Abstract

We fabricate two different types of micro and nanostructures with either pyramid-like or tetrahedron-like geometry on the sapphire surface, through the use of thechemical etching process after femtosecond laser irradiation. The distinct features of the structures are measured with both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The dynamic regions for the formation of the two surface structures are experimentally obtained to indicate their tunability by varying the laser average fluence and etching temperature. With the help of discussions and analyses, we propose a model to explain the formation mechanisms of the two kinds of structures, in which the competition between the growth of the alunogen (Al2 (SO4)3·17H2O) crystals and the anisotropic etching rate of the sapphire material plays an important role. In addition, it is confirmed that the tetrahedron-like structures can be used to activate the sapphire substrate for the enhancement of Raman scattering and the hydrophobic properties.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  38. S. Hamad, G. K. Podagatlapalli, M. A. Mohiddon, and V. R. Soma, “Cost effective nanostructured copper substrates prepared with ultrafast laser pulses for explosives detection using surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 263104 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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2019 (2)

X. Q. Liu, S. N. Yang, L. Yu, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “Rapid engraving of artificial compound eyes from curved sapphire substrate,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(18), 1900037 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Ródenas, M. Gu, G. Corrielli, P. Paiè, S. John, A. K. Kar, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser nanolithography of crystals,” Nat. Photonics 13(2), 105–109 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

L. Jiang, A. D. Wang, B. Li, T. H. Cui, and Y. F. Lu, “Electrons dynamics control by shaping femtosecond laser pulses in micro/nanofabrication: modeling, method, measurement and application,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(2), 17134 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. V. Ngo and D. M. Chun, “Fabrication of un-coated transparent superhydrophobic sapphire surface using laser surface ablation and heat treatment,” CIRP Ann. 67(1), 571–574 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. V. Ngo and D. M. Chun, “Control of laser-ablated aluminum surface wettability to superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic through simple heat treatment or water boiling post-processing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 435, 974–982 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. G. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, D. D. Zhao, and J. C. Han, “Enhanced transmission and self-cleaning of patterned sapphire substrates prepared by wet chemical etching using silica masks,” Langmuir 34(30), 8898–8903 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Lin, G. G. Wang, J. L. Tian, L. Y. Wang, D. D. Zhao, Z. Liu, and J. C. Han, “Broad-band anti-reflective pore-like sub-wavelength surface nanostructures on sapphire for optical windows,” Nanotechnology 29(5), 055302 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

L. Wang, Q. D. Chen, X. W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H. B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Liu, Y. W. Hu, X. Y. Sun, C. Wang, J. Y. Zhou, X. R. Dong, K. Yin, D. K. Chu, and J. Duan, “Chemical etching mechanism and properties of microstructures in sapphire modified by femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 123(1), 99 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. K. Li, J. J. Cao, Y. H. Yu, L. Wang, Y. L. Sun, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Fabrication of an anti-reflective microstructure on sapphire by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 543–546 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

Q. K. Li, Y. H. Yu, L. Wang, X. W. Cao, X. Q. Liu, Y. L. Sun, Q. D. Chen, J. A. Duan, and H. B. Sun, “Sapphire-based fresnel zone plate fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing and wet etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(12), 1290–1293 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

S. W. Huang, Y. J. Wu, H. Y. Lin, S. F. Li, Y. J. Chen, and C. Y. Liu, “Etching three-dimensional pattern on sapphire substrate by dynamic self-masking alunogen compound,” ECS Solid State Lett. 4(6), R35–R38 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

S. Hamad, G. K. Podagatlapalli, M. A. Mohiddon, and V. R. Soma, “Cost effective nanostructured copper substrates prepared with ultrafast laser pulses for explosives detection using surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 263104 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, T. Jia, K. Zhou, D. Feng, S. Zhang, H. Zhang, X. Jia, Z. Sun, and J. Qiu, “Direct writing of 150 nm gratings and squares on ZnO crystal in water by using 800 nm femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 22(26), 32361–32370 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Vilar, S. P. Sharma, A. Almeida, L. T. Cangueiro, and V. Oliveira, “Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 288, 313–323 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Cui, G. G. Wang, H. Y. Zhang, J. C. Han, X. P. Kuang, J. L. Tian, and R. Sun, “Fabrication of nanopatterned sapphire substrates by annealing of patterned Al thin films by Laser Interference Lithography,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 115(1), 159–165 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

Y. Liao, Y. L. Shen, L. L. Qiao, K. Sugioka, D. P. Chen, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Express 4(2), 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. L. Chang, X. F. Li, C. H. Kuo, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Characterization study of GaN-based epitaxial layer and light-emitting diode on nature-patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Mater. Res. 27(6), 971–977 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. J. Byeon, J. Kim, H. Park, and H. Lee, “Fabrication of SiNx-based photonic crystals on GaN-based LED devices with patterned sapphire substrate by nanoimprint lithography,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11423–11432 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

S. Juodkazis, S. Kohara, Y. Ohishi, N. Hirao, A. Vailionis, V. Mizeikis, A. Saito, and A. Rode, “Structural characterization of femtosecond laser modified regions inside sapphire,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(4), 2931–2936 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Lin, W. C. Hsu, K. C. Huang, and J. A. Yeh, “Wafer-level fabrication and optical characterization of nanoscale patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(1), 2–6 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

G. Wang, H. Zuo, H. Zhang, Q. Wu, M. Zhang, X. He, Z. Hu, and L. Zhu, “Preparation, quality characterization, service performance evaluation and its modification of sapphire crystal for optical window and dome application,” Mater. Design 31(2), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Gottmann, M. Hörstmann-Jungemann, and M. Keggenhoff, “3D-microstructuring of sapphire using fs-Laser irradiation and selective etching,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 5(2), 145–149 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, C. H. Kuo, C. J. Tun, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, and C. Y. Liu, “Fabrication of high-power InGaN-based light-emitting diode chips on pyramidally patterned sapphire substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(2), 020201 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, S. F. Yu, Y. S. Wu, C. H. Chiang, W. C. Hsu, and S. J. Chang, “Enhanced extraction and efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes prepared using two-step-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(11), H874–H876 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2006 (3)

M. Mazilu, S. Juodkazis, T. Ebisui, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Structural characterization of shock-affected sapphire,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 197–200 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

S. J. Kim, “Vertical electrode GaN-based light-emitting diode fabricated by selective wet etching technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5A), 2921–2924 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, and L. P. Lee, “High-density silver nanoparticle film with temperature-controllable interparticle spacing for a tunable surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 5–9 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313–4315 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

B. S. Patel and Z. H. Zaidi, “The suitability of sapphire for laser windows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 10(3), 146–151 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Almeida, A.

R. Vilar, S. P. Sharma, A. Almeida, L. T. Cangueiro, and V. Oliveira, “Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 288, 313–323 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arthur, S. D.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313–4315 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brandt, N.

Buividas, R.

L. Wang, Q. D. Chen, X. W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H. B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Byeon, K. J.

Cangueiro, L. T.

R. Vilar, S. P. Sharma, A. Almeida, L. T. Cangueiro, and V. Oliveira, “Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 288, 313–323 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, J. J.

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313–4315 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cao, X. W.

L. Wang, Q. D. Chen, X. W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H. B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. K. Li, Y. H. Yu, L. Wang, X. W. Cao, X. Q. Liu, Y. L. Sun, Q. D. Chen, J. A. Duan, and H. B. Sun, “Sapphire-based fresnel zone plate fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing and wet etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(12), 1290–1293 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. L.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. L. Chang, X. F. Li, C. H. Kuo, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Characterization study of GaN-based epitaxial layer and light-emitting diode on nature-patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Mater. Res. 27(6), 971–977 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. J.

R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, S. F. Yu, Y. S. Wu, C. H. Chiang, W. C. Hsu, and S. J. Chang, “Enhanced extraction and efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes prepared using two-step-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(11), H874–H876 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, D. P.

Y. Liao, Y. L. Shen, L. L. Qiao, K. Sugioka, D. P. Chen, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Express 4(2), 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

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Y. S. Lin, W. C. Hsu, K. C. Huang, and J. A. Yeh, “Wafer-level fabrication and optical characterization of nanoscale patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(1), 2–6 (2011).
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T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
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Jia, X.

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L. Jiang, A. D. Wang, B. Li, T. H. Cui, and Y. F. Lu, “Electrons dynamics control by shaping femtosecond laser pulses in micro/nanofabrication: modeling, method, measurement and application,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(2), 17134 (2018).
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A. Ródenas, M. Gu, G. Corrielli, P. Paiè, S. John, A. K. Kar, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser nanolithography of crystals,” Nat. Photonics 13(2), 105–109 (2019).
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L. Wang, Q. D. Chen, X. W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H. B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
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S. Juodkazis, S. Kohara, Y. Ohishi, N. Hirao, A. Vailionis, V. Mizeikis, A. Saito, and A. Rode, “Structural characterization of femtosecond laser modified regions inside sapphire,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(4), 2931–2936 (2011).
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V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
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M. Mazilu, S. Juodkazis, T. Ebisui, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Structural characterization of shock-affected sapphire,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 197–200 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
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A. Ródenas, M. Gu, G. Corrielli, P. Paiè, S. John, A. K. Kar, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser nanolithography of crystals,” Nat. Photonics 13(2), 105–109 (2019).
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J. Gottmann, M. Hörstmann-Jungemann, and M. Keggenhoff, “3D-microstructuring of sapphire using fs-Laser irradiation and selective etching,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng. 5(2), 145–149 (2010).
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S. Juodkazis, S. Kohara, Y. Ohishi, N. Hirao, A. Vailionis, V. Mizeikis, A. Saito, and A. Rode, “Structural characterization of femtosecond laser modified regions inside sapphire,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(4), 2931–2936 (2011).
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X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313–4315 (2004).
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L. Cui, G. G. Wang, H. Y. Zhang, J. C. Han, X. P. Kuang, J. L. Tian, and R. Sun, “Fabrication of nanopatterned sapphire substrates by annealing of patterned Al thin films by Laser Interference Lithography,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 115(1), 159–165 (2014).
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H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. L. Chang, X. F. Li, C. H. Kuo, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Characterization study of GaN-based epitaxial layer and light-emitting diode on nature-patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Mater. Res. 27(6), 971–977 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, C. H. Kuo, C. J. Tun, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, and C. Y. Liu, “Fabrication of high-power InGaN-based light-emitting diode chips on pyramidally patterned sapphire substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(2), 020201 (2010).
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C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
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[Crossref]

Li, J. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Q. K. Li, J. J. Cao, Y. H. Yu, L. Wang, Y. L. Sun, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Fabrication of an anti-reflective microstructure on sapphire by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 543–546 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. K. Li, Y. H. Yu, L. Wang, X. W. Cao, X. Q. Liu, Y. L. Sun, Q. D. Chen, J. A. Duan, and H. B. Sun, “Sapphire-based fresnel zone plate fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing and wet etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(12), 1290–1293 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, S. F.

S. W. Huang, Y. J. Wu, H. Y. Lin, S. F. Li, Y. J. Chen, and C. Y. Liu, “Etching three-dimensional pattern on sapphire substrate by dynamic self-masking alunogen compound,” ECS Solid State Lett. 4(6), R35–R38 (2015).
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J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[Crossref]

Li, X. F.

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. L. Chang, X. F. Li, C. H. Kuo, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Characterization study of GaN-based epitaxial layer and light-emitting diode on nature-patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Mater. Res. 27(6), 971–977 (2012).
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[Crossref]

Lin, H. Y.

S. W. Huang, Y. J. Wu, H. Y. Lin, S. F. Li, Y. J. Chen, and C. Y. Liu, “Etching three-dimensional pattern on sapphire substrate by dynamic self-masking alunogen compound,” ECS Solid State Lett. 4(6), R35–R38 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. L. Chang, X. F. Li, C. H. Kuo, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Characterization study of GaN-based epitaxial layer and light-emitting diode on nature-patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Mater. Res. 27(6), 971–977 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, R. M.

R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, S. F. Yu, Y. S. Wu, C. H. Chiang, W. C. Hsu, and S. J. Chang, “Enhanced extraction and efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes prepared using two-step-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(11), H874–H876 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. S.

Y. S. Lin, W. C. Hsu, K. C. Huang, and J. A. Yeh, “Wafer-level fabrication and optical characterization of nanoscale patterned sapphire substrates,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 258(1), 2–6 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Lin, G. G. Wang, J. L. Tian, L. Y. Wang, D. D. Zhao, Z. Liu, and J. C. Han, “Broad-band anti-reflective pore-like sub-wavelength surface nanostructures on sapphire for optical windows,” Nanotechnology 29(5), 055302 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. G. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, D. D. Zhao, and J. C. Han, “Enhanced transmission and self-cleaning of patterned sapphire substrates prepared by wet chemical etching using silica masks,” Langmuir 34(30), 8898–8903 (2018).
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Liu, C. Y.

S. W. Huang, Y. J. Wu, H. Y. Lin, S. F. Li, Y. J. Chen, and C. Y. Liu, “Etching three-dimensional pattern on sapphire substrate by dynamic self-masking alunogen compound,” ECS Solid State Lett. 4(6), R35–R38 (2015).
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H. Y. Lin, Y. J. Chen, C. L. Chang, X. F. Li, C. H. Kuo, S. C. Hsu, and C. Y. Liu, “Characterization study of GaN-based epitaxial layer and light-emitting diode on nature-patterned sapphire substrate,” J. Mater. Res. 27(6), 971–977 (2012).
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Y. J. Chen, C. H. Kuo, C. J. Tun, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, and C. Y. Liu, “Fabrication of high-power InGaN-based light-emitting diode chips on pyramidally patterned sapphire substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(2), 020201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, G. L.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, and L. P. Lee, “High-density silver nanoparticle film with temperature-controllable interparticle spacing for a tunable surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 5–9 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, M. Y.

M. Y. Liu, Y. W. Hu, X. Y. Sun, C. Wang, J. Y. Zhou, X. R. Dong, K. Yin, D. K. Chu, and J. Duan, “Chemical etching mechanism and properties of microstructures in sapphire modified by femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 123(1), 99 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. Q.

X. Q. Liu, S. N. Yang, L. Yu, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “Rapid engraving of artificial compound eyes from curved sapphire substrate,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(18), 1900037 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. K. Li, Y. H. Yu, L. Wang, X. W. Cao, X. Q. Liu, Y. L. Sun, Q. D. Chen, J. A. Duan, and H. B. Sun, “Sapphire-based fresnel zone plate fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing and wet etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(12), 1290–1293 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Q. Lin, G. G. Wang, J. L. Tian, L. Y. Wang, D. D. Zhao, Z. Liu, and J. C. Han, “Broad-band anti-reflective pore-like sub-wavelength surface nanostructures on sapphire for optical windows,” Nanotechnology 29(5), 055302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, and L. P. Lee, “High-density silver nanoparticle film with temperature-controllable interparticle spacing for a tunable surface enhanced Raman scattering substrate,” Nano Lett. 5(1), 5–9 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. C.

R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, S. F. Yu, Y. S. Wu, C. H. Chiang, W. C. Hsu, and S. J. Chang, “Enhanced extraction and efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes prepared using two-step-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(11), H874–H876 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. F.

L. Jiang, A. D. Wang, B. Li, T. H. Cui, and Y. F. Lu, “Electrons dynamics control by shaping femtosecond laser pulses in micro/nanofabrication: modeling, method, measurement and application,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(2), 17134 (2018).
[Crossref]

Matsuo, S.

M. Mazilu, S. Juodkazis, T. Ebisui, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Structural characterization of shock-affected sapphire,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 197–200 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mazilu, M.

M. Mazilu, S. Juodkazis, T. Ebisui, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Structural characterization of shock-affected sapphire,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 197–200 (2006).
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Midorikawa, K.

Y. Liao, Y. L. Shen, L. L. Qiao, K. Sugioka, D. P. Chen, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Express 4(2), 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref]

Misawa, H.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Mazilu, S. Juodkazis, T. Ebisui, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, “Structural characterization of shock-affected sapphire,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 86(2), 197–200 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mizeikis, V.

S. Juodkazis, S. Kohara, Y. Ohishi, N. Hirao, A. Vailionis, V. Mizeikis, A. Saito, and A. Rode, “Structural characterization of femtosecond laser modified regions inside sapphire,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(4), 2931–2936 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mohiddon, M. A.

S. Hamad, G. K. Podagatlapalli, M. A. Mohiddon, and V. R. Soma, “Cost effective nanostructured copper substrates prepared with ultrafast laser pulses for explosives detection using surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 263104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
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C. V. Ngo and D. M. Chun, “Fabrication of un-coated transparent superhydrophobic sapphire surface using laser surface ablation and heat treatment,” CIRP Ann. 67(1), 571–574 (2018).
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C. V. Ngo and D. M. Chun, “Control of laser-ablated aluminum surface wettability to superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic through simple heat treatment or water boiling post-processing,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 435, 974–982 (2018).
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S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ohishi, Y.

S. Juodkazis, S. Kohara, Y. Ohishi, N. Hirao, A. Vailionis, V. Mizeikis, A. Saito, and A. Rode, “Structural characterization of femtosecond laser modified regions inside sapphire,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(4), 2931–2936 (2011).
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Okada, T.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
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Oliveira, V.

R. Vilar, S. P. Sharma, A. Almeida, L. T. Cangueiro, and V. Oliveira, “Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 288, 313–323 (2014).
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Osellame, R.

A. Ródenas, M. Gu, G. Corrielli, P. Paiè, S. John, A. K. Kar, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser nanolithography of crystals,” Nat. Photonics 13(2), 105–109 (2019).
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Ou, S. L.

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
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Paiè, P.

A. Ródenas, M. Gu, G. Corrielli, P. Paiè, S. John, A. K. Kar, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser nanolithography of crystals,” Nat. Photonics 13(2), 105–109 (2019).
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S. Hamad, G. K. Podagatlapalli, M. A. Mohiddon, and V. R. Soma, “Cost effective nanostructured copper substrates prepared with ultrafast laser pulses for explosives detection using surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 263104 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qiao, L. L.

Y. Liao, Y. L. Shen, L. L. Qiao, K. Sugioka, D. P. Chen, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Express 4(2), 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

Rode, A.

S. Juodkazis, S. Kohara, Y. Ohishi, N. Hirao, A. Vailionis, V. Mizeikis, A. Saito, and A. Rode, “Structural characterization of femtosecond laser modified regions inside sapphire,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(4), 2931–2936 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ródenas, A.

A. Ródenas, M. Gu, G. Corrielli, P. Paiè, S. John, A. K. Kar, and R. Osellame, “Three-dimensional femtosecond laser nanolithography of crystals,” Nat. Photonics 13(2), 105–109 (2019).
[Crossref]

Saito, A.

S. Juodkazis, S. Kohara, Y. Ohishi, N. Hirao, A. Vailionis, V. Mizeikis, A. Saito, and A. Rode, “Structural characterization of femtosecond laser modified regions inside sapphire,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(4), 2931–2936 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sharma, S. P.

R. Vilar, S. P. Sharma, A. Almeida, L. T. Cangueiro, and V. Oliveira, “Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 288, 313–323 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shen, C. C.

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shen, K. C.

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. L.

Y. Liao, Y. L. Shen, L. L. Qiao, K. Sugioka, D. P. Chen, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Express 4(2), 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soma, V. R.

S. Hamad, G. K. Podagatlapalli, M. A. Mohiddon, and V. R. Soma, “Cost effective nanostructured copper substrates prepared with ultrafast laser pulses for explosives detection using surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(26), 263104 (2014).
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Sugioka, K.

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Ultrafast lasers—reliable tools for advanced materials processing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(4), e149 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Liao, Y. L. Shen, L. L. Qiao, K. Sugioka, D. P. Chen, Y. Cheng, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Express 4(2), 187–189 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, H. B.

X. Q. Liu, S. N. Yang, L. Yu, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “Rapid engraving of artificial compound eyes from curved sapphire substrate,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(18), 1900037 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, Q. D. Chen, X. W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H. B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. K. Li, J. J. Cao, Y. H. Yu, L. Wang, Y. L. Sun, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Fabrication of an anti-reflective microstructure on sapphire by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 543–546 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. K. Li, Y. H. Yu, L. Wang, X. W. Cao, X. Q. Liu, Y. L. Sun, Q. D. Chen, J. A. Duan, and H. B. Sun, “Sapphire-based fresnel zone plate fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing and wet etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(12), 1290–1293 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sun, R.

L. Cui, G. G. Wang, H. Y. Zhang, J. C. Han, X. P. Kuang, J. L. Tian, and R. Sun, “Fabrication of nanopatterned sapphire substrates by annealing of patterned Al thin films by Laser Interference Lithography,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 115(1), 159–165 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. Y.

M. Y. Liu, Y. W. Hu, X. Y. Sun, C. Wang, J. Y. Zhou, X. R. Dong, K. Yin, D. K. Chu, and J. Duan, “Chemical etching mechanism and properties of microstructures in sapphire modified by femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 123(1), 99 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y. L.

Q. K. Li, J. J. Cao, Y. H. Yu, L. Wang, Y. L. Sun, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Fabrication of an anti-reflective microstructure on sapphire by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 543–546 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. K. Li, Y. H. Yu, L. Wang, X. W. Cao, X. Q. Liu, Y. L. Sun, Q. D. Chen, J. A. Duan, and H. B. Sun, “Sapphire-based fresnel zone plate fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing and wet etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(12), 1290–1293 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

Surovtsev, N. V.

V. Mizeikis, S. Kimura, N. V. Surovtsev, V. Jarutis, A. Saito, H. Misawa, and S. Juodkazis, “Formation of amorphous sapphire by a femtosecond laser pulse induced micro-explosion,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(24), 9745–9749 (2009).
[Crossref]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tian, J. L.

Z. Q. Lin, G. G. Wang, J. L. Tian, L. Y. Wang, D. D. Zhao, Z. Liu, and J. C. Han, “Broad-band anti-reflective pore-like sub-wavelength surface nanostructures on sapphire for optical windows,” Nanotechnology 29(5), 055302 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Cui, G. G. Wang, H. Y. Zhang, J. C. Han, X. P. Kuang, J. L. Tian, and R. Sun, “Fabrication of nanopatterned sapphire substrates by annealing of patterned Al thin films by Laser Interference Lithography,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 115(1), 159–165 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tun, C. J.

Y. J. Chen, C. H. Kuo, C. J. Tun, S. C. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, and C. Y. Liu, “Fabrication of high-power InGaN-based light-emitting diode chips on pyramidally patterned sapphire substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(2), 020201 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vailionis, A.

S. Juodkazis, S. Kohara, Y. Ohishi, N. Hirao, A. Vailionis, V. Mizeikis, A. Saito, and A. Rode, “Structural characterization of femtosecond laser modified regions inside sapphire,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(4), 2931–2936 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vilar, R.

R. Vilar, S. P. Sharma, A. Almeida, L. T. Cangueiro, and V. Oliveira, “Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 288, 313–323 (2014).
[Crossref]

Waki, R.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, H. Misawa, T. Ebisui, R. Waki, S. Matsuo, and T. Okada, “Control over the Crystalline State of Sapphire,” Adv. Mater. 18(11), 1361–1364 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, A. D.

L. Jiang, A. D. Wang, B. Li, T. H. Cui, and Y. F. Lu, “Electrons dynamics control by shaping femtosecond laser pulses in micro/nanofabrication: modeling, method, measurement and application,” Light: Sci. Appl. 7(2), 17134 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

M. Y. Liu, Y. W. Hu, X. Y. Sun, C. Wang, J. Y. Zhou, X. R. Dong, K. Yin, D. K. Chu, and J. Duan, “Chemical etching mechanism and properties of microstructures in sapphire modified by femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 123(1), 99 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. H.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, H. Zuo, H. Zhang, Q. Wu, M. Zhang, X. He, Z. Hu, and L. Zhu, “Preparation, quality characterization, service performance evaluation and its modification of sapphire crystal for optical window and dome application,” Mater. Design 31(2), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, G. G.

G. G. Wang, Z. Q. Lin, D. D. Zhao, and J. C. Han, “Enhanced transmission and self-cleaning of patterned sapphire substrates prepared by wet chemical etching using silica masks,” Langmuir 34(30), 8898–8903 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Q. Lin, G. G. Wang, J. L. Tian, L. Y. Wang, D. D. Zhao, Z. Liu, and J. C. Han, “Broad-band anti-reflective pore-like sub-wavelength surface nanostructures on sapphire for optical windows,” Nanotechnology 29(5), 055302 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. Cui, G. G. Wang, H. Y. Zhang, J. C. Han, X. P. Kuang, J. L. Tian, and R. Sun, “Fabrication of nanopatterned sapphire substrates by annealing of patterned Al thin films by Laser Interference Lithography,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 115(1), 159–165 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, Q. D. Chen, X. W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H. B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. K. Li, J. J. Cao, Y. H. Yu, L. Wang, Y. L. Sun, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Fabrication of an anti-reflective microstructure on sapphire by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 42(3), 543–546 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. K. Li, Y. H. Yu, L. Wang, X. W. Cao, X. Q. Liu, Y. L. Sun, Q. D. Chen, J. A. Duan, and H. B. Sun, “Sapphire-based fresnel zone plate fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing and wet etching,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(12), 1290–1293 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. Y.

Z. Q. Lin, G. G. Wang, J. L. Tian, L. Y. Wang, D. D. Zhao, Z. Liu, and J. C. Han, “Broad-band anti-reflective pore-like sub-wavelength surface nanostructures on sapphire for optical windows,” Nanotechnology 29(5), 055302 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Wang, C. C. Ke, C. H. Chiu, J. C. Li, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, and S. C. Wang, “Study of the internal quantum efficiency of InGaN/GaN UV LEDs on patterned sapphire substrate using the electroluminescence method,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 242–245 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

L. Wang, Q. D. Chen, X. W. Cao, R. Buividas, X. Wang, S. Juodkazis, and H. B. Sun, “Plasmonic nano-printing: large-area nanoscale energy deposition for efficient surface texturing,” Light: Sci. Appl. 6(12), e17112 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wortmann, D.

Wu, Q.

G. Wang, H. Zuo, H. Zhang, Q. Wu, M. Zhang, X. He, Z. Hu, and L. Zhu, “Preparation, quality characterization, service performance evaluation and its modification of sapphire crystal for optical window and dome application,” Mater. Design 31(2), 706–711 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. J.

S. W. Huang, Y. J. Wu, H. Y. Lin, S. F. Li, Y. J. Chen, and C. Y. Liu, “Etching three-dimensional pattern on sapphire substrate by dynamic self-masking alunogen compound,” ECS Solid State Lett. 4(6), R35–R38 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y. S.

R. M. Lin, Y. C. Lu, S. F. Yu, Y. S. Wu, C. H. Chiang, W. C. Hsu, and S. J. Chang, “Enhanced extraction and efficiency of blue light-emitting diodes prepared using two-step-etched patterned sapphire substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(11), H874–H876 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wuu, D. S.

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xing, Z. G.

J. Wang, L. W. Guo, H. Q. Jia, Y. Wang, Z. G. Xing, W. Li, H. Chen, and J. M. Zhou, “Fabrication of patterned sapphire substrate by wet chemical etching for maskless lateral overgrowth of GaN,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(3), C182–C185 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yan, C. H.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313–4315 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. N.

X. Q. Liu, S. N. Yang, L. Yu, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, and H. B. Sun, “Rapid engraving of artificial compound eyes from curved sapphire substrate,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 29(18), 1900037 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. H.

X. A. Cao, S. F. LeBoeuf, M. P. D’Evelyn, S. D. Arthur, J. Kretchmer, C. H. Yan, and Z. H. Yang, “Blue and near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on free-standing GaN substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(21), 4313–4315 (2004).
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Yeh, J. A.

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Yu, S. F.

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S. W. Huang, Y. J. Wu, H. Y. Lin, S. F. Li, Y. J. Chen, and C. Y. Liu, “Etching three-dimensional pattern on sapphire substrate by dynamic self-masking alunogen compound,” ECS Solid State Lett. 4(6), R35–R38 (2015).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the fabrication of the micro and nanostructures on the sapphire surface via two steps. Step one: line-scribing process with femtosecond laser pulses. Step two: wet etching process with H2SO4 solution at the heated temperature.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Histograms of the ablated nanoparticle size distribution on sapphire surface at conditions of different laser fluences.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The observed structures on the sapphire surface fabricated by the combination methods of femtosecond laser irradiation and the wet etching, where the employed laser fluence is F = 3.8 J/cm2. (a) SEM images of the surface structures before the ultrasonic cleaning. (b) and (c) represent the optical confocal micrograph and the cross-sectional profile of the Al2 (SO4)3·17H2O crystal, respectively. (d) SEM images of the surface structures after the ultrasonic cleaning in de-ionized water. (e) and (f) represent the AFM image and the cross-sectional profile of the pyramid-like structure, respectively.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The observed morphologies on the sapphire surface by the combination methods of femtosecond laser irradiation and the wet etching, where the employed laser fluence is F = 29.8 J/cm2. (a) SEM images of surface structures before the ultrasonic cleaning. (b) SEM images of surface structures after the ultrasonic cleaning in de-ionized water. (c) and (d) represent an AFM image and the cross-sectional profile of the tetrahedron-like structure, respectively.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) The measured dynamic regimes for the formation of the pyramid-like and tetrahedron-like structures on the sapphire surface in terms of both the laser fluence and the wet etching temperature. (b) The measured laser fluence dependent size of the cubic Al2 (SO4)3 crystal at two different wet etching temperatures of 170 °C and 240 °C, respectively. (c) The measured dependences of the pyramid-like structure size on either the laser fluence or the wet etching temperature. (d)The measured variation of the tetrahedron-like structure size versus the laser fluence at the etching temperature of 210 °C.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The proposed evolutionary processes for the formation of two different types of the polygonal microstructures on the sapphire surface.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) SEM image of the large-area structured sapphire surface with the tetrahedron-like nanostructures. (b) Measured Raman spectrum on Ag film coated tetrahedron-like structures with different concentrations of R6G, where A for 1.0 × 10−3 M, B for 1.0 × 10−6 M, C for 5.0 × 10−8 M and D for the situation on the Ag film coated flat sapphire surface with R6G concentrations of 1.0 × 10−3 M.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The measured contact angles of the water droplet on the sapphire surface with (a) and without (b) the tetrahedron-like structures.

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