Abstract

N-doped p-type zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) of nitrogen ion implanted high quality ZnO epitaxial layers. Annealing at 900 °C in a nitrogen atmosphere leads to the conversion of conductivity from n to p-type with a hole concentration of 9.60×1017 cm-3, which is reflected in photoluminescence spectra. To reveal the thermal activation and doping mechanism of this film, the samples were also analyzed by Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that elimination of the Zni related shallow donors and the formation of shallow acceptor complex No-VZn account for the stable p-type conductivity of N-doped ZnO. The shallow acceptor state is calculated at 0.161 eV above the valence band edge.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

P. Uprety, B. Macco, M. M. Junda, C. R. Grice, W. M. M. Kessels, and N. J. Podraza, “Optical and electrical properties of H2 plasma-treated ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition using supercycles,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 84, 91–100 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Yao, K. Tang, Z. Xu, J. Ma, J. Ye, S. Zhu, and S. Gu, “The suppression of zinc interstitial related shallow donors in Te-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Alloys Compd. 735, 1232–1238 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

S. Pal, T. Rakshit, S. S. Singh, K. Asokan, S. Dutta, D. Jana, and A. Sarkar, “Shallow acceptor state in ZnO realized by ion irradiation and annealing route,” J. Alloys Compd. 703, 26–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Uprety, M. M. Junda, K. Ghimire, D. Adhikari, C. R. Grice, and N. J. Podraza, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of optical and electrical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 852–858 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Tang, S. Zhu, Z. Xu, J. Ye, and S. Gu, “Experimental investigation on nitrogen related complex acceptors in nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Alloys Compd. 696, 590–594 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

S. B. Bashar, M. Suja, M. Morshed, F. Gao, and J. Liu, “An Sb-doped p-type ZnO nanowire based random laser diode,” Nanotechnology 27(6), 065204 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

Z. Yao, S. Gu, K. Tang, J. Ye, Y. Zhang, S. Zhu, and Y. Zheng, “Zinc vacancy related emission in homoepitaxial N-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Lumin. 161, 293–299 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. N. Amini, R. Saniz, D. Lamoen, and B. Partoens, “The role of the VZn-NO-H complex in the p-type conductivity in ZnO,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(7), 5485–5489 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2013 (6)

Y. Sui, B. Yao, L. Xiao, G. Xing, L. Yang, X. Li, X. Li, J. Lang, S. Lv, J. Cao, M. Gao, and J. Yang, “Effects of (P, N) dual acceptor doping on band gap and p-type conduction behavior of ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133101 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. E. Stehr, X. J. Wang, S. Filippov, S. J. Pearton, I. G. Ivanov, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “Defects in N, O and N, Zn implanted ZnO bulk crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103509 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Gluba, N. H. Nickel, and N. Karpensky, “Interstitial zinc clusters in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. B 88(24), 245201 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Tuomisto, C. Rauch, M. R. Wagner, A. Hoffmann, S. Eisermann, B. K. Meyer, L. Kilanski, M. C. Tarun, and M. D. McCluskey, “Nitrogen and vacancy clusters in ZnO,” J. Mater. Res. 28(15), 1977–1983 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

L. Liu, J. L. Xu, D. D. Wang, M. M. Jiang, S. P. Wang, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “p-type conductivity in N-doped ZnO: the role of the N(Zn)-V(O) complex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 215501 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. J. Li, C. Y. Kong, G. P. Qin, H. B. Ruan, T. Y. Yang, X. D. Meng, Y. H. Zhao, W. W. Liang, and L. Fang, “The investigation on Raman, optical and electrical properties of p-type ZnO:N film,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. & Astron. 42(8), 819 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

W. W. Liu, B. Yao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. F. Li, B. H. Li, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Doping efficiency, optical and electrical properties of nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093518 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. C. Tarun, M. Z. Iqbal, and M. D. McCluskey, “Nitrogen is a deep acceptor in ZnO,” AIP Adv. 1(2), 022105 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. L. Yao, J. D. Hong, C. T. Lee, C. Y. Ho, and D. S. Liu, “Determination of activation behavior in annealed Al–N codoped ZnO Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 103504 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

K. Tang, S. Gu, K. Wu, S. Zhu, J. Ye, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Tellurium assisted realization of p-type n-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 242101 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Zang, Z. G. Wang, L. L. Pang, K. F. Wei, C. F. Yao, T. L. Shen, J. R. Sun, Y. Z. Ma, J. Guo, Y. B. Sheng, and Y. B. Zhu, “Raman investigation of ion-implanted ZnO films,” Acta Phys. Sin. 59(7), 4831 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

F. Friedrich, M. A. Gluba, and N. H. Nickel, “Identification of nitrogen and zinc related vibrational modes in ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141903 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Why nitrogen cannot lead to p-type conductivity in ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 252105 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. H. Li, H. Y. Xu, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, J. W. Sun, and Y. M. Lu, “Local chemical states and thermal stabilities of nitrogen dopants in ZnO film studied by temperature-dependent x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191903 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, W. Gao, and J. Metson, “Study of a nitrogen-doped ZnO film with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171903 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Q. Yang, P. Feng, A. Kumar, R. S. Katiyar, and M. Achermann, “Structural and optical properties of N-doped ZnO nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42(19), 195402 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

T. Tohsophon, J. Hüpkes, H. Siekmann, B. Rech, M. Schultheis, and N. Sirikulrat, “High rate direct current magnetron sputtered and texture-etched zinc oxide films for silicon thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(14), 4628–4632 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Li, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and Y. M. Lu, “The compensation source in nitrogen doped ZnO,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41(24), 245402 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (6)

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcón-Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Fortunato, D. Ginley, H. Hosono, and D. C. Paine, “Transparent conducting oxides for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 32(3), 242–247 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Beyer, J. Hüpkes, and H. Stiebig, “Transparent conducting oxide films for thin film silicon photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 516(2-4), 147–154 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, B. Liu, Y. Che, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Study on the Hall-effect and photoluminescence of N-doped p-type ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61(1), 41–44 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. P. Zhang, L. D. Zhang, L. Q. Zhu, Y. Zhang, M. Liu, X. J. Wang, and G. He, “Characterization of ZnO:N films prepared by annealing sputtered zinc oxynitride films at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(11), 114903 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Sann, J. Stehr, A. Hofstaetter, D. Hofinann, A. Neumann, M. Lerch, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffinann, and C. Thomsen, “Zn interstitial related donors in ammonia-treated ZnO powders,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195203 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

V. A. Fonoberov, K. A. Alim, A. A. Balandin, F. Xiu, and J. Liu, “Photoluminescence investigation of the carrier recombination processes in ZnO quantum dots and nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(16), 165317 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Erhart and K. Albe, “Diffusion of zinc vacancies and interstitials in zinc oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201918 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. J. Lee, J. Kang, and K. J. Chang, “Defect properties and p -type doping efficiency in phosphorus-doped ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 73(2), 024117 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Raman study of lattice dynamic behaviors in phosphorus-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101905 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

X. N. Xiao, B. Keyes, S. Asher, S. B. Zhang, S.-H. Wei, and T. J. Coutts, “Hydrogen passivation effect in nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 122107 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Limpijumnong, X. Li, S. H. Wei, and S. Zhang, “Substitutional diatomic molecules NO, NC, CO, N2 and O2: Their vibrational frequencies and effects on p doping of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 211910 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. L. Perkins, S. H. Lee, X. N. Li, S. E. Asher, and T. J. Coutts, “Identification of nitrogen chemical states in N-doped ZnO via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(3), 034907 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. C. Lee and K. J. Chang, “Possible p-type doping with group-I elements in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 70(11), 115210 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

K. Kushiya, Y. Ohshita, I. Hara, Y. Tanaka, B. Sang, Y. Nagoya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Yield issues on the fabrication of 30 cm× 30 cm sized Cu (In, Ga) Se2-based thin-film modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 171–178 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, H. von Wenckstern, A. Rahm, H. C. Semmelhack, K. H. Han, G. Benndorf, C. Bundesmann, H. Hochmuth, and M. Grundmann, “High electron mobility of epitaxial ZnO thin films on c-plane sapphire grown by multistep pulsed-laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3901–3903 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Wang and N. C. Giles, “Temperature dependence of the free-exciton transition energy in zinc oxide by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(2), 973–978 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

A. Zeuner, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, A. Hoffmann, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, and M. Dworzak, “Optical Properties of the Nitrogen Acceptor in Epitaxial ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), R7–R9 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Kaschner, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Nitrogen-related local vibrational modes in ZnO:N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(11), 1909–1911 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. C. Look and D. C. Reynolds, “Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1830–1832 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

D. C. Look, J. W. Hemsky, and J. R. Sizelove, “Residual Native Shallow Donor in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2552–2555 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, J. R. Sizelove, R. L. Jones, C. W. Litton, G. Cantwell, and W. C. Harsch, “Electrical Properties of bulk ZnO,” Solid State Commun. 105(6), 399–401 (1998).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

D. G. Thomas, “Interstitital zinc in zinc oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 3(3-4), 229–237 (1957).
[Crossref]

Achermann, M.

B. Q. Yang, P. Feng, A. Kumar, R. S. Katiyar, and M. Achermann, “Structural and optical properties of N-doped ZnO nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42(19), 195402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adhikari, D.

P. Uprety, M. M. Junda, K. Ghimire, D. Adhikari, C. R. Grice, and N. J. Podraza, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of optical and electrical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 852–858 (2017).
[Crossref]

Alarcón-Lladó, E.

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcón-Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Albe, K.

P. Erhart and K. Albe, “Diffusion of zinc vacancies and interstitials in zinc oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201918 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alim, K. A.

V. A. Fonoberov, K. A. Alim, A. A. Balandin, F. Xiu, and J. Liu, “Photoluminescence investigation of the carrier recombination processes in ZnO quantum dots and nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(16), 165317 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alves, H.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Zeuner, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, A. Hoffmann, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, and M. Dworzak, “Optical Properties of the Nitrogen Acceptor in Epitaxial ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), R7–R9 (2002).
[Crossref]

Amini, M. N.

M. N. Amini, R. Saniz, D. Lamoen, and B. Partoens, “The role of the VZn-NO-H complex in the p-type conductivity in ZnO,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(7), 5485–5489 (2015).
[Crossref]

Artús, L.

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcón-Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Asher, S.

X. N. Xiao, B. Keyes, S. Asher, S. B. Zhang, S.-H. Wei, and T. J. Coutts, “Hydrogen passivation effect in nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 122107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Asher, S. E.

C. L. Perkins, S. H. Lee, X. N. Li, S. E. Asher, and T. J. Coutts, “Identification of nitrogen chemical states in N-doped ZnO via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(3), 034907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ashkenov, N.

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

Asokan, K.

S. Pal, T. Rakshit, S. S. Singh, K. Asokan, S. Dutta, D. Jana, and A. Sarkar, “Shallow acceptor state in ZnO realized by ion irradiation and annealing route,” J. Alloys Compd. 703, 26–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

Aspnes, D. E.

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Awasthi, V.

Balandin, A. A.

V. A. Fonoberov, K. A. Alim, A. A. Balandin, F. Xiu, and J. Liu, “Photoluminescence investigation of the carrier recombination processes in ZnO quantum dots and nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(16), 165317 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bashar, S. B.

S. B. Bashar, M. Suja, M. Morshed, F. Gao, and J. Liu, “An Sb-doped p-type ZnO nanowire based random laser diode,” Nanotechnology 27(6), 065204 (2016).
[Crossref]

Benndorf, G.

E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, H. von Wenckstern, A. Rahm, H. C. Semmelhack, K. H. Han, G. Benndorf, C. Bundesmann, H. Hochmuth, and M. Grundmann, “High electron mobility of epitaxial ZnO thin films on c-plane sapphire grown by multistep pulsed-laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3901–3903 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bertram, F.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beyer, W.

W. Beyer, J. Hüpkes, and H. Stiebig, “Transparent conducting oxide films for thin film silicon photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 516(2-4), 147–154 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bundesmann, C.

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, H. von Wenckstern, A. Rahm, H. C. Semmelhack, K. H. Han, G. Benndorf, C. Bundesmann, H. Hochmuth, and M. Grundmann, “High electron mobility of epitaxial ZnO thin films on c-plane sapphire grown by multistep pulsed-laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3901–3903 (2003).
[Crossref]

Butz, T.

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

Buyanova, I. A.

J. E. Stehr, X. J. Wang, S. Filippov, S. J. Pearton, I. G. Ivanov, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “Defects in N, O and N, Zn implanted ZnO bulk crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Callahan, M. J.

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcón-Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cantwell, G.

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, J. R. Sizelove, R. L. Jones, C. W. Litton, G. Cantwell, and W. C. Harsch, “Electrical Properties of bulk ZnO,” Solid State Commun. 105(6), 399–401 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cao, J.

Y. Sui, B. Yao, L. Xiao, G. Xing, L. Yang, X. Li, X. Li, J. Lang, S. Lv, J. Cao, M. Gao, and J. Yang, “Effects of (P, N) dual acceptor doping on band gap and p-type conduction behavior of ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, K. J.

W. J. Lee, J. Kang, and K. J. Chang, “Defect properties and p -type doping efficiency in phosphorus-doped ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 73(2), 024117 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. C. Lee and K. J. Chang, “Possible p-type doping with group-I elements in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 70(11), 115210 (2004).
[Crossref]

Che, Y.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, B. Liu, Y. Che, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Study on the Hall-effect and photoluminescence of N-doped p-type ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61(1), 41–44 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, R. Q.

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, W. Gao, and J. Metson, “Study of a nitrogen-doped ZnO film with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. M.

J. E. Stehr, X. J. Wang, S. Filippov, S. J. Pearton, I. G. Ivanov, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “Defects in N, O and N, Zn implanted ZnO bulk crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Christen, J.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Coutts, T. J.

C. L. Perkins, S. H. Lee, X. N. Li, S. E. Asher, and T. J. Coutts, “Identification of nitrogen chemical states in N-doped ZnO via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(3), 034907 (2005).
[Crossref]

X. N. Xiao, B. Keyes, S. Asher, S. B. Zhang, S.-H. Wei, and T. J. Coutts, “Hydrogen passivation effect in nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 122107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cuscó, R.

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcón-Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dutta, S.

S. Pal, T. Rakshit, S. S. Singh, K. Asokan, S. Dutta, D. Jana, and A. Sarkar, “Shallow acceptor state in ZnO realized by ion irradiation and annealing route,” J. Alloys Compd. 703, 26–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dworzak, M.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Zeuner, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, A. Hoffmann, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, and M. Dworzak, “Optical Properties of the Nitrogen Acceptor in Epitaxial ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), R7–R9 (2002).
[Crossref]

Eisermann, S.

F. Tuomisto, C. Rauch, M. R. Wagner, A. Hoffmann, S. Eisermann, B. K. Meyer, L. Kilanski, M. C. Tarun, and M. D. McCluskey, “Nitrogen and vacancy clusters in ZnO,” J. Mater. Res. 28(15), 1977–1983 (2013).
[Crossref]

Erhart, P.

P. Erhart and K. Albe, “Diffusion of zinc vacancies and interstitials in zinc oxide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201918 (2006).
[Crossref]

Everitt, H. O.

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, X. W.

W. W. Liu, B. Yao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. F. Li, B. H. Li, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Doping efficiency, optical and electrical properties of nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093518 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Li, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and Y. M. Lu, “The compensation source in nitrogen doped ZnO,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41(24), 245402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fang, L.

W. J. Li, C. Y. Kong, G. P. Qin, H. B. Ruan, T. Y. Yang, X. D. Meng, Y. H. Zhao, W. W. Liang, and L. Fang, “The investigation on Raman, optical and electrical properties of p-type ZnO:N film,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. & Astron. 42(8), 819 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, P.

B. Q. Yang, P. Feng, A. Kumar, R. S. Katiyar, and M. Achermann, “Structural and optical properties of N-doped ZnO nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42(19), 195402 (2009).
[Crossref]

Filippov, S.

J. E. Stehr, X. J. Wang, S. Filippov, S. J. Pearton, I. G. Ivanov, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “Defects in N, O and N, Zn implanted ZnO bulk crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fonoberov, V. A.

V. A. Fonoberov, K. A. Alim, A. A. Balandin, F. Xiu, and J. Liu, “Photoluminescence investigation of the carrier recombination processes in ZnO quantum dots and nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(16), 165317 (2006).
[Crossref]

Forster, D.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fortunato, E.

E. Fortunato, D. Ginley, H. Hosono, and D. C. Paine, “Transparent conducting oxides for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 32(3), 242–247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Friedrich, F.

F. Friedrich, M. A. Gluba, and N. H. Nickel, “Identification of nitrogen and zinc related vibrational modes in ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, F.

S. B. Bashar, M. Suja, M. Morshed, F. Gao, and J. Liu, “An Sb-doped p-type ZnO nanowire based random laser diode,” Nanotechnology 27(6), 065204 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gao, M.

Y. Sui, B. Yao, L. Xiao, G. Xing, L. Yang, X. Li, X. Li, J. Lang, S. Lv, J. Cao, M. Gao, and J. Yang, “Effects of (P, N) dual acceptor doping on band gap and p-type conduction behavior of ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, W.

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, W. Gao, and J. Metson, “Study of a nitrogen-doped ZnO film with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ghimire, K.

P. Uprety, M. M. Junda, K. Ghimire, D. Adhikari, C. R. Grice, and N. J. Podraza, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of optical and electrical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 852–858 (2017).
[Crossref]

Giles, N. C.

L. Wang and N. C. Giles, “Temperature dependence of the free-exciton transition energy in zinc oxide by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(2), 973–978 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ginley, D.

E. Fortunato, D. Ginley, H. Hosono, and D. C. Paine, “Transparent conducting oxides for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 32(3), 242–247 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gluba, M. A.

M. A. Gluba, N. H. Nickel, and N. Karpensky, “Interstitial zinc clusters in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. B 88(24), 245201 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Friedrich, M. A. Gluba, and N. H. Nickel, “Identification of nitrogen and zinc related vibrational modes in ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grice, C. R.

P. Uprety, B. Macco, M. M. Junda, C. R. Grice, W. M. M. Kessels, and N. J. Podraza, “Optical and electrical properties of H2 plasma-treated ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition using supercycles,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 84, 91–100 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Uprety, M. M. Junda, K. Ghimire, D. Adhikari, C. R. Grice, and N. J. Podraza, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of optical and electrical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 852–858 (2017).
[Crossref]

Grundmann, M.

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, H. von Wenckstern, A. Rahm, H. C. Semmelhack, K. H. Han, G. Benndorf, C. Bundesmann, H. Hochmuth, and M. Grundmann, “High electron mobility of epitaxial ZnO thin films on c-plane sapphire grown by multistep pulsed-laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3901–3903 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gu, S.

Z. Yao, K. Tang, Z. Xu, J. Ma, J. Ye, S. Zhu, and S. Gu, “The suppression of zinc interstitial related shallow donors in Te-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Alloys Compd. 735, 1232–1238 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Tang, S. Zhu, Z. Xu, J. Ye, and S. Gu, “Experimental investigation on nitrogen related complex acceptors in nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Alloys Compd. 696, 590–594 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Yao, S. Gu, K. Tang, J. Ye, Y. Zhang, S. Zhu, and Y. Zheng, “Zinc vacancy related emission in homoepitaxial N-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Lumin. 161, 293–299 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Tang, S. Gu, K. Wu, S. Zhu, J. Ye, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Tellurium assisted realization of p-type n-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 242101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gu, S. L.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Raman study of lattice dynamic behaviors in phosphorus-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guo, J.

H. Zang, Z. G. Wang, L. L. Pang, K. F. Wei, C. F. Yao, T. L. Shen, J. R. Sun, Y. Z. Ma, J. Guo, Y. B. Sheng, and Y. B. Zhu, “Raman investigation of ion-implanted ZnO films,” Acta Phys. Sin. 59(7), 4831 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haboeck, U.

J. Sann, J. Stehr, A. Hofstaetter, D. Hofinann, A. Neumann, M. Lerch, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffinann, and C. Thomsen, “Zn interstitial related donors in ammonia-treated ZnO powders,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195203 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Kaschner, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Nitrogen-related local vibrational modes in ZnO:N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(11), 1909–1911 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Zeuner, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, A. Hoffmann, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, and M. Dworzak, “Optical Properties of the Nitrogen Acceptor in Epitaxial ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), R7–R9 (2002).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, W. Gao, and J. Metson, “Study of a nitrogen-doped ZnO film with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Han, K. H.

E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, H. von Wenckstern, A. Rahm, H. C. Semmelhack, K. H. Han, G. Benndorf, C. Bundesmann, H. Hochmuth, and M. Grundmann, “High electron mobility of epitaxial ZnO thin films on c-plane sapphire grown by multistep pulsed-laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3901–3903 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hara, I.

K. Kushiya, Y. Ohshita, I. Hara, Y. Tanaka, B. Sang, Y. Nagoya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Yield issues on the fabrication of 30 cm× 30 cm sized Cu (In, Ga) Se2-based thin-film modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 171–178 (2003).
[Crossref]

Harsch, W. C.

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, J. R. Sizelove, R. L. Jones, C. W. Litton, G. Cantwell, and W. C. Harsch, “Electrical Properties of bulk ZnO,” Solid State Commun. 105(6), 399–401 (1998).
[Crossref]

He, G.

J. P. Zhang, L. D. Zhang, L. Q. Zhu, Y. Zhang, M. Liu, X. J. Wang, and G. He, “Characterization of ZnO:N films prepared by annealing sputtered zinc oxynitride films at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(11), 114903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hemsky, J. W.

D. C. Look, J. W. Hemsky, and J. R. Sizelove, “Residual Native Shallow Donor in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2552–2555 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ho, C. Y.

S. L. Yao, J. D. Hong, C. T. Lee, C. Y. Ho, and D. S. Liu, “Determination of activation behavior in annealed Al–N codoped ZnO Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 103504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hochmuth, H.

E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, H. von Wenckstern, A. Rahm, H. C. Semmelhack, K. H. Han, G. Benndorf, C. Bundesmann, H. Hochmuth, and M. Grundmann, “High electron mobility of epitaxial ZnO thin films on c-plane sapphire grown by multistep pulsed-laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3901–3903 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hoffinann, A.

J. Sann, J. Stehr, A. Hofstaetter, D. Hofinann, A. Neumann, M. Lerch, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffinann, and C. Thomsen, “Zn interstitial related donors in ammonia-treated ZnO powders,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, A.

F. Tuomisto, C. Rauch, M. R. Wagner, A. Hoffmann, S. Eisermann, B. K. Meyer, L. Kilanski, M. C. Tarun, and M. D. McCluskey, “Nitrogen and vacancy clusters in ZnO,” J. Mater. Res. 28(15), 1977–1983 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Kaschner, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Nitrogen-related local vibrational modes in ZnO:N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(11), 1909–1911 (2002).
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A. Zeuner, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, A. Hoffmann, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, and M. Dworzak, “Optical Properties of the Nitrogen Acceptor in Epitaxial ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), R7–R9 (2002).
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Hofinann, D.

J. Sann, J. Stehr, A. Hofstaetter, D. Hofinann, A. Neumann, M. Lerch, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffinann, and C. Thomsen, “Zn interstitial related donors in ammonia-treated ZnO powders,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hofmann, D. M.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
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A. Zeuner, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, A. Hoffmann, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, and M. Dworzak, “Optical Properties of the Nitrogen Acceptor in Epitaxial ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), R7–R9 (2002).
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Hofstaetter, A.

J. Sann, J. Stehr, A. Hofstaetter, D. Hofinann, A. Neumann, M. Lerch, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffinann, and C. Thomsen, “Zn interstitial related donors in ammonia-treated ZnO powders,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hong, J. D.

S. L. Yao, J. D. Hong, C. T. Lee, C. Y. Ho, and D. S. Liu, “Determination of activation behavior in annealed Al–N codoped ZnO Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 103504 (2011).
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E. Fortunato, D. Ginley, H. Hosono, and D. C. Paine, “Transparent conducting oxides for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 32(3), 242–247 (2007).
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T. Tohsophon, J. Hüpkes, H. Siekmann, B. Rech, M. Schultheis, and N. Sirikulrat, “High rate direct current magnetron sputtered and texture-etched zinc oxide films for silicon thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(14), 4628–4632 (2008).
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W. Beyer, J. Hüpkes, and H. Stiebig, “Transparent conducting oxide films for thin film silicon photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 516(2-4), 147–154 (2007).
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Ibáñez, J.

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcón-Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
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Iqbal, M. Z.

M. C. Tarun, M. Z. Iqbal, and M. D. McCluskey, “Nitrogen is a deep acceptor in ZnO,” AIP Adv. 1(2), 022105 (2011).
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Ivanov, I. G.

J. E. Stehr, X. J. Wang, S. Filippov, S. J. Pearton, I. G. Ivanov, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “Defects in N, O and N, Zn implanted ZnO bulk crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103509 (2013).
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Jana, D.

S. Pal, T. Rakshit, S. S. Singh, K. Asokan, S. Dutta, D. Jana, and A. Sarkar, “Shallow acceptor state in ZnO realized by ion irradiation and annealing route,” J. Alloys Compd. 703, 26–33 (2017).
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Janotti, A.

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Why nitrogen cannot lead to p-type conductivity in ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 252105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jiang, M. M.

L. Liu, J. L. Xu, D. D. Wang, M. M. Jiang, S. P. Wang, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “p-type conductivity in N-doped ZnO: the role of the N(Zn)-V(O) complex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 215501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiménez, J.

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcón-Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jones, R. L.

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, J. R. Sizelove, R. L. Jones, C. W. Litton, G. Cantwell, and W. C. Harsch, “Electrical Properties of bulk ZnO,” Solid State Commun. 105(6), 399–401 (1998).
[Crossref]

Junda, M. M.

P. Uprety, B. Macco, M. M. Junda, C. R. Grice, W. M. M. Kessels, and N. J. Podraza, “Optical and electrical properties of H2 plasma-treated ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition using supercycles,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 84, 91–100 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Uprety, M. M. Junda, K. Ghimire, D. Adhikari, C. R. Grice, and N. J. Podraza, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of optical and electrical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 852–858 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kaczmarczyk, G.

A. Kaschner, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Nitrogen-related local vibrational modes in ZnO:N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(11), 1909–1911 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kaidashev, E. M.

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, H. von Wenckstern, A. Rahm, H. C. Semmelhack, K. H. Han, G. Benndorf, C. Bundesmann, H. Hochmuth, and M. Grundmann, “High electron mobility of epitaxial ZnO thin films on c-plane sapphire grown by multistep pulsed-laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3901–3903 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.

W. J. Lee, J. Kang, and K. J. Chang, “Defect properties and p -type doping efficiency in phosphorus-doped ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 73(2), 024117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Karpensky, N.

M. A. Gluba, N. H. Nickel, and N. Karpensky, “Interstitial zinc clusters in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. B 88(24), 245201 (2013).
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Kaschner, A.

A. Kaschner, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Nitrogen-related local vibrational modes in ZnO:N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(11), 1909–1911 (2002).
[Crossref]

Katiyar, R. S.

B. Q. Yang, P. Feng, A. Kumar, R. S. Katiyar, and M. Achermann, “Structural and optical properties of N-doped ZnO nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42(19), 195402 (2009).
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Kessels, W. M. M.

P. Uprety, B. Macco, M. M. Junda, C. R. Grice, W. M. M. Kessels, and N. J. Podraza, “Optical and electrical properties of H2 plasma-treated ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition using supercycles,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 84, 91–100 (2018).
[Crossref]

Keyes, B.

X. N. Xiao, B. Keyes, S. Asher, S. B. Zhang, S.-H. Wei, and T. J. Coutts, “Hydrogen passivation effect in nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 122107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kilanski, L.

F. Tuomisto, C. Rauch, M. R. Wagner, A. Hoffmann, S. Eisermann, B. K. Meyer, L. Kilanski, M. C. Tarun, and M. D. McCluskey, “Nitrogen and vacancy clusters in ZnO,” J. Mater. Res. 28(15), 1977–1983 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kong, C. Y.

W. J. Li, C. Y. Kong, G. P. Qin, H. B. Ruan, T. Y. Yang, X. D. Meng, Y. H. Zhao, W. W. Liang, and L. Fang, “The investigation on Raman, optical and electrical properties of p-type ZnO:N film,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. & Astron. 42(8), 819 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kriegseis, W.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

B. Q. Yang, P. Feng, A. Kumar, R. S. Katiyar, and M. Achermann, “Structural and optical properties of N-doped ZnO nanorod arrays,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42(19), 195402 (2009).
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Kushiya, K.

K. Kushiya, Y. Ohshita, I. Hara, Y. Tanaka, B. Sang, Y. Nagoya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Yield issues on the fabrication of 30 cm× 30 cm sized Cu (In, Ga) Se2-based thin-film modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 171–178 (2003).
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M. N. Amini, R. Saniz, D. Lamoen, and B. Partoens, “The role of the VZn-NO-H complex in the p-type conductivity in ZnO,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(7), 5485–5489 (2015).
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Lang, J.

Y. Sui, B. Yao, L. Xiao, G. Xing, L. Yang, X. Li, X. Li, J. Lang, S. Lv, J. Cao, M. Gao, and J. Yang, “Effects of (P, N) dual acceptor doping on band gap and p-type conduction behavior of ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. T.

S. L. Yao, J. D. Hong, C. T. Lee, C. Y. Ho, and D. S. Liu, “Determination of activation behavior in annealed Al–N codoped ZnO Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 103504 (2011).
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E. C. Lee and K. J. Chang, “Possible p-type doping with group-I elements in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 70(11), 115210 (2004).
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Lee, S. H.

C. L. Perkins, S. H. Lee, X. N. Li, S. E. Asher, and T. J. Coutts, “Identification of nitrogen chemical states in N-doped ZnO via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(3), 034907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, W. J.

W. J. Lee, J. Kang, and K. J. Chang, “Defect properties and p -type doping efficiency in phosphorus-doped ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 73(2), 024117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lerch, M.

J. Sann, J. Stehr, A. Hofstaetter, D. Hofinann, A. Neumann, M. Lerch, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffinann, and C. Thomsen, “Zn interstitial related donors in ammonia-treated ZnO powders,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, B. H.

L. Liu, J. L. Xu, D. D. Wang, M. M. Jiang, S. P. Wang, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “p-type conductivity in N-doped ZnO: the role of the N(Zn)-V(O) complex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 215501 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. W. Liu, B. Yao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. F. Li, B. H. Li, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Doping efficiency, optical and electrical properties of nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093518 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Li, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and Y. M. Lu, “The compensation source in nitrogen doped ZnO,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41(24), 245402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

L. Li, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and Y. M. Lu, “The compensation source in nitrogen doped ZnO,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41(24), 245402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, W. J.

W. J. Li, C. Y. Kong, G. P. Qin, H. B. Ruan, T. Y. Yang, X. D. Meng, Y. H. Zhao, W. W. Liang, and L. Fang, “The investigation on Raman, optical and electrical properties of p-type ZnO:N film,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. & Astron. 42(8), 819 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Y. Sui, B. Yao, L. Xiao, G. Xing, L. Yang, X. Li, X. Li, J. Lang, S. Lv, J. Cao, M. Gao, and J. Yang, “Effects of (P, N) dual acceptor doping on band gap and p-type conduction behavior of ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Sui, B. Yao, L. Xiao, G. Xing, L. Yang, X. Li, X. Li, J. Lang, S. Lv, J. Cao, M. Gao, and J. Yang, “Effects of (P, N) dual acceptor doping on band gap and p-type conduction behavior of ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133101 (2013).
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S. Limpijumnong, X. Li, S. H. Wei, and S. Zhang, “Substitutional diatomic molecules NO, NC, CO, N2 and O2: Their vibrational frequencies and effects on p doping of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 211910 (2005).
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Li, X. H.

X. H. Li, H. Y. Xu, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, J. W. Sun, and Y. M. Lu, “Local chemical states and thermal stabilities of nitrogen dopants in ZnO film studied by temperature-dependent x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, X. N.

C. L. Perkins, S. H. Lee, X. N. Li, S. E. Asher, and T. J. Coutts, “Identification of nitrogen chemical states in N-doped ZnO via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(3), 034907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. F.

W. W. Liu, B. Yao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. F. Li, B. H. Li, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Doping efficiency, optical and electrical properties of nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093518 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liang, W. W.

W. J. Li, C. Y. Kong, G. P. Qin, H. B. Ruan, T. Y. Yang, X. D. Meng, Y. H. Zhao, W. W. Liang, and L. Fang, “The investigation on Raman, optical and electrical properties of p-type ZnO:N film,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. & Astron. 42(8), 819 (2012).
[Crossref]

Limpijumnong, S.

S. Limpijumnong, X. Li, S. H. Wei, and S. Zhang, “Substitutional diatomic molecules NO, NC, CO, N2 and O2: Their vibrational frequencies and effects on p doping of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 211910 (2005).
[Crossref]

Litton, C. W.

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, J. R. Sizelove, R. L. Jones, C. W. Litton, G. Cantwell, and W. C. Harsch, “Electrical Properties of bulk ZnO,” Solid State Commun. 105(6), 399–401 (1998).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, B. Liu, Y. Che, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Study on the Hall-effect and photoluminescence of N-doped p-type ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61(1), 41–44 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, D. S.

S. L. Yao, J. D. Hong, C. T. Lee, C. Y. Ho, and D. S. Liu, “Determination of activation behavior in annealed Al–N codoped ZnO Films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(10), 103504 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

S. B. Bashar, M. Suja, M. Morshed, F. Gao, and J. Liu, “An Sb-doped p-type ZnO nanowire based random laser diode,” Nanotechnology 27(6), 065204 (2016).
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V. A. Fonoberov, K. A. Alim, A. A. Balandin, F. Xiu, and J. Liu, “Photoluminescence investigation of the carrier recombination processes in ZnO quantum dots and nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(16), 165317 (2006).
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Liu, L.

L. Liu, J. L. Xu, D. D. Wang, M. M. Jiang, S. P. Wang, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “p-type conductivity in N-doped ZnO: the role of the N(Zn)-V(O) complex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 215501 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

J. P. Zhang, L. D. Zhang, L. Q. Zhu, Y. Zhang, M. Liu, X. J. Wang, and G. He, “Characterization of ZnO:N films prepared by annealing sputtered zinc oxynitride films at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(11), 114903 (2007).
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Liu, S. M.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Raman study of lattice dynamic behaviors in phosphorus-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, W. W.

W. W. Liu, B. Yao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. F. Li, B. H. Li, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Doping efficiency, optical and electrical properties of nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093518 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. C.

X. H. Li, H. Y. Xu, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, J. W. Sun, and Y. M. Lu, “Local chemical states and thermal stabilities of nitrogen dopants in ZnO film studied by temperature-dependent x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Look, D. C.

D. C. Look and D. C. Reynolds, “Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1830–1832 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. C. Look, J. W. Hemsky, and J. R. Sizelove, “Residual Native Shallow Donor in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2552–2555 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, J. R. Sizelove, R. L. Jones, C. W. Litton, G. Cantwell, and W. C. Harsch, “Electrical Properties of bulk ZnO,” Solid State Commun. 105(6), 399–401 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lorenz, M.

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, H. von Wenckstern, A. Rahm, H. C. Semmelhack, K. H. Han, G. Benndorf, C. Bundesmann, H. Hochmuth, and M. Grundmann, “High electron mobility of epitaxial ZnO thin films on c-plane sapphire grown by multistep pulsed-laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3901–3903 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. M.

X. H. Li, H. Y. Xu, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, J. W. Sun, and Y. M. Lu, “Local chemical states and thermal stabilities of nitrogen dopants in ZnO film studied by temperature-dependent x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191903 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Li, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and Y. M. Lu, “The compensation source in nitrogen doped ZnO,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41(24), 245402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lv, S.

Y. Sui, B. Yao, L. Xiao, G. Xing, L. Yang, X. Li, X. Li, J. Lang, S. Lv, J. Cao, M. Gao, and J. Yang, “Effects of (P, N) dual acceptor doping on band gap and p-type conduction behavior of ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lyons, J. L.

J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Why nitrogen cannot lead to p-type conductivity in ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 252105 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, J.

Z. Yao, K. Tang, Z. Xu, J. Ma, J. Ye, S. Zhu, and S. Gu, “The suppression of zinc interstitial related shallow donors in Te-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Alloys Compd. 735, 1232–1238 (2018).
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Ma, Y. Z.

H. Zang, Z. G. Wang, L. L. Pang, K. F. Wei, C. F. Yao, T. L. Shen, J. R. Sun, Y. Z. Ma, J. Guo, Y. B. Sheng, and Y. B. Zhu, “Raman investigation of ion-implanted ZnO films,” Acta Phys. Sin. 59(7), 4831 (2010).
[Crossref]

Macco, B.

P. Uprety, B. Macco, M. M. Junda, C. R. Grice, W. M. M. Kessels, and N. J. Podraza, “Optical and electrical properties of H2 plasma-treated ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition using supercycles,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 84, 91–100 (2018).
[Crossref]

McCluskey, M. D.

F. Tuomisto, C. Rauch, M. R. Wagner, A. Hoffmann, S. Eisermann, B. K. Meyer, L. Kilanski, M. C. Tarun, and M. D. McCluskey, “Nitrogen and vacancy clusters in ZnO,” J. Mater. Res. 28(15), 1977–1983 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. C. Tarun, M. Z. Iqbal, and M. D. McCluskey, “Nitrogen is a deep acceptor in ZnO,” AIP Adv. 1(2), 022105 (2011).
[Crossref]

Meng, X. D.

W. J. Li, C. Y. Kong, G. P. Qin, H. B. Ruan, T. Y. Yang, X. D. Meng, Y. H. Zhao, W. W. Liang, and L. Fang, “The investigation on Raman, optical and electrical properties of p-type ZnO:N film,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. & Astron. 42(8), 819 (2012).
[Crossref]

Metson, J.

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, W. Gao, and J. Metson, “Study of a nitrogen-doped ZnO film with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171903 (2009).
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Meyer, B. K.

F. Tuomisto, C. Rauch, M. R. Wagner, A. Hoffmann, S. Eisermann, B. K. Meyer, L. Kilanski, M. C. Tarun, and M. D. McCluskey, “Nitrogen and vacancy clusters in ZnO,” J. Mater. Res. 28(15), 1977–1983 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Zeuner, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, A. Hoffmann, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, and M. Dworzak, “Optical Properties of the Nitrogen Acceptor in Epitaxial ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), R7–R9 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mohanta, A.

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Morshed, M.

S. B. Bashar, M. Suja, M. Morshed, F. Gao, and J. Liu, “An Sb-doped p-type ZnO nanowire based random laser diode,” Nanotechnology 27(6), 065204 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, S.

Muth, J. F.

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nagoya, Y.

K. Kushiya, Y. Ohshita, I. Hara, Y. Tanaka, B. Sang, Y. Nagoya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Yield issues on the fabrication of 30 cm× 30 cm sized Cu (In, Ga) Se2-based thin-film modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 171–178 (2003).
[Crossref]

Neumann, A.

J. Sann, J. Stehr, A. Hofstaetter, D. Hofinann, A. Neumann, M. Lerch, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffinann, and C. Thomsen, “Zn interstitial related donors in ammonia-treated ZnO powders,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nickel, N. H.

M. A. Gluba, N. H. Nickel, and N. Karpensky, “Interstitial zinc clusters in zinc oxide,” Phys. Rev. B 88(24), 245201 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Friedrich, M. A. Gluba, and N. H. Nickel, “Identification of nitrogen and zinc related vibrational modes in ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ohshita, Y.

K. Kushiya, Y. Ohshita, I. Hara, Y. Tanaka, B. Sang, Y. Nagoya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Yield issues on the fabrication of 30 cm× 30 cm sized Cu (In, Ga) Se2-based thin-film modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 171–178 (2003).
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Paine, D. C.

E. Fortunato, D. Ginley, H. Hosono, and D. C. Paine, “Transparent conducting oxides for photovoltaics,” MRS Bull. 32(3), 242–247 (2007).
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Pal, S.

S. Pal, T. Rakshit, S. S. Singh, K. Asokan, S. Dutta, D. Jana, and A. Sarkar, “Shallow acceptor state in ZnO realized by ion irradiation and annealing route,” J. Alloys Compd. 703, 26–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pandey, S. K.

Pang, L. L.

H. Zang, Z. G. Wang, L. L. Pang, K. F. Wei, C. F. Yao, T. L. Shen, J. R. Sun, Y. Z. Ma, J. Guo, Y. B. Sheng, and Y. B. Zhu, “Raman investigation of ion-implanted ZnO films,” Acta Phys. Sin. 59(7), 4831 (2010).
[Crossref]

Partoens, B.

M. N. Amini, R. Saniz, D. Lamoen, and B. Partoens, “The role of the VZn-NO-H complex in the p-type conductivity in ZnO,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(7), 5485–5489 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S. J.

J. E. Stehr, X. J. Wang, S. Filippov, S. J. Pearton, I. G. Ivanov, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “Defects in N, O and N, Zn implanted ZnO bulk crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103509 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perkins, C. L.

C. L. Perkins, S. H. Lee, X. N. Li, S. E. Asher, and T. J. Coutts, “Identification of nitrogen chemical states in N-doped ZnO via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(3), 034907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Podraza, N. J.

P. Uprety, B. Macco, M. M. Junda, C. R. Grice, W. M. M. Kessels, and N. J. Podraza, “Optical and electrical properties of H2 plasma-treated ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition using supercycles,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 84, 91–100 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Uprety, M. M. Junda, K. Ghimire, D. Adhikari, C. R. Grice, and N. J. Podraza, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of optical and electrical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 852–858 (2017).
[Crossref]

Qin, G. P.

W. J. Li, C. Y. Kong, G. P. Qin, H. B. Ruan, T. Y. Yang, X. D. Meng, Y. H. Zhao, W. W. Liang, and L. Fang, “The investigation on Raman, optical and electrical properties of p-type ZnO:N film,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. & Astron. 42(8), 819 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rahm, A.

E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, H. von Wenckstern, A. Rahm, H. C. Semmelhack, K. H. Han, G. Benndorf, C. Bundesmann, H. Hochmuth, and M. Grundmann, “High electron mobility of epitaxial ZnO thin films on c-plane sapphire grown by multistep pulsed-laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3901–3903 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rakshit, T.

S. Pal, T. Rakshit, S. S. Singh, K. Asokan, S. Dutta, D. Jana, and A. Sarkar, “Shallow acceptor state in ZnO realized by ion irradiation and annealing route,” J. Alloys Compd. 703, 26–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rauch, C.

F. Tuomisto, C. Rauch, M. R. Wagner, A. Hoffmann, S. Eisermann, B. K. Meyer, L. Kilanski, M. C. Tarun, and M. D. McCluskey, “Nitrogen and vacancy clusters in ZnO,” J. Mater. Res. 28(15), 1977–1983 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rech, B.

T. Tohsophon, J. Hüpkes, H. Siekmann, B. Rech, M. Schultheis, and N. Sirikulrat, “High rate direct current magnetron sputtered and texture-etched zinc oxide films for silicon thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(14), 4628–4632 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, C. L.

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, D. C.

D. C. Look and D. C. Reynolds, “Characterization of homoepitaxial p-type ZnO grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1830–1832 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, J. R. Sizelove, R. L. Jones, C. W. Litton, G. Cantwell, and W. C. Harsch, “Electrical Properties of bulk ZnO,” Solid State Commun. 105(6), 399–401 (1998).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, J. G.

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rodina, A. V.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rowe, J. E.

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ruan, H. B.

W. J. Li, C. Y. Kong, G. P. Qin, H. B. Ruan, T. Y. Yang, X. D. Meng, Y. H. Zhao, W. W. Liang, and L. Fang, “The investigation on Raman, optical and electrical properties of p-type ZnO:N film,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. & Astron. 42(8), 819 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sang, B.

K. Kushiya, Y. Ohshita, I. Hara, Y. Tanaka, B. Sang, Y. Nagoya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Yield issues on the fabrication of 30 cm× 30 cm sized Cu (In, Ga) Se2-based thin-film modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 171–178 (2003).
[Crossref]

Saniz, R.

M. N. Amini, R. Saniz, D. Lamoen, and B. Partoens, “The role of the VZn-NO-H complex in the p-type conductivity in ZnO,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(7), 5485–5489 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sann, J.

J. Sann, J. Stehr, A. Hofstaetter, D. Hofinann, A. Neumann, M. Lerch, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffinann, and C. Thomsen, “Zn interstitial related donors in ammonia-treated ZnO powders,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sarkar, A.

S. Pal, T. Rakshit, S. S. Singh, K. Asokan, S. Dutta, D. Jana, and A. Sarkar, “Shallow acceptor state in ZnO realized by ion irradiation and annealing route,” J. Alloys Compd. 703, 26–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M.

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

Schultheis, M.

T. Tohsophon, J. Hüpkes, H. Siekmann, B. Rech, M. Schultheis, and N. Sirikulrat, “High rate direct current magnetron sputtered and texture-etched zinc oxide films for silicon thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(14), 4628–4632 (2008).
[Crossref]

Semmelhack, H. C.

E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, H. von Wenckstern, A. Rahm, H. C. Semmelhack, K. H. Han, G. Benndorf, C. Bundesmann, H. Hochmuth, and M. Grundmann, “High electron mobility of epitaxial ZnO thin films on c-plane sapphire grown by multistep pulsed-laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3901–3903 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shan, C. X.

L. Liu, J. L. Xu, D. D. Wang, M. M. Jiang, S. P. Wang, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “p-type conductivity in N-doped ZnO: the role of the N(Zn)-V(O) complex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 215501 (2012).
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W. W. Liu, B. Yao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. F. Li, B. H. Li, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Doping efficiency, optical and electrical properties of nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093518 (2011).
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L. Li, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and Y. M. Lu, “The compensation source in nitrogen doped ZnO,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41(24), 245402 (2008).
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Shen, D. Z.

L. Liu, J. L. Xu, D. D. Wang, M. M. Jiang, S. P. Wang, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “p-type conductivity in N-doped ZnO: the role of the N(Zn)-V(O) complex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 215501 (2012).
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W. W. Liu, B. Yao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. F. Li, B. H. Li, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Doping efficiency, optical and electrical properties of nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093518 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Li, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and Y. M. Lu, “The compensation source in nitrogen doped ZnO,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41(24), 245402 (2008).
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Shen, T. L.

H. Zang, Z. G. Wang, L. L. Pang, K. F. Wei, C. F. Yao, T. L. Shen, J. R. Sun, Y. Z. Ma, J. Guo, Y. B. Sheng, and Y. B. Zhu, “Raman investigation of ion-implanted ZnO films,” Acta Phys. Sin. 59(7), 4831 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sheng, Y. B.

H. Zang, Z. G. Wang, L. L. Pang, K. F. Wei, C. F. Yao, T. L. Shen, J. R. Sun, Y. Z. Ma, J. Guo, Y. B. Sheng, and Y. B. Zhu, “Raman investigation of ion-implanted ZnO films,” Acta Phys. Sin. 59(7), 4831 (2010).
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Shi, Y.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Raman study of lattice dynamic behaviors in phosphorus-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101905 (2006).
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Siekmann, H.

T. Tohsophon, J. Hüpkes, H. Siekmann, B. Rech, M. Schultheis, and N. Sirikulrat, “High rate direct current magnetron sputtered and texture-etched zinc oxide films for silicon thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(14), 4628–4632 (2008).
[Crossref]

Singh, S. S.

S. Pal, T. Rakshit, S. S. Singh, K. Asokan, S. Dutta, D. Jana, and A. Sarkar, “Shallow acceptor state in ZnO realized by ion irradiation and annealing route,” J. Alloys Compd. 703, 26–33 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sirikulrat, N.

T. Tohsophon, J. Hüpkes, H. Siekmann, B. Rech, M. Schultheis, and N. Sirikulrat, “High rate direct current magnetron sputtered and texture-etched zinc oxide films for silicon thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(14), 4628–4632 (2008).
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D. C. Look, J. W. Hemsky, and J. R. Sizelove, “Residual Native Shallow Donor in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(12), 2552–2555 (1999).
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D. C. Look, D. C. Reynolds, J. R. Sizelove, R. L. Jones, C. W. Litton, G. Cantwell, and W. C. Harsch, “Electrical Properties of bulk ZnO,” Solid State Commun. 105(6), 399–401 (1998).
[Crossref]

Spemann, D.

C. Bundesmann, N. Ashkenov, M. Schubert, D. Spemann, T. Butz, E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Raman scattering in ZnO thin films doped with Fe, Sb, Al, Ga, and Li,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(10), 1974–1976 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stehr, J.

J. Sann, J. Stehr, A. Hofstaetter, D. Hofinann, A. Neumann, M. Lerch, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffinann, and C. Thomsen, “Zn interstitial related donors in ammonia-treated ZnO powders,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195203 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stehr, J. E.

J. E. Stehr, X. J. Wang, S. Filippov, S. J. Pearton, I. G. Ivanov, W. M. Chen, and I. A. Buyanova, “Defects in N, O and N, Zn implanted ZnO bulk crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(10), 103509 (2013).
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Stiebig, H.

W. Beyer, J. Hüpkes, and H. Stiebig, “Transparent conducting oxide films for thin film silicon photovoltaics,” Thin Solid Films 516(2-4), 147–154 (2007).
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Straßburg, M.

B. K. Meyer, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, W. Kriegseis, D. Forster, F. Bertram, J. Christen, A. Hoffmann, M. Straßburg, M. Dworzak, U. Haboeck, and A. V. Rodina, “Bound exciton and donor–acceptor pair recombinations in ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 241(2), 231–260 (2004).
[Crossref]

Strassburg, M.

A. Kaschner, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Nitrogen-related local vibrational modes in ZnO:N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(11), 1909–1911 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Zeuner, H. Alves, D. M. Hofmann, B. K. Meyer, A. Hoffmann, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, and M. Dworzak, “Optical Properties of the Nitrogen Acceptor in Epitaxial ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234(3), R7–R9 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sui, Y.

Y. Sui, B. Yao, L. Xiao, G. Xing, L. Yang, X. Li, X. Li, J. Lang, S. Lv, J. Cao, M. Gao, and J. Yang, “Effects of (P, N) dual acceptor doping on band gap and p-type conduction behavior of ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133101 (2013).
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Suja, M.

S. B. Bashar, M. Suja, M. Morshed, F. Gao, and J. Liu, “An Sb-doped p-type ZnO nanowire based random laser diode,” Nanotechnology 27(6), 065204 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, J. R.

H. Zang, Z. G. Wang, L. L. Pang, K. F. Wei, C. F. Yao, T. L. Shen, J. R. Sun, Y. Z. Ma, J. Guo, Y. B. Sheng, and Y. B. Zhu, “Raman investigation of ion-implanted ZnO films,” Acta Phys. Sin. 59(7), 4831 (2010).
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Sun, J. W.

X. H. Li, H. Y. Xu, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, J. W. Sun, and Y. M. Lu, “Local chemical states and thermal stabilities of nitrogen dopants in ZnO film studied by temperature-dependent x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191903 (2009).
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Tachiyuki, M.

K. Kushiya, Y. Ohshita, I. Hara, Y. Tanaka, B. Sang, Y. Nagoya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Yield issues on the fabrication of 30 cm× 30 cm sized Cu (In, Ga) Se2-based thin-film modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 171–178 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

K. Kushiya, Y. Ohshita, I. Hara, Y. Tanaka, B. Sang, Y. Nagoya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Yield issues on the fabrication of 30 cm× 30 cm sized Cu (In, Ga) Se2-based thin-film modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 171–178 (2003).
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Tang, K.

Z. Yao, K. Tang, Z. Xu, J. Ma, J. Ye, S. Zhu, and S. Gu, “The suppression of zinc interstitial related shallow donors in Te-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Alloys Compd. 735, 1232–1238 (2018).
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K. Tang, S. Zhu, Z. Xu, J. Ye, and S. Gu, “Experimental investigation on nitrogen related complex acceptors in nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Alloys Compd. 696, 590–594 (2017).
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Z. Yao, S. Gu, K. Tang, J. Ye, Y. Zhang, S. Zhu, and Y. Zheng, “Zinc vacancy related emission in homoepitaxial N-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Lumin. 161, 293–299 (2015).
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K. Tang, S. Gu, K. Wu, S. Zhu, J. Ye, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Tellurium assisted realization of p-type n-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 242101 (2010).
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Tarun, M. C.

F. Tuomisto, C. Rauch, M. R. Wagner, A. Hoffmann, S. Eisermann, B. K. Meyer, L. Kilanski, M. C. Tarun, and M. D. McCluskey, “Nitrogen and vacancy clusters in ZnO,” J. Mater. Res. 28(15), 1977–1983 (2013).
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M. C. Tarun, M. Z. Iqbal, and M. D. McCluskey, “Nitrogen is a deep acceptor in ZnO,” AIP Adv. 1(2), 022105 (2011).
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D. G. Thomas, “Interstitital zinc in zinc oxide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 3(3-4), 229–237 (1957).
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Thomsen, C.

J. Sann, J. Stehr, A. Hofstaetter, D. Hofinann, A. Neumann, M. Lerch, U. Haboeck, A. Hoffinann, and C. Thomsen, “Zn interstitial related donors in ammonia-treated ZnO powders,” Phys. Rev. B 76(19), 195203 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Kaschner, U. Haboeck, M. Strassburg, G. Kaczmarczyk, A. Hoffmann, and C. Thomsen, “Nitrogen-related local vibrational modes in ZnO:N,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(11), 1909–1911 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tohsophon, T.

T. Tohsophon, J. Hüpkes, H. Siekmann, B. Rech, M. Schultheis, and N. Sirikulrat, “High rate direct current magnetron sputtered and texture-etched zinc oxide films for silicon thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 516(14), 4628–4632 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tuomisto, F.

F. Tuomisto, C. Rauch, M. R. Wagner, A. Hoffmann, S. Eisermann, B. K. Meyer, L. Kilanski, M. C. Tarun, and M. D. McCluskey, “Nitrogen and vacancy clusters in ZnO,” J. Mater. Res. 28(15), 1977–1983 (2013).
[Crossref]

Uprety, P.

P. Uprety, B. Macco, M. M. Junda, C. R. Grice, W. M. M. Kessels, and N. J. Podraza, “Optical and electrical properties of H2 plasma-treated ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition using supercycles,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 84, 91–100 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Uprety, M. M. Junda, K. Ghimire, D. Adhikari, C. R. Grice, and N. J. Podraza, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of optical and electrical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 852–858 (2017).
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J. L. Lyons, A. Janotti, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Why nitrogen cannot lead to p-type conductivity in ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(25), 252105 (2009).
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E. M. Kaidashev, M. Lorenz, H. von Wenckstern, A. Rahm, H. C. Semmelhack, K. H. Han, G. Benndorf, C. Bundesmann, H. Hochmuth, and M. Grundmann, “High electron mobility of epitaxial ZnO thin films on c-plane sapphire grown by multistep pulsed-laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(22), 3901–3903 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wagner, M. R.

F. Tuomisto, C. Rauch, M. R. Wagner, A. Hoffmann, S. Eisermann, B. K. Meyer, L. Kilanski, M. C. Tarun, and M. D. McCluskey, “Nitrogen and vacancy clusters in ZnO,” J. Mater. Res. 28(15), 1977–1983 (2013).
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Wang, B.

R. Cuscó, E. Alarcón-Lladó, J. Ibáñez, L. Artús, J. Jiménez, B. Wang, and M. J. Callahan, “Temperature dependence of Raman scattering in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B 75(16), 165202 (2007).
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Wang, D. D.

L. Liu, J. L. Xu, D. D. Wang, M. M. Jiang, S. P. Wang, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “p-type conductivity in N-doped ZnO: the role of the N(Zn)-V(O) complex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 215501 (2012).
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H. Zang, Z. G. Wang, L. L. Pang, K. F. Wei, C. F. Yao, T. L. Shen, J. R. Sun, Y. Z. Ma, J. Guo, Y. B. Sheng, and Y. B. Zhu, “Raman investigation of ion-implanted ZnO films,” Acta Phys. Sin. 59(7), 4831 (2010).
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H. Zang, Z. G. Wang, L. L. Pang, K. F. Wei, C. F. Yao, T. L. Shen, J. R. Sun, Y. Z. Ma, J. Guo, Y. B. Sheng, and Y. B. Zhu, “Raman investigation of ion-implanted ZnO films,” Acta Phys. Sin. 59(7), 4831 (2010).
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Wei, S. H.

S. Limpijumnong, X. Li, S. H. Wei, and S. Zhang, “Substitutional diatomic molecules NO, NC, CO, N2 and O2: Their vibrational frequencies and effects on p doping of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 211910 (2005).
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Wei, S.-H.

X. N. Xiao, B. Keyes, S. Asher, S. B. Zhang, S.-H. Wei, and T. J. Coutts, “Hydrogen passivation effect in nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 122107 (2005).
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K. Tang, S. Gu, K. Wu, S. Zhu, J. Ye, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Tellurium assisted realization of p-type n-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 242101 (2010).
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L. Liu, J. L. Xu, D. D. Wang, M. M. Jiang, S. P. Wang, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “p-type conductivity in N-doped ZnO: the role of the N(Zn)-V(O) complex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 215501 (2012).
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Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, B. Liu, Y. Che, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Study on the Hall-effect and photoluminescence of N-doped p-type ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61(1), 41–44 (2007).
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Z. Yao, K. Tang, Z. Xu, J. Ma, J. Ye, S. Zhu, and S. Gu, “The suppression of zinc interstitial related shallow donors in Te-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Alloys Compd. 735, 1232–1238 (2018).
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K. Tang, S. Zhu, Z. Xu, J. Ye, and S. Gu, “Experimental investigation on nitrogen related complex acceptors in nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Alloys Compd. 696, 590–594 (2017).
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K. Kushiya, Y. Ohshita, I. Hara, Y. Tanaka, B. Sang, Y. Nagoya, M. Tachiyuki, and O. Yamase, “Yield issues on the fabrication of 30 cm× 30 cm sized Cu (In, Ga) Se2-based thin-film modules,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 75(1-2), 171–178 (2003).
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Y. Sui, B. Yao, L. Xiao, G. Xing, L. Yang, X. Li, X. Li, J. Lang, S. Lv, J. Cao, M. Gao, and J. Yang, “Effects of (P, N) dual acceptor doping on band gap and p-type conduction behavior of ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(13), 133101 (2013).
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Yang, T. Y.

W. J. Li, C. Y. Kong, G. P. Qin, H. B. Ruan, T. Y. Yang, X. D. Meng, Y. H. Zhao, W. W. Liang, and L. Fang, “The investigation on Raman, optical and electrical properties of p-type ZnO:N film,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. & Astron. 42(8), 819 (2012).
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L. Liu, J. L. Xu, D. D. Wang, M. M. Jiang, S. P. Wang, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “p-type conductivity in N-doped ZnO: the role of the N(Zn)-V(O) complex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 215501 (2012).
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W. W. Liu, B. Yao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. F. Li, B. H. Li, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Doping efficiency, optical and electrical properties of nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093518 (2011).
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L. Li, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and Y. M. Lu, “The compensation source in nitrogen doped ZnO,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41(24), 245402 (2008).
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Yao, C. F.

H. Zang, Z. G. Wang, L. L. Pang, K. F. Wei, C. F. Yao, T. L. Shen, J. R. Sun, Y. Z. Ma, J. Guo, Y. B. Sheng, and Y. B. Zhu, “Raman investigation of ion-implanted ZnO films,” Acta Phys. Sin. 59(7), 4831 (2010).
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Z. Yao, K. Tang, Z. Xu, J. Ma, J. Ye, S. Zhu, and S. Gu, “The suppression of zinc interstitial related shallow donors in Te-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Alloys Compd. 735, 1232–1238 (2018).
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Z. Yao, S. Gu, K. Tang, J. Ye, Y. Zhang, S. Zhu, and Y. Zheng, “Zinc vacancy related emission in homoepitaxial N-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Lumin. 161, 293–299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

Z. Yao, K. Tang, Z. Xu, J. Ma, J. Ye, S. Zhu, and S. Gu, “The suppression of zinc interstitial related shallow donors in Te-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Alloys Compd. 735, 1232–1238 (2018).
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K. Tang, S. Zhu, Z. Xu, J. Ye, and S. Gu, “Experimental investigation on nitrogen related complex acceptors in nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Alloys Compd. 696, 590–594 (2017).
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Z. Yao, S. Gu, K. Tang, J. Ye, Y. Zhang, S. Zhu, and Y. Zheng, “Zinc vacancy related emission in homoepitaxial N-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Lumin. 161, 293–299 (2015).
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K. Tang, S. Gu, K. Wu, S. Zhu, J. Ye, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Tellurium assisted realization of p-type n-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 242101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ye, J. D.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Raman study of lattice dynamic behaviors in phosphorus-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101905 (2006).
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Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, B. Liu, Y. Che, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Study on the Hall-effect and photoluminescence of N-doped p-type ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61(1), 41–44 (2007).
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Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, B. Liu, Y. Che, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Study on the Hall-effect and photoluminescence of N-doped p-type ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61(1), 41–44 (2007).
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[Crossref]

Zhang, J. Y.

W. W. Liu, B. Yao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. F. Li, B. H. Li, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Doping efficiency, optical and electrical properties of nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093518 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Li, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and Y. M. Lu, “The compensation source in nitrogen doped ZnO,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41(24), 245402 (2008).
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Zhang, L. D.

J. P. Zhang, L. D. Zhang, L. Q. Zhu, Y. Zhang, M. Liu, X. J. Wang, and G. He, “Characterization of ZnO:N films prepared by annealing sputtered zinc oxynitride films at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(11), 114903 (2007).
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Zhang, R.

K. Tang, S. Gu, K. Wu, S. Zhu, J. Ye, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Tellurium assisted realization of p-type n-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 242101 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Raman study of lattice dynamic behaviors in phosphorus-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

S. Limpijumnong, X. Li, S. H. Wei, and S. Zhang, “Substitutional diatomic molecules NO, NC, CO, N2 and O2: Their vibrational frequencies and effects on p doping of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 211910 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. B.

X. N. Xiao, B. Keyes, S. Asher, S. B. Zhang, S.-H. Wei, and T. J. Coutts, “Hydrogen passivation effect in nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 122107 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. T.

X. H. Li, H. Y. Xu, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, J. W. Sun, and Y. M. Lu, “Local chemical states and thermal stabilities of nitrogen dopants in ZnO film studied by temperature-dependent x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Z. Yao, S. Gu, K. Tang, J. Ye, Y. Zhang, S. Zhu, and Y. Zheng, “Zinc vacancy related emission in homoepitaxial N-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Lumin. 161, 293–299 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. P. Zhang, L. D. Zhang, L. Q. Zhu, Y. Zhang, M. Liu, X. J. Wang, and G. He, “Characterization of ZnO:N films prepared by annealing sputtered zinc oxynitride films at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(11), 114903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z. Z.

L. Liu, J. L. Xu, D. D. Wang, M. M. Jiang, S. P. Wang, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “p-type conductivity in N-doped ZnO: the role of the N(Zn)-V(O) complex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 215501 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. W. Liu, B. Yao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. F. Li, B. H. Li, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “Doping efficiency, optical and electrical properties of nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093518 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Li, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and Y. M. Lu, “The compensation source in nitrogen doped ZnO,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41(24), 245402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, B. H.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, B. Liu, Y. Che, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Study on the Hall-effect and photoluminescence of N-doped p-type ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61(1), 41–44 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhao, D. X.

L. Liu, J. L. Xu, D. D. Wang, M. M. Jiang, S. P. Wang, B. H. Li, Z. Z. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, C. X. Shan, B. Yao, and D. Z. Shen, “p-type conductivity in N-doped ZnO: the role of the N(Zn)-V(O) complex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(21), 215501 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Li, C. X. Shan, B. H. Li, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, D. X. Zhao, Z. Z. Zhang, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, and Y. M. Lu, “The compensation source in nitrogen doped ZnO,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41(24), 245402 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y. H.

W. J. Li, C. Y. Kong, G. P. Qin, H. B. Ruan, T. Y. Yang, X. D. Meng, Y. H. Zhao, W. W. Liang, and L. Fang, “The investigation on Raman, optical and electrical properties of p-type ZnO:N film,” Sci. China Phys. Mech. & Astron. 42(8), 819 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

Z. Yao, S. Gu, K. Tang, J. Ye, Y. Zhang, S. Zhu, and Y. Zheng, “Zinc vacancy related emission in homoepitaxial N-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Lumin. 161, 293–299 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Tang, S. Gu, K. Wu, S. Zhu, J. Ye, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Tellurium assisted realization of p-type n-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 242101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y. D.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Raman study of lattice dynamic behaviors in phosphorus-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L. P.

Y. J. Zeng, Z. Z. Ye, W. Z. Xu, B. Liu, Y. Che, L. P. Zhu, and B. H. Zhao, “Study on the Hall-effect and photoluminescence of N-doped p-type ZnO thin films,” Mater. Lett. 61(1), 41–44 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L. Q.

J. P. Zhang, L. D. Zhang, L. Q. Zhu, Y. Zhang, M. Liu, X. J. Wang, and G. He, “Characterization of ZnO:N films prepared by annealing sputtered zinc oxynitride films at different temperatures,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(11), 114903 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.

Z. Yao, K. Tang, Z. Xu, J. Ma, J. Ye, S. Zhu, and S. Gu, “The suppression of zinc interstitial related shallow donors in Te-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Alloys Compd. 735, 1232–1238 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Tang, S. Zhu, Z. Xu, J. Ye, and S. Gu, “Experimental investigation on nitrogen related complex acceptors in nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Alloys Compd. 696, 590–594 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Yao, S. Gu, K. Tang, J. Ye, Y. Zhang, S. Zhu, and Y. Zheng, “Zinc vacancy related emission in homoepitaxial N-doped ZnO microrods,” J. Lumin. 161, 293–299 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Tang, S. Gu, K. Wu, S. Zhu, J. Ye, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Tellurium assisted realization of p-type n-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 242101 (2010).
[Crossref]

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J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Raman study of lattice dynamic behaviors in phosphorus-doped ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 101905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y. B.

H. Zang, Z. G. Wang, L. L. Pang, K. F. Wei, C. F. Yao, T. L. Shen, J. R. Sun, Y. Z. Ma, J. Guo, Y. B. Sheng, and Y. B. Zhu, “Raman investigation of ion-implanted ZnO films,” Acta Phys. Sin. 59(7), 4831 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zou, C. W.

C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, W. Gao, and J. Metson, “Study of a nitrogen-doped ZnO film with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171903 (2009).
[Crossref]

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

H. Zang, Z. G. Wang, L. L. Pang, K. F. Wei, C. F. Yao, T. L. Shen, J. R. Sun, Y. Z. Ma, J. Guo, Y. B. Sheng, and Y. B. Zhu, “Raman investigation of ion-implanted ZnO films,” Acta Phys. Sin. 59(7), 4831 (2010).
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AIP Adv. (1)

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (15)

J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
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X. N. Xiao, B. Keyes, S. Asher, S. B. Zhang, S.-H. Wei, and T. J. Coutts, “Hydrogen passivation effect in nitrogen-doped ZnO thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 122107 (2005).
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K. Tang, S. Gu, K. Wu, S. Zhu, J. Ye, R. Zhang, and Y. Zheng, “Tellurium assisted realization of p-type n-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 242101 (2010).
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J. G. Reynolds, C. L. Reynolds, A. Mohanta, J. F. Muth, J. E. Rowe, H. O. Everitt, and D. E. Aspnes, “Shallow acceptor complexes in p-type ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152114 (2013).
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C. W. Zou, X. D. Yan, J. Han, R. Q. Chen, W. Gao, and J. Metson, “Study of a nitrogen-doped ZnO film with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(17), 171903 (2009).
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S. Limpijumnong, X. Li, S. H. Wei, and S. Zhang, “Substitutional diatomic molecules NO, NC, CO, N2 and O2: Their vibrational frequencies and effects on p doping of ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(21), 211910 (2005).
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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

P. Uprety, M. M. Junda, K. Ghimire, D. Adhikari, C. R. Grice, and N. J. Podraza, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry determination of optical and electrical properties of aluminum doped zinc oxide,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 421, 852–858 (2017).
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J. Alloys Compd. (3)

K. Tang, S. Zhu, Z. Xu, J. Ye, and S. Gu, “Experimental investigation on nitrogen related complex acceptors in nitrogen-doped ZnO films,” J. Alloys Compd. 696, 590–594 (2017).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. SEM image showing the cross-sectional view of ZnO films.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. AFM of ZnO and N-doped ZnO films annealed at different temperatures.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) The distribution of the implanted nitrogen atoms calculated with the SRIM code, and the corresponding Zn and O vacancy depth profiles are also given. (b) SIMS depth profiles of N, Zn, O and Al atoms in as-implanted N-doped ZnO film.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Raman spectra of ZnO and N-doped ZnO films annealed at different temperatures.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. N 1s spectra of (a) sample S1, (b) sample S3, (c) sample S4 and (d) sample S5.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Low temperature (5 K) PL spectra of as-implanted and annealed N-doped ZnO films at 900 °C.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Results of RT Hall measurements of ZnO and N-doped ZnO films annealed at different temperatures.

Equations (1)

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E A ( T ) = E g a p ( T ) E F A ( T ) + k β T / 2

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