Q. Yang, X. D. Chen, Q. Qian, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, “Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 mu m laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qin, F.

L. X. Liu, F. Qin, H. Zhao, T. Q. Lv, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, “Facile synthesis and upconversion luminescence of beta-NaYF4:Yb, Tm nanocrystals with highly tunable and uniform beta-NaYF4 shells,” J. Alloys Compd. 684, 211–216 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J. B.

T. M. Hau, R. F. Wang, D. C. Zhou, X. Yu, Z. G. Song, Z. W. Yang, Y. Yang, X. J. He, and J. B. Qiu, “Infrared broadband emission of bismuth-thulium co-doped lanthanum-aluminum-silica glasses,” J. Lumin. 132(6), 1353–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J. R.

C. Xu, C. Y. Wang, J. D. Yu, R. L. Zhang, J. J. Ren, X. F. Liu, and J. R. Qiu, “Structure and optical properties of Er-doped CaO-Al2O3 (Ga2O3) glasses fabricated by aerodynamic levitation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(7), 2852–2858 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rathaiah, M.

M. Rathaiah, P. Haritha, A. D. Lozano-Gorrin, P. Babu, C. K. Jayasankar, U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, V. Lavin, and V. Venkatramu, “Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets: a study of multipolar interactions and energy transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(21), 14720–14729 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ren, J. J.

C. Xu, C. Y. Wang, J. D. Yu, R. L. Zhang, J. J. Ren, X. F. Liu, and J. R. Qiu, “Structure and optical properties of Er-doped CaO-Al2O3 (Ga2O3) glasses fabricated by aerodynamic levitation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(7), 2852–2858 (2017).
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Rico, M.

X. Han, M. Rico, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, “Efficient infrared (approximate to 1.9-2.0 mu m) laser operation in color-defect-free Tm:NaGd(MoO4)(2) crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045808 (2013).
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Rodriguez-Mendoza, U. R.

M. Rathaiah, P. Haritha, A. D. Lozano-Gorrin, P. Babu, C. K. Jayasankar, U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, V. Lavin, and V. Venkatramu, “Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets: a study of multipolar interactions and energy transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(21), 14720–14729 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ryu, J. E.

J. B. Zhao, L. L. Wu, C. J. Zhang, T. X. Li, Q. L. Jiang, F. Wang, P. Zhao, J. E. Ryu, and Z. H. Guo, “Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of Yb3+-Tm3+ codoped Y7O6F9 petal shaped microcrystals with enhanced upconversion emission,” Mater. Res. Bull. 103, 19–24 (2018).
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Schwuchow, A.

Serrano, M. D.

X. Han, M. Rico, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, “Efficient infrared (approximate to 1.9-2.0 mu m) laser operation in color-defect-free Tm:NaGd(MoO4)(2) crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shao, H.

Shen, C.

W. Wang, Y. S. Xu, C. Shen, Q. Q. Yan, H. D. Zeng, and G. R. Chen, “Infrared luminescence of Tm3+-doped chalcohalide glasses in GeS2-In2S3-CsBr system,” J. Alloys Compd. 490(1-2), L37–L39 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y. W.

S. Yang, H. P. Xia, Y. Z. Jiang, J. Z. Zhang, Y. W. Shi, X. M. Gu, J. L. Zhang, Y. P. Zhang, H. C. Jiang, and B. J. Chen, “Tm3+ doped alpha-NaYF4 single crystal for 2 mu m laser application,” J. Alloys Compd. 643, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

Song, H. W.

X. Bai, D. Li, Q. Liu, B. Dong, S. Xu, and H. W. Song, “Concentration-controlled emission in LaF3:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals: switching from UV to NIR regions,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(47), 24698–24704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Song, Z. G.

T. M. Hau, R. F. Wang, D. C. Zhou, X. Yu, Z. G. Song, Z. W. Yang, Y. Yang, X. J. He, and J. B. Qiu, “Infrared broadband emission of bismuth-thulium co-doped lanthanum-aluminum-silica glasses,” J. Lumin. 132(6), 1353–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, M.

T. T. Zhu, G. W. Tang, X. D. Chen, M. Sun, Q. Qian, and Z. M. Yang, “Enhanced 1.8 mu m emission in Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped lead silicate glasses under different excitations for near infrared laser,” J. Rare Earths 34(10), 978–985 (2016).
[Crossref]

Takata, M.

J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tang, G. W.

T. T. Zhu, G. W. Tang, X. D. Chen, M. Sun, Q. Qian, and Z. M. Yang, “Enhanced 1.8 mu m emission in Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped lead silicate glasses under different excitations for near infrared laser,” J. Rare Earths 34(10), 978–985 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wen, G. W. Tang, Q. Yang, X. D. Chen, Q. Qian, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, “Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 mu m laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tang, M. B.

M. H. Zhang, H. Q. Wen, J. D. Yu, F. Ai, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, H. Shao, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Investigation of upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3222–3230 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Zhang, J. D. Yu, W. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Ai, H. Q. Wen, M. Jiang, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Bright white upconversion luminescence from Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+-doped titanate-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. 72, 447–451 (2017).
[Crossref]

Taniguchi, H.

J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

C. Z. Wang, Y. Tian, X. Y. Gao, Q. H. Liu, F. F. Huang, B. P. Li, J. J. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Investigation of broadband mid-infrared emission and quantitative analysis of Dy-Er energy transfer in tellurite glasses under different excitations,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29512–29525 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Liu, Y. Tian, C. Z. Wang, F. F. Huang, X. F. Jing, J. J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Different dominant transitions in holmium and ytterbium codoped oxyfluoride glass and glass ceramics originating from varying phonon energy environments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19(44), 29833–29839 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, X. F. Jing, B. P. Li, P. C. Li, Y. Y. Li, R. S. Lei, J. J. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Synthesis, theoretical analysis, and characterization of highly Er3+ doped fluoroaluminate-tellurite glass with 2.7 mu m emission,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(10), 3274–3285 (2016).
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M. Z. Cai, Y. Lu, R. J. Cao, Y. Tian, S. Q. Xu, and J. J. Zhang, “2 µm emission properties and hydroxy groups quenching of Tm3+ in germanate-tellurite glass,” Opt. Mater. 57, 236–242 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Zhao, Y. Tian, X. Wang, H. Y. Fan, and L. L. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 µm emission in Tm3+ doped bismuth silicate glass,” J. Lumin. 134, 837–841 (2013).
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X. L. Zou and H. Toratani, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfers in Tm3+ singly- and Tm3+/Ho3+ doubly-doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 195(1-2), 113–124 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ueda, M.

K. Yoshimoto, Y. Ezura, M. Ueda, A. Masuno, and H. Inoue, “2.7 mu m mid-infrared emission in highly erbium-doped lanthanum gallate glasses prepared via an aerodynamic levitation technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701283 (2018).
[Crossref]

Venkatramu, V.

M. Rathaiah, P. Haritha, A. D. Lozano-Gorrin, P. Babu, C. K. Jayasankar, U. R. Rodriguez-Mendoza, V. Lavin, and V. Venkatramu, “Stokes and anti-Stokes luminescence in Tm3+/Yb3+-doped Lu3Ga5O12 nano-garnets: a study of multipolar interactions and energy transfer dynamics,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(21), 14720–14729 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. C.

Z. P. Zhang, H. B. Li, C. C. Wang, J. Q. Li, and X. G. Ma, “Pseudo-relaxor behavior in 0.35La2O3-0.65Nb2O5 glass prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Mater. Res. Bull. 78, 158–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

C. Xu, C. Y. Wang, J. D. Yu, R. L. Zhang, J. J. Ren, X. F. Liu, and J. R. Qiu, “Structure and optical properties of Er-doped CaO-Al2O3 (Ga2O3) glasses fabricated by aerodynamic levitation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(7), 2852–2858 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Z.

Q. H. Liu, Y. Tian, C. Z. Wang, F. F. Huang, X. F. Jing, J. J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Different dominant transitions in holmium and ytterbium codoped oxyfluoride glass and glass ceramics originating from varying phonon energy environments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19(44), 29833–29839 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Z. Wang, Y. Tian, X. Y. Gao, Q. H. Liu, F. F. Huang, B. P. Li, J. J. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Investigation of broadband mid-infrared emission and quantitative analysis of Dy-Er energy transfer in tellurite glasses under different excitations,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29512–29525 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

J. B. Zhao, L. L. Wu, C. J. Zhang, T. X. Li, Q. L. Jiang, F. Wang, P. Zhao, J. E. Ryu, and Z. H. Guo, “Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of Yb3+-Tm3+ codoped Y7O6F9 petal shaped microcrystals with enhanced upconversion emission,” Mater. Res. Bull. 103, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. P.

G. R. Chen, R. S. Lei, H. P. Wang, F. F. Huang, S. L. Zhao, and S. Q. Xu, “Temperature-dependent emission color and temperature sensing behavior in Tm3+/Yb3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 77, 233–239 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, R. F.

T. M. Hau, R. F. Wang, D. C. Zhou, X. Yu, Z. G. Song, Z. W. Yang, Y. Yang, X. J. He, and J. B. Qiu, “Infrared broadband emission of bismuth-thulium co-doped lanthanum-aluminum-silica glasses,” J. Lumin. 132(6), 1353–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, Y. S. Xu, C. Shen, Q. Q. Yan, H. D. Zeng, and G. R. Chen, “Infrared luminescence of Tm3+-doped chalcohalide glasses in GeS2-In2S3-CsBr system,” J. Alloys Compd. 490(1-2), L37–L39 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

G. Y. Zhao, Y. Tian, X. Wang, H. Y. Fan, and L. L. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 µm emission in Tm3+ doped bismuth silicate glass,” J. Lumin. 134, 837–841 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, Y.

Wen, H. Q.

M. H. Zhang, H. Q. Wen, J. D. Yu, F. Ai, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, H. Shao, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Investigation of upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3222–3230 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Zhang, J. D. Yu, W. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Ai, H. Q. Wen, M. Jiang, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Bright white upconversion luminescence from Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+-doped titanate-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. 72, 447–451 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wen, X.

X. Wen, G. W. Tang, Q. Yang, X. D. Chen, Q. Qian, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, “Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 mu m laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, D.

D. Wu, W. G. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. D. Hao, G. H. Pan, L. L. Zhang, Y. S. Luo, and J. H. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of Tm3+:F-3(4) -> H-3(6) transition by backward energy transfer from Yb3+ in Y2O3 for mid-infrared applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 48–53 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wu, L. L.

J. B. Zhao, L. L. Wu, C. J. Zhang, T. X. Li, Q. L. Jiang, F. Wang, P. Zhao, J. E. Ryu, and Z. H. Guo, “Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of Yb3+-Tm3+ codoped Y7O6F9 petal shaped microcrystals with enhanced upconversion emission,” Mater. Res. Bull. 103, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xia, H. P.

S. Yang, H. P. Xia, Y. Z. Jiang, J. Z. Zhang, Y. W. Shi, X. M. Gu, J. L. Zhang, Y. P. Zhang, H. C. Jiang, and B. J. Chen, “Tm3+ doped alpha-NaYF4 single crystal for 2 mu m laser application,” J. Alloys Compd. 643, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, W. G.

D. Wu, W. G. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. D. Hao, G. H. Pan, L. L. Zhang, Y. S. Luo, and J. H. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of Tm3+:F-3(4) -> H-3(6) transition by backward energy transfer from Yb3+ in Y2O3 for mid-infrared applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 48–53 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

C. Xu, C. Y. Wang, J. D. Yu, R. L. Zhang, J. J. Ren, X. F. Liu, and J. R. Qiu, “Structure and optical properties of Er-doped CaO-Al2O3 (Ga2O3) glasses fabricated by aerodynamic levitation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(7), 2852–2858 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, G. S.

Y. X. Cheng, G. S. Xu, J. D. Yu, X. H. Pen, M. H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Thermal and optical properties of high refractive index xNb2O5-(1-x)La2O3 glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Mater. Sci. Forum 749, 255–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

X. Bai, D. Li, Q. Liu, B. Dong, S. Xu, and H. W. Song, “Concentration-controlled emission in LaF3:Yb3+/Tm3+ nanocrystals: switching from UV to NIR regions,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(47), 24698–24704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, S. Q.

G. R. Chen, R. S. Lei, H. P. Wang, F. F. Huang, S. L. Zhao, and S. Q. Xu, “Temperature-dependent emission color and temperature sensing behavior in Tm3+/Yb3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 77, 233–239 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Z. Wang, Y. Tian, X. Y. Gao, Q. H. Liu, F. F. Huang, B. P. Li, J. J. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Investigation of broadband mid-infrared emission and quantitative analysis of Dy-Er energy transfer in tellurite glasses under different excitations,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29512–29525 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Liu, Y. Tian, C. Z. Wang, F. F. Huang, X. F. Jing, J. J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Different dominant transitions in holmium and ytterbium codoped oxyfluoride glass and glass ceramics originating from varying phonon energy environments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19(44), 29833–29839 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, X. F. Jing, B. P. Li, P. C. Li, Y. Y. Li, R. S. Lei, J. J. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Synthesis, theoretical analysis, and characterization of highly Er3+ doped fluoroaluminate-tellurite glass with 2.7 mu m emission,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(10), 3274–3285 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Z. Cai, Y. Lu, R. J. Cao, Y. Tian, S. Q. Xu, and J. J. Zhang, “2 µm emission properties and hydroxy groups quenching of Tm3+ in germanate-tellurite glass,” Opt. Mater. 57, 236–242 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y. S.

W. Wang, Y. S. Xu, C. Shen, Q. Q. Yan, H. D. Zeng, and G. R. Chen, “Infrared luminescence of Tm3+-doped chalcohalide glasses in GeS2-In2S3-CsBr system,” J. Alloys Compd. 490(1-2), L37–L39 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yan, Q. Q.

W. Wang, Y. S. Xu, C. Shen, Q. Q. Yan, H. D. Zeng, and G. R. Chen, “Infrared luminescence of Tm3+-doped chalcohalide glasses in GeS2-In2S3-CsBr system,” J. Alloys Compd. 490(1-2), L37–L39 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. L.

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. L. Yang, and L. H. Huang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+-doped and Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

X. Wen, G. W. Tang, Q. Yang, X. D. Chen, Q. Qian, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, “Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 mu m laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

S. Yang, H. P. Xia, Y. Z. Jiang, J. Z. Zhang, Y. W. Shi, X. M. Gu, J. L. Zhang, Y. P. Zhang, H. C. Jiang, and B. J. Chen, “Tm3+ doped alpha-NaYF4 single crystal for 2 mu m laser application,” J. Alloys Compd. 643, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

T. M. Hau, R. F. Wang, D. C. Zhou, X. Yu, Z. G. Song, Z. W. Yang, Y. Yang, X. J. He, and J. B. Qiu, “Infrared broadband emission of bismuth-thulium co-doped lanthanum-aluminum-silica glasses,” J. Lumin. 132(6), 1353–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. M.

X. Wen, G. W. Tang, Q. Yang, X. D. Chen, Q. Qian, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, “Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 mu m laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20344 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. T. Zhu, G. W. Tang, X. D. Chen, M. Sun, Q. Qian, and Z. M. Yang, “Enhanced 1.8 mu m emission in Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped lead silicate glasses under different excitations for near infrared laser,” J. Rare Earths 34(10), 978–985 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. W.

T. M. Hau, R. F. Wang, D. C. Zhou, X. Yu, Z. G. Song, Z. W. Yang, Y. Yang, X. J. He, and J. B. Qiu, “Infrared broadband emission of bismuth-thulium co-doped lanthanum-aluminum-silica glasses,” J. Lumin. 132(6), 1353–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

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J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yoshimoto, K.

K. Yoshimoto, Y. Ezura, M. Ueda, A. Masuno, and H. Inoue, “2.7 mu m mid-infrared emission in highly erbium-doped lanthanum gallate glasses prepared via an aerodynamic levitation technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701283 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Masuno, H. Inoue, K. Yoshimoto, and Y. Watanabe, “Thermal and optical properties of La2O3- Nb2O5 high refractive index glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 710–718 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. M.

M. H. Zhang, H. Q. Wen, J. D. Yu, F. Ai, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, H. Shao, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Investigation of upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3222–3230 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Zhang, J. D. Yu, W. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Ai, H. Q. Wen, M. Jiang, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Bright white upconversion luminescence from Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+-doped titanate-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. 72, 447–451 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yu, J. D.

M. H. Zhang, J. D. Yu, W. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Ai, H. Q. Wen, M. Jiang, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Bright white upconversion luminescence from Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+-doped titanate-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. 72, 447–451 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Zhang, H. Q. Wen, J. D. Yu, F. Ai, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, H. Shao, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Investigation of upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3222–3230 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, C. Y. Wang, J. D. Yu, R. L. Zhang, J. J. Ren, X. F. Liu, and J. R. Qiu, “Structure and optical properties of Er-doped CaO-Al2O3 (Ga2O3) glasses fabricated by aerodynamic levitation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(7), 2852–2858 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Li, J. Q. Li, B. Li, J. D. Yu, and L. H. Qi, “An upconversion niobium pentoxide bulk glass codoped with Er3+/Yb3+ fabricated by aerodynamic levitation method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(6), 1865–1869 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Cheng, G. S. Xu, J. D. Yu, X. H. Pen, M. H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Thermal and optical properties of high refractive index xNb2O5-(1-x)La2O3 glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Mater. Sci. Forum 749, 255–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

T. M. Hau, R. F. Wang, D. C. Zhou, X. Yu, Z. G. Song, Z. W. Yang, Y. Yang, X. J. He, and J. B. Qiu, “Infrared broadband emission of bismuth-thulium co-doped lanthanum-aluminum-silica glasses,” J. Lumin. 132(6), 1353–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zaldo, C.

X. Han, M. Rico, M. D. Serrano, C. Cascales, and C. Zaldo, “Efficient infrared (approximate to 1.9-2.0 mu m) laser operation in color-defect-free Tm:NaGd(MoO4)(2) crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(4), 045808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H. D.

W. Wang, Y. S. Xu, C. Shen, Q. Q. Yan, H. D. Zeng, and G. R. Chen, “Infrared luminescence of Tm3+-doped chalcohalide glasses in GeS2-In2S3-CsBr system,” J. Alloys Compd. 490(1-2), L37–L39 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C. J.

J. B. Zhao, L. L. Wu, C. J. Zhang, T. X. Li, Q. L. Jiang, F. Wang, P. Zhao, J. E. Ryu, and Z. H. Guo, “Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of Yb3+-Tm3+ codoped Y7O6F9 petal shaped microcrystals with enhanced upconversion emission,” Mater. Res. Bull. 103, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C. Y.

Q. Y. Han, W. Gao, C. Y. Zhang, X. H. Mi, X. Zhao, Z. L. Zhang, J. Dong, and H. R. Zheng, “Tunable flower-like upconversion emission and directional red radiation in a single NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystal particle,” J. Alloys Compd. 748, 252–257 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G. A.

K. F. Li, H. Y. Fan, G. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Broadband near-infrared emission in Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped bismuthate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(6), 3070–3073 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. H.

D. Wu, W. G. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. D. Hao, G. H. Pan, L. L. Zhang, Y. S. Luo, and J. H. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of Tm3+:F-3(4) -> H-3(6) transition by backward energy transfer from Yb3+ in Y2O3 for mid-infrared applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 48–53 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. J.

C. Z. Wang, Y. Tian, X. Y. Gao, Q. H. Liu, F. F. Huang, B. P. Li, J. J. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Investigation of broadband mid-infrared emission and quantitative analysis of Dy-Er energy transfer in tellurite glasses under different excitations,” Opt. Express 25(23), 29512–29525 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. H. Liu, Y. Tian, C. Z. Wang, F. F. Huang, X. F. Jing, J. J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Different dominant transitions in holmium and ytterbium codoped oxyfluoride glass and glass ceramics originating from varying phonon energy environments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19(44), 29833–29839 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Z. Cai, Y. Lu, R. J. Cao, Y. Tian, S. Q. Xu, and J. J. Zhang, “2 µm emission properties and hydroxy groups quenching of Tm3+ in germanate-tellurite glass,” Opt. Mater. 57, 236–242 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, X. F. Jing, B. P. Li, P. C. Li, Y. Y. Li, R. S. Lei, J. J. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Synthesis, theoretical analysis, and characterization of highly Er3+ doped fluoroaluminate-tellurite glass with 2.7 mu m emission,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(10), 3274–3285 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, H. Y. Fan, G. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Broadband near-infrared emission in Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped bismuthate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(6), 3070–3073 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, Q. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Energy transfer and 1.8 mu m emission in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped lanthanum tungsten tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(2), 573–578 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. L.

S. Yang, H. P. Xia, Y. Z. Jiang, J. Z. Zhang, Y. W. Shi, X. M. Gu, J. L. Zhang, Y. P. Zhang, H. C. Jiang, and B. J. Chen, “Tm3+ doped alpha-NaYF4 single crystal for 2 mu m laser application,” J. Alloys Compd. 643, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. R.

X. Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, J. R. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. H. Gu, and X. W. Qi, “Photoluminescence, transmittance and electrical properties of Eu3+-doped Al2O3-SrO glasses synthesized by an aerodynamic levitation technique,” J. Lumin. 206, 79–83 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. Z.

S. Yang, H. P. Xia, Y. Z. Jiang, J. Z. Zhang, Y. W. Shi, X. M. Gu, J. L. Zhang, Y. P. Zhang, H. C. Jiang, and B. J. Chen, “Tm3+ doped alpha-NaYF4 single crystal for 2 mu m laser application,” J. Alloys Compd. 643, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L. L.

D. Wu, W. G. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. D. Hao, G. H. Pan, L. L. Zhang, Y. S. Luo, and J. H. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of Tm3+:F-3(4) -> H-3(6) transition by backward energy transfer from Yb3+ in Y2O3 for mid-infrared applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 48–53 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

X. Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, J. R. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. H. Gu, and X. W. Qi, “Photoluminescence, transmittance and electrical properties of Eu3+-doped Al2O3-SrO glasses synthesized by an aerodynamic levitation technique,” J. Lumin. 206, 79–83 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M. H.

M. H. Zhang, H. Q. Wen, J. D. Yu, F. Ai, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, H. Shao, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Investigation of upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3222–3230 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. H. Zhang, J. D. Yu, W. Jiang, Y. Liu, F. Ai, H. Q. Wen, M. Jiang, H. M. Yu, X. H. Pan, M. B. Tang, and L. J. Gai, “Bright white upconversion luminescence from Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+-doped titanate-based glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Opt. Mater. 72, 447–451 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. X. Cheng, G. S. Xu, J. D. Yu, X. H. Pen, M. H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Thermal and optical properties of high refractive index xNb2O5-(1-x)La2O3 glasses prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Mater. Sci. Forum 749, 255–259 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q. A.

K. F. Li, Q. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Energy transfer and 1.8 mu m emission in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped lanthanum tungsten tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(2), 573–578 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q. Y.

X. Wen, G. W. Tang, Q. Yang, X. D. Chen, Q. Qian, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. M. Yang, “Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 mu m laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20344 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R. L.

C. Xu, C. Y. Wang, J. D. Yu, R. L. Zhang, J. J. Ren, X. F. Liu, and J. R. Qiu, “Structure and optical properties of Er-doped CaO-Al2O3 (Ga2O3) glasses fabricated by aerodynamic levitation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(7), 2852–2858 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

D. Wu, W. G. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. D. Hao, G. H. Pan, L. L. Zhang, Y. S. Luo, and J. H. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of Tm3+:F-3(4) -> H-3(6) transition by backward energy transfer from Yb3+ in Y2O3 for mid-infrared applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 48–53 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. H.

Q. H. Liu, Y. Tian, C. Z. Wang, F. F. Huang, X. F. Jing, J. J. Zhang, X. H. Zhang, and S. Q. Xu, “Different dominant transitions in holmium and ytterbium codoped oxyfluoride glass and glass ceramics originating from varying phonon energy environments,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19(44), 29833–29839 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. Y.

X. Y. Zhang, M. Zhang, J. R. Zhang, Y. Li, Y. H. Gu, and X. W. Qi, “Photoluminescence, transmittance and electrical properties of Eu3+-doped Al2O3-SrO glasses synthesized by an aerodynamic levitation technique,” J. Lumin. 206, 79–83 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. P.

S. Yang, H. P. Xia, Y. Z. Jiang, J. Z. Zhang, Y. W. Shi, X. M. Gu, J. L. Zhang, Y. P. Zhang, H. C. Jiang, and B. J. Chen, “Tm3+ doped alpha-NaYF4 single crystal for 2 mu m laser application,” J. Alloys Compd. 643, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. G.

L. X. Liu, F. Qin, H. Zhao, T. Q. Lv, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, “Facile synthesis and upconversion luminescence of beta-NaYF4:Yb, Tm nanocrystals with highly tunable and uniform beta-NaYF4 shells,” J. Alloys Compd. 684, 211–216 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. L.

Q. Y. Han, W. Gao, C. Y. Zhang, X. H. Mi, X. Zhao, Z. L. Zhang, J. Dong, and H. R. Zheng, “Tunable flower-like upconversion emission and directional red radiation in a single NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystal particle,” J. Alloys Compd. 748, 252–257 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. P.

Z. P. Zhang, H. B. Li, C. C. Wang, J. Q. Li, and X. G. Ma, “Pseudo-relaxor behavior in 0.35La2O3-0.65Nb2O5 glass prepared by aerodynamic levitation method,” Mater. Res. Bull. 78, 158–162 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, G. Y.

G. Y. Zhao, Y. Tian, X. Wang, H. Y. Fan, and L. L. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties of 1.8 µm emission in Tm3+ doped bismuth silicate glass,” J. Lumin. 134, 837–841 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, H.

L. X. Liu, F. Qin, H. Zhao, T. Q. Lv, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, “Facile synthesis and upconversion luminescence of beta-NaYF4:Yb, Tm nanocrystals with highly tunable and uniform beta-NaYF4 shells,” J. Alloys Compd. 684, 211–216 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J. B.

J. B. Zhao, L. L. Wu, C. J. Zhang, T. X. Li, Q. L. Jiang, F. Wang, P. Zhao, J. E. Ryu, and Z. H. Guo, “Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of Yb3+-Tm3+ codoped Y7O6F9 petal shaped microcrystals with enhanced upconversion emission,” Mater. Res. Bull. 103, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, P.

J. B. Zhao, L. L. Wu, C. J. Zhang, T. X. Li, Q. L. Jiang, F. Wang, P. Zhao, J. E. Ryu, and Z. H. Guo, “Ionic liquid-assisted synthesis of Yb3+-Tm3+ codoped Y7O6F9 petal shaped microcrystals with enhanced upconversion emission,” Mater. Res. Bull. 103, 19–24 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S. L.

G. R. Chen, R. S. Lei, H. P. Wang, F. F. Huang, S. L. Zhao, and S. Q. Xu, “Temperature-dependent emission color and temperature sensing behavior in Tm3+/Yb3+:Y2O3 nanoparticles,” Opt. Mater. 77, 233–239 (2018).
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Zhao, X.

Q. Y. Han, W. Gao, C. Y. Zhang, X. H. Mi, X. Zhao, Z. L. Zhang, J. Dong, and H. R. Zheng, “Tunable flower-like upconversion emission and directional red radiation in a single NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystal particle,” J. Alloys Compd. 748, 252–257 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zheng, H. R.

Q. Y. Han, W. Gao, C. Y. Zhang, X. H. Mi, X. Zhao, Z. L. Zhang, J. Dong, and H. R. Zheng, “Tunable flower-like upconversion emission and directional red radiation in a single NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystal particle,” J. Alloys Compd. 748, 252–257 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, B.

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. L. Yang, and L. H. Huang, “Judd-Ofelt analysis, frequency upconversion, and infrared photoluminescence of Ho3+-doped and Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped lead bismuth gallate oxide glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 103105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D. C.

T. M. Hau, R. F. Wang, D. C. Zhou, X. Yu, Z. G. Song, Z. W. Yang, Y. Yang, X. J. He, and J. B. Qiu, “Infrared broadband emission of bismuth-thulium co-doped lanthanum-aluminum-silica glasses,” J. Lumin. 132(6), 1353–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, T. T.

T. T. Zhu, G. W. Tang, X. D. Chen, M. Sun, Q. Qian, and Z. M. Yang, “Enhanced 1.8 mu m emission in Er3+/Tm3+ co-doped lead silicate glasses under different excitations for near infrared laser,” J. Rare Earths 34(10), 978–985 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zmojda, J.

Zou, X. L.

X. L. Zou and H. Toratani, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfers in Tm3+ singly- and Tm3+/Ho3+ doubly-doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 195(1-2), 113–124 (1996).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

K. Yoshimoto, Y. Ezura, M. Ueda, A. Masuno, and H. Inoue, “2.7 mu m mid-infrared emission in highly erbium-doped lanthanum gallate glasses prepared via an aerodynamic levitation technique,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(8), 1701283 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (1)

J. Yu, S. Kohara, K. Itoh, S. Nozawa, S. Miyoshi, Y. Arai, A. Masuno, H. Taniguchi, M. Itoh, M. Takata, T. Fukunaga, S. Koshihara, Y. Kuroiwa, and S. Yoda, “Comprehensive Structural Study of Glassy and Metastable Crystalline BaTi2O5,” Chem. Mater. 21(2), 259–263 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Adv. Ceram. (1)

X. Y. Lia, J. Y. Li, J. Q. Li, H. Lin, and B. Li, “Upconversion 32Nb2O5-10La2O3-16ZrO2 glass activated with Er3+/Yb3+ and dye sensitized solar cell application,” J. Adv. Ceram. 6(4), 312–319 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Compd. (7)

K. F. Li, Q. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Energy transfer and 1.8 mu m emission in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped lanthanum tungsten tellurite glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(2), 573–578 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, Y. S. Xu, C. Shen, Q. Q. Yan, H. D. Zeng, and G. R. Chen, “Infrared luminescence of Tm3+-doped chalcohalide glasses in GeS2-In2S3-CsBr system,” J. Alloys Compd. 490(1-2), L37–L39 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, H. Y. Fan, G. A. Zhang, G. X. Bai, S. J. Fan, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Broadband near-infrared emission in Er3+-Tm3+ co-doped bismuthate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 509(6), 3070–3073 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Yang, H. P. Xia, Y. Z. Jiang, J. Z. Zhang, Y. W. Shi, X. M. Gu, J. L. Zhang, Y. P. Zhang, H. C. Jiang, and B. J. Chen, “Tm3+ doped alpha-NaYF4 single crystal for 2 mu m laser application,” J. Alloys Compd. 643, 1–6 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, W. G. Xiao, X. Zhang, Z. D. Hao, G. H. Pan, L. L. Zhang, Y. S. Luo, and J. H. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of Tm3+:F-3(4) -> H-3(6) transition by backward energy transfer from Yb3+ in Y2O3 for mid-infrared applications,” J. Alloys Compd. 722, 48–53 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. X. Liu, F. Qin, H. Zhao, T. Q. Lv, Z. G. Zhang, and W. W. Cao, “Facile synthesis and upconversion luminescence of beta-NaYF4:Yb, Tm nanocrystals with highly tunable and uniform beta-NaYF4 shells,” J. Alloys Compd. 684, 211–216 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. Y. Han, W. Gao, C. Y. Zhang, X. H. Mi, X. Zhao, Z. L. Zhang, J. Dong, and H. R. Zheng, “Tunable flower-like upconversion emission and directional red radiation in a single NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystal particle,” J. Alloys Compd. 748, 252–257 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (2)

J. Y. Li, J. Q. Li, B. Li, J. D. Yu, and L. H. Qi, “An upconversion niobium pentoxide bulk glass codoped with Er3+/Yb3+ fabricated by aerodynamic levitation method,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 98(6), 1865–1869 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, C. Y. Wang, J. D. Yu, R. L. Zhang, J. J. Ren, X. F. Liu, and J. R. Qiu, “Structure and optical properties of Er-doped CaO-Al2O3 (Ga2O3) glasses fabricated by aerodynamic levitation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 100(7), 2852–2858 (2017).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Raman spectra of Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped glasses with different Yb3+ concentrations.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The transmittance spectra of Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses with different Yb3+ concentrations.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The refractive index curves of Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses with different Yb3+ concentrations.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. XRD patterns of Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses with different Yb3+ concentrations.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) SEM image of the surface of Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glass, (b) EDS spectrum of compositions, the plane distribution of (c) Tm3+ ions and (d) Yb3+ ions.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Down-conversion luminescence spectra of Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses at 980 nm excitation.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The schematic diagram of luminescence process in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The lifetime curve of 3F4 excited state in Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped Nb2O5-based glasses (y = 0.03) at the pump power of 980 nm laser.