Abstract

Various rare earth doped single crystal YAG and sesquioxide fibers have been drawn using the laser heated pedestal growth (LHPG) method. Crystalline core/clad fibers have been successfully fabricated using a two-step hydrothermal growth method applied to core fibers. The development of a two-step process is essential to the growth of reasonable cladding layers. Various shapes of the cladding layer were observed, i.e., octagon, hexagon, square and intermediate shapes. EDX study shows a stoichiometry of YAG composition of the clad and there is no significant diffusion of the rare earth ion across the core/clad interface. No birefringence was observed under cross-polarized light indicating that a negligible stress between core/clad crystals was formed during hydrothermal process. Acid etching is an effective method to obtain faceted YAG fibers with a reduced diameter in a controlled manner. An etch rate of ∼0.15 µm/min was measured using 50:50 mixtures of phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid at elevated temperature. Scattering loss of 0.05 dB/cm and a net peak gain of 19 dB was measured from 10% Yb:YAG core/YAG clad fiber. The hydrothermal technique is a versatile epitaxial method to growth undoped YAG cladding of various thicknesses onto doped YAG core fibers and has a great potential to pave the way forward for improving laser performance.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  26. W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Laser Based on Highly Doped Lu2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of Directed Energy 5(1), 93–104 (2013).
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    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

2018 (1)

2017 (2)

2016 (2)

R. Thapa, D. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, C. Askins, W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, and J. S. Sanghera, “Fusion splicing of highly dissimilar YAG crystal fiber and silica fiber with reaction bonding,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2560–2566 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

M. Zervas and C. Codemard, “High Power Fiber Lasers: A Review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 219–241 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Laser Based on Highly Doped Lu2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of Directed Energy 5(1), 93–104 (2013).

2012 (3)

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, H. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Physical origin of mode instabilities in high-power fiber laser systems,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12912 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Ceramic windows and gain media for high-energy lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021003 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. D. McMillen, M. Manna, J. Fan, L. Zhu, and J. Kolis, “Revisiting the Hydrothermal growthof YAG,” J. Cryst. Growth 356, 58–64 (2012).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

L. Quintino, A. Costa, R. Miranda, and D. Yapp, “Welding with high power fiber lasers - A preliminary study,” Mater. Des. 28(4), 1231–1237 (2007).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal , Stress , and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

E. Hartmann and E. Beregi, “Face statistics on the dissolution forms of garnet crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 128(1-4), 74–81 (1993).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

E. Kolb and R. Laudise, “Phase equilibria of Y3Al5O12, hydrothermal growth of Gd3Ga5O12 and hydrothermal epitaxy of magnetic garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth 29(1), 29–39 (1975).
[Crossref]

1936 (1)

D. C. Stockbarger, “The Production of Large Single Crystals of Lithium Fluoride,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 7(3), 133–136 (1936).
[Crossref]

1925 (1)

P. W. Bridgman, “Certain Physical Properties of Single Crystals of Tungsten, Antimony, Bismuth, Tellurium, Cadmium, Zinc, and Tin,” Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 60(6), 305–383 (1925).
[Crossref]

1918 (1)

J. Czochralski, “A new method for the measurement of the crystallization rate of metals,” Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie 92, 219 (1918).

Abramov, M.

V. Fomin, M. Abramov, and A. Ferin, “10 kW single mode fiber laser,” in 5th International Symposium on High-Power Fiber Lasers and Their Applications, St. Petersburg Russia (2010).

Aggarwal, I.

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, B. Rock, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Overview of transparent optical ceramics for high-energy lasers at NRL,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), F210–F221 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Laser Based on Highly Doped Lu2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of Directed Energy 5(1), 93–104 (2013).

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Ceramic windows and gain media for high-energy lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Askins, C.

R. Thapa, D. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, C. Askins, W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, and J. S. Sanghera, “Fusion splicing of highly dissimilar YAG crystal fiber and silica fiber with reaction bonding,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2560–2566 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Myers, W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, S. Qadri, D. Rhonehouse, C. Askins, J. Peele, R. Thapa, R. Bekele, C. McClain, and J. Sanghera, “Development of Thin Film Claddings for Single Crystal Optical Fiber,” OSA Advanced Photonics Congress, Novel Optical Materials And Applications, NoTu4D.4, Zurich, Switzerland (July 2-5, 2018) (2018).

B. Shaw, S. Bayya, W. Kim, J. Myers, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, R. Thapa, S. Bowman, R. Gattass, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Progress in Development of Clad Single Crystal Fibers,” 18th Annual Directed Energy Symposium, March 7-11, 2016, Albuquerque, NM.

Askins, C. G.

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, C. G. Askins, M. P. Hunt, B. A. Marcheschi, J. Fontana, J. R. Peele, W. Kim, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. K. Pattnaik, L. D. Merkle, M. Dubinskii, Y. M. Chen, I. A. Dajani, and C. Mart, “Nanoparticle Doping for Improved Er-doped Fiber Lasers,” Fiber Lasers XIV: Technology and Systems, Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 10083 UNSP 100831P (2017).

Averett, K.

Baker, C.

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, B. Rock, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Overview of transparent optical ceramics for high-energy lasers at NRL,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), F210–F221 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Laser Based on Highly Doped Lu2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of Directed Energy 5(1), 93–104 (2013).

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Ceramic windows and gain media for high-energy lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baker, C. C.

Ballato, J.

Barty, C. P. J.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, J. E. Heebner, P. H. Pax, A. K. Sridharan, A. L. Bullington, R. J. Beach, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” SPIE768611, 768611 (2010).

Bayya, S.

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Thapa, D. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, C. Askins, W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, and J. S. Sanghera, “Fusion splicing of highly dissimilar YAG crystal fiber and silica fiber with reaction bonding,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2560–2566 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, B. Rock, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Overview of transparent optical ceramics for high-energy lasers at NRL,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), F210–F221 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Laser Based on Highly Doped Lu2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of Directed Energy 5(1), 93–104 (2013).

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Ceramic windows and gain media for high-energy lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021003 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Shaw, S. Bayya, W. Kim, J. Myers, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, R. Thapa, S. Bowman, R. Gattass, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Progress in Development of Clad Single Crystal Fibers,” 18th Annual Directed Energy Symposium, March 7-11, 2016, Albuquerque, NM.

J. Myers, W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, S. Qadri, D. Rhonehouse, C. Askins, J. Peele, R. Thapa, R. Bekele, C. McClain, and J. Sanghera, “Development of Thin Film Claddings for Single Crystal Optical Fiber,” OSA Advanced Photonics Congress, Novel Optical Materials And Applications, NoTu4D.4, Zurich, Switzerland (July 2-5, 2018) (2018).

Beach, R. J.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, J. E. Heebner, P. H. Pax, A. K. Sridharan, A. L. Bullington, R. J. Beach, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” SPIE768611, 768611 (2010).

Bekele, R.

J. Myers, W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, S. Qadri, D. Rhonehouse, C. Askins, J. Peele, R. Thapa, R. Bekele, C. McClain, and J. Sanghera, “Development of Thin Film Claddings for Single Crystal Optical Fiber,” OSA Advanced Photonics Congress, Novel Optical Materials And Applications, NoTu4D.4, Zurich, Switzerland (July 2-5, 2018) (2018).

Beregi, E.

E. Hartmann and E. Beregi, “Face statistics on the dissolution forms of garnet crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 128(1-4), 74–81 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bowman, S.

B. Shaw, S. Bayya, W. Kim, J. Myers, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, R. Thapa, S. Bowman, R. Gattass, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Progress in Development of Clad Single Crystal Fibers,” 18th Annual Directed Energy Symposium, March 7-11, 2016, Albuquerque, NM.

Bowman, S. R.

Bridgman, P. W.

P. W. Bridgman, “Certain Physical Properties of Single Crystals of Tungsten, Antimony, Bismuth, Tellurium, Cadmium, Zinc, and Tin,” Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 60(6), 305–383 (1925).
[Crossref]

Brown, D.

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal , Stress , and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bullington, A. L.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, J. E. Heebner, P. H. Pax, A. K. Sridharan, A. L. Bullington, R. J. Beach, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” SPIE768611, 768611 (2010).

Burdett, A. A.

Busse, L.

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y. M.

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, C. G. Askins, M. P. Hunt, B. A. Marcheschi, J. Fontana, J. R. Peele, W. Kim, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. K. Pattnaik, L. D. Merkle, M. Dubinskii, Y. M. Chen, I. A. Dajani, and C. Mart, “Nanoparticle Doping for Improved Er-doped Fiber Lasers,” Fiber Lasers XIV: Technology and Systems, Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 10083 UNSP 100831P (2017).

Chin, G.

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Codemard, C.

M. Zervas and C. Codemard, “High Power Fiber Lasers: A Review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 219–241 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cook, G.

Corns, R.

Costa, A.

L. Quintino, A. Costa, R. Miranda, and D. Yapp, “Welding with high power fiber lasers - A preliminary study,” Mater. Des. 28(4), 1231–1237 (2007).
[Crossref]

Czochralski, J.

J. Czochralski, “A new method for the measurement of the crystallization rate of metals,” Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie 92, 219 (1918).

Dajani, I. A.

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, C. G. Askins, M. P. Hunt, B. A. Marcheschi, J. Fontana, J. R. Peele, W. Kim, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. K. Pattnaik, L. D. Merkle, M. Dubinskii, Y. M. Chen, I. A. Dajani, and C. Mart, “Nanoparticle Doping for Improved Er-doped Fiber Lasers,” Fiber Lasers XIV: Technology and Systems, Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 10083 UNSP 100831P (2017).

Dawson, J. W.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, J. E. Heebner, P. H. Pax, A. K. Sridharan, A. L. Bullington, R. J. Beach, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” SPIE768611, 768611 (2010).

Dubinskii, M.

M. Dubinskii, J. Zhang, V. Fromzel, Y. Chen, S. Yin, and C. Luo, “Low-loss ‘crystalline-core/crystalline-clad’ (C4) fibers for highly power scalable high efficiency fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 26(4), 5092–5095 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, D. L. Rhonehouse, J. Fontana, W. Kim, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. Pattnaik, M. Dubinskii, J. Ballato, C. Kucera, A. Vargas, A. Hemming, N. Simakov, and J. Haub, “Nanoparticle doping for high power fiber lasers at eye-safer wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13903–13915 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, C. G. Askins, M. P. Hunt, B. A. Marcheschi, J. Fontana, J. R. Peele, W. Kim, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. K. Pattnaik, L. D. Merkle, M. Dubinskii, Y. M. Chen, I. A. Dajani, and C. Mart, “Nanoparticle Doping for Improved Er-doped Fiber Lasers,” Fiber Lasers XIV: Technology and Systems, Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 10083 UNSP 100831P (2017).

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, J. E. Heebner, P. H. Pax, A. K. Sridharan, A. L. Bullington, R. J. Beach, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” SPIE768611, 768611 (2010).

Eidam, T.

Fair, G.

Fan, J.

C. D. McMillen, M. Manna, J. Fan, L. Zhu, and J. Kolis, “Revisiting the Hydrothermal growthof YAG,” J. Cryst. Growth 356, 58–64 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feldmana, R.

R. Feldmana, Y. Shimonya, E. Lebiusha, and Y. Golan, “Effect of hot acid etching on the mechanical strengthof ground YAG laser elements,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(4), 839–846 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ferin, A.

V. Fomin, M. Abramov, and A. Ferin, “10 kW single mode fiber laser,” in 5th International Symposium on High-Power Fiber Lasers and Their Applications, St. Petersburg Russia (2010).

Florea, C.

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fomin, V.

V. Fomin, M. Abramov, and A. Ferin, “10 kW single mode fiber laser,” in 5th International Symposium on High-Power Fiber Lasers and Their Applications, St. Petersburg Russia (2010).

Fontana, J.

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, D. L. Rhonehouse, J. Fontana, W. Kim, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. Pattnaik, M. Dubinskii, J. Ballato, C. Kucera, A. Vargas, A. Hemming, N. Simakov, and J. Haub, “Nanoparticle doping for high power fiber lasers at eye-safer wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13903–13915 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, C. G. Askins, M. P. Hunt, B. A. Marcheschi, J. Fontana, J. R. Peele, W. Kim, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. K. Pattnaik, L. D. Merkle, M. Dubinskii, Y. M. Chen, I. A. Dajani, and C. Mart, “Nanoparticle Doping for Improved Er-doped Fiber Lasers,” Fiber Lasers XIV: Technology and Systems, Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 10083 UNSP 100831P (2017).

Frantz, J.

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, B. Rock, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Overview of transparent optical ceramics for high-energy lasers at NRL,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), F210–F221 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Laser Based on Highly Doped Lu2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of Directed Energy 5(1), 93–104 (2013).

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Ceramic windows and gain media for high-energy lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Friebele, E. J.

Fromzel, V.

Gattass, R.

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Shaw, S. Bayya, W. Kim, J. Myers, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, R. Thapa, S. Bowman, R. Gattass, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Progress in Development of Clad Single Crystal Fibers,” 18th Annual Directed Energy Symposium, March 7-11, 2016, Albuquerque, NM.

Gattass, R. R.

Gibson, D.

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Thapa, D. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, C. Askins, W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, and J. S. Sanghera, “Fusion splicing of highly dissimilar YAG crystal fiber and silica fiber with reaction bonding,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2560–2566 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Shaw, S. Bayya, W. Kim, J. Myers, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, R. Thapa, S. Bowman, R. Gattass, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Progress in Development of Clad Single Crystal Fibers,” 18th Annual Directed Energy Symposium, March 7-11, 2016, Albuquerque, NM.

Golan, Y.

R. Feldmana, Y. Shimonya, E. Lebiusha, and Y. Golan, “Effect of hot acid etching on the mechanical strengthof ground YAG laser elements,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(4), 839–846 (2008).
[Crossref]

Griffin, B.

Hakimi, F.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1988), paper PD5 https://doi.org/10.1364/OFS.1988.PD5

Hartmann, E.

E. Hartmann and E. Beregi, “Face statistics on the dissolution forms of garnet crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 128(1-4), 74–81 (1993).
[Crossref]

Haub, J.

Hay, R.

Heebner, J. E.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, J. E. Heebner, P. H. Pax, A. K. Sridharan, A. L. Bullington, R. J. Beach, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” SPIE768611, 768611 (2010).

Hemming, A.

Hoffman, H. J.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal , Stress , and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hopkins, G.

Hunt, M.

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, B. Rock, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Overview of transparent optical ceramics for high-energy lasers at NRL,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), F210–F221 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Laser Based on Highly Doped Lu2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of Directed Energy 5(1), 93–104 (2013).

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Ceramic windows and gain media for high-energy lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hunt, M. P.

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, C. G. Askins, M. P. Hunt, B. A. Marcheschi, J. Fontana, J. R. Peele, W. Kim, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. K. Pattnaik, L. D. Merkle, M. Dubinskii, Y. M. Chen, I. A. Dajani, and C. Mart, “Nanoparticle Doping for Improved Er-doped Fiber Lasers,” Fiber Lasers XIV: Technology and Systems, Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 10083 UNSP 100831P (2017).

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Kadhim, A.

Keller, K.

Kim, H.

Kim, W.

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, D. Rhonehouse, W. Kim, and J. Sanghera, “Rare earth co-doping for increased the efficiency of resonantly pumped Er-fiber lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(3), 1041–1048 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, D. L. Rhonehouse, J. Fontana, W. Kim, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. Pattnaik, M. Dubinskii, J. Ballato, C. Kucera, A. Vargas, A. Hemming, N. Simakov, and J. Haub, “Nanoparticle doping for high power fiber lasers at eye-safer wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13903–13915 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Thapa, D. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, C. Askins, W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, and J. S. Sanghera, “Fusion splicing of highly dissimilar YAG crystal fiber and silica fiber with reaction bonding,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2560–2566 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, B. Rock, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Overview of transparent optical ceramics for high-energy lasers at NRL,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), F210–F221 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Laser Based on Highly Doped Lu2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of Directed Energy 5(1), 93–104 (2013).

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Ceramic windows and gain media for high-energy lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021003 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Shaw, S. Bayya, W. Kim, J. Myers, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, R. Thapa, S. Bowman, R. Gattass, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Progress in Development of Clad Single Crystal Fibers,” 18th Annual Directed Energy Symposium, March 7-11, 2016, Albuquerque, NM.

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, C. G. Askins, M. P. Hunt, B. A. Marcheschi, J. Fontana, J. R. Peele, W. Kim, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. K. Pattnaik, L. D. Merkle, M. Dubinskii, Y. M. Chen, I. A. Dajani, and C. Mart, “Nanoparticle Doping for Improved Er-doped Fiber Lasers,” Fiber Lasers XIV: Technology and Systems, Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 10083 UNSP 100831P (2017).

J. Myers, W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, S. Qadri, D. Rhonehouse, C. Askins, J. Peele, R. Thapa, R. Bekele, C. McClain, and J. Sanghera, “Development of Thin Film Claddings for Single Crystal Optical Fiber,” OSA Advanced Photonics Congress, Novel Optical Materials And Applications, NoTu4D.4, Zurich, Switzerland (July 2-5, 2018) (2018).

Kolb, E.

E. Kolb and R. Laudise, “Phase equilibria of Y3Al5O12, hydrothermal growth of Gd3Ga5O12 and hydrothermal epitaxy of magnetic garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth 29(1), 29–39 (1975).
[Crossref]

Kolis, J.

C. D. McMillen, M. Manna, J. Fan, L. Zhu, and J. Kolis, “Revisiting the Hydrothermal growthof YAG,” J. Cryst. Growth 356, 58–64 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kucera, C.

Kung, F.

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laudise, R.

E. Kolb and R. Laudise, “Phase equilibria of Y3Al5O12, hydrothermal growth of Gd3Ga5O12 and hydrothermal epitaxy of magnetic garnets,” J. Cryst. Growth 29(1), 29–39 (1975).
[Crossref]

Lebiusha, E.

R. Feldmana, Y. Shimonya, E. Lebiusha, and Y. Golan, “Effect of hot acid etching on the mechanical strengthof ground YAG laser elements,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(4), 839–846 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, H.

Limpert, J.

Luo, C.

Manna, M.

C. D. McMillen, M. Manna, J. Fan, L. Zhu, and J. Kolis, “Revisiting the Hydrothermal growthof YAG,” J. Cryst. Growth 356, 58–64 (2012).
[Crossref]

Marcheschi, B. A.

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, C. G. Askins, M. P. Hunt, B. A. Marcheschi, J. Fontana, J. R. Peele, W. Kim, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. K. Pattnaik, L. D. Merkle, M. Dubinskii, Y. M. Chen, I. A. Dajani, and C. Mart, “Nanoparticle Doping for Improved Er-doped Fiber Lasers,” Fiber Lasers XIV: Technology and Systems, Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 10083 UNSP 100831P (2017).

Mart, C.

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, C. G. Askins, M. P. Hunt, B. A. Marcheschi, J. Fontana, J. R. Peele, W. Kim, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. K. Pattnaik, L. D. Merkle, M. Dubinskii, Y. M. Chen, I. A. Dajani, and C. Mart, “Nanoparticle Doping for Improved Er-doped Fiber Lasers,” Fiber Lasers XIV: Technology and Systems, Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 10083 UNSP 100831P (2017).

McClain, C.

J. Myers, W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, S. Qadri, D. Rhonehouse, C. Askins, J. Peele, R. Thapa, R. Bekele, C. McClain, and J. Sanghera, “Development of Thin Film Claddings for Single Crystal Optical Fiber,” OSA Advanced Photonics Congress, Novel Optical Materials And Applications, NoTu4D.4, Zurich, Switzerland (July 2-5, 2018) (2018).

McCollum, B. C.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1988), paper PD5 https://doi.org/10.1364/OFS.1988.PD5

McDaniel, S.

McMillen, C. D.

C. D. McMillen, M. Manna, J. Fan, L. Zhu, and J. Kolis, “Revisiting the Hydrothermal growthof YAG,” J. Cryst. Growth 356, 58–64 (2012).
[Crossref]

Merkle, L. D.

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, C. G. Askins, M. P. Hunt, B. A. Marcheschi, J. Fontana, J. R. Peele, W. Kim, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. K. Pattnaik, L. D. Merkle, M. Dubinskii, Y. M. Chen, I. A. Dajani, and C. Mart, “Nanoparticle Doping for Improved Er-doped Fiber Lasers,” Fiber Lasers XIV: Technology and Systems, Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 10083 UNSP 100831P (2017).

Messerly, M. J.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, J. E. Heebner, P. H. Pax, A. K. Sridharan, A. L. Bullington, R. J. Beach, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” SPIE768611, 768611 (2010).

Miklos, F.

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Miranda, R.

L. Quintino, A. Costa, R. Miranda, and D. Yapp, “Welding with high power fiber lasers - A preliminary study,” Mater. Des. 28(4), 1231–1237 (2007).
[Crossref]

Monchamp, R. R.

R. C. Puttbach, R. R. Monchamp, and J. W. Nielsen, in H. S. Peiser ed., “Hydrothermal Growth of Y3Al5O12 in Crystal Growth,” Pergamon, Oxford, 1967, pp. 569–571

Myers, J.

J. Myers, W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, S. Qadri, D. Rhonehouse, C. Askins, J. Peele, R. Thapa, R. Bekele, C. McClain, and J. Sanghera, “Development of Thin Film Claddings for Single Crystal Optical Fiber,” OSA Advanced Photonics Congress, Novel Optical Materials And Applications, NoTu4D.4, Zurich, Switzerland (July 2-5, 2018) (2018).

B. Shaw, S. Bayya, W. Kim, J. Myers, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, R. Thapa, S. Bowman, R. Gattass, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Progress in Development of Clad Single Crystal Fibers,” 18th Annual Directed Energy Symposium, March 7-11, 2016, Albuquerque, NM.

Nguyen, V.

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nielsen, J. W.

R. C. Puttbach, R. R. Monchamp, and J. W. Nielsen, in H. S. Peiser ed., “Hydrothermal Growth of Y3Al5O12 in Crystal Growth,” Pergamon, Oxford, 1967, pp. 569–571

Otto, H.

Parthasarathy, T.

Pattnaik, R.

Pattnaik, R. K.

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, C. G. Askins, M. P. Hunt, B. A. Marcheschi, J. Fontana, J. R. Peele, W. Kim, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. K. Pattnaik, L. D. Merkle, M. Dubinskii, Y. M. Chen, I. A. Dajani, and C. Mart, “Nanoparticle Doping for Improved Er-doped Fiber Lasers,” Fiber Lasers XIV: Technology and Systems, Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 10083 UNSP 100831P (2017).

Pax, P. H.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, J. E. Heebner, P. H. Pax, A. K. Sridharan, A. L. Bullington, R. J. Beach, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” SPIE768611, 768611 (2010).

Peele, J.

J. Myers, W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, S. Qadri, D. Rhonehouse, C. Askins, J. Peele, R. Thapa, R. Bekele, C. McClain, and J. Sanghera, “Development of Thin Film Claddings for Single Crystal Optical Fiber,” OSA Advanced Photonics Congress, Novel Optical Materials And Applications, NoTu4D.4, Zurich, Switzerland (July 2-5, 2018) (2018).

B. Shaw, S. Bayya, W. Kim, J. Myers, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, R. Thapa, S. Bowman, R. Gattass, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Progress in Development of Clad Single Crystal Fibers,” 18th Annual Directed Energy Symposium, March 7-11, 2016, Albuquerque, NM.

Peele, J. R.

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, C. G. Askins, M. P. Hunt, B. A. Marcheschi, J. Fontana, J. R. Peele, W. Kim, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. K. Pattnaik, L. D. Merkle, M. Dubinskii, Y. M. Chen, I. A. Dajani, and C. Mart, “Nanoparticle Doping for Improved Er-doped Fiber Lasers,” Fiber Lasers XIV: Technology and Systems, Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 10083 UNSP 100831P (2017).

Po, H.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1988), paper PD5 https://doi.org/10.1364/OFS.1988.PD5

Potticary, S.

Puttbach, R. C.

R. C. Puttbach, R. R. Monchamp, and J. W. Nielsen, in H. S. Peiser ed., “Hydrothermal Growth of Y3Al5O12 in Crystal Growth,” Pergamon, Oxford, 1967, pp. 569–571

Qadri, S.

J. Myers, W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, S. Qadri, D. Rhonehouse, C. Askins, J. Peele, R. Thapa, R. Bekele, C. McClain, and J. Sanghera, “Development of Thin Film Claddings for Single Crystal Optical Fiber,” OSA Advanced Photonics Congress, Novel Optical Materials And Applications, NoTu4D.4, Zurich, Switzerland (July 2-5, 2018) (2018).

Quintino, L.

L. Quintino, A. Costa, R. Miranda, and D. Yapp, “Welding with high power fiber lasers - A preliminary study,” Mater. Des. 28(4), 1231–1237 (2007).
[Crossref]

Rhonehouse, D.

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, D. Rhonehouse, W. Kim, and J. Sanghera, “Rare earth co-doping for increased the efficiency of resonantly pumped Er-fiber lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(3), 1041–1048 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Myers, W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, S. Qadri, D. Rhonehouse, C. Askins, J. Peele, R. Thapa, R. Bekele, C. McClain, and J. Sanghera, “Development of Thin Film Claddings for Single Crystal Optical Fiber,” OSA Advanced Photonics Congress, Novel Optical Materials And Applications, NoTu4D.4, Zurich, Switzerland (July 2-5, 2018) (2018).

B. Shaw, S. Bayya, W. Kim, J. Myers, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, R. Thapa, S. Bowman, R. Gattass, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Progress in Development of Clad Single Crystal Fibers,” 18th Annual Directed Energy Symposium, March 7-11, 2016, Albuquerque, NM.

Rhonehouse, D. L.

Rock, B.

Sadowski, B.

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, B. Rock, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Overview of transparent optical ceramics for high-energy lasers at NRL,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), F210–F221 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Laser Based on Highly Doped Lu2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of Directed Energy 5(1), 93–104 (2013).

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Ceramic windows and gain media for high-energy lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021003 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sanghera, J.

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, D. Rhonehouse, W. Kim, and J. Sanghera, “Rare earth co-doping for increased the efficiency of resonantly pumped Er-fiber lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(3), 1041–1048 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, D. L. Rhonehouse, J. Fontana, W. Kim, S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. Pattnaik, M. Dubinskii, J. Ballato, C. Kucera, A. Vargas, A. Hemming, N. Simakov, and J. Haub, “Nanoparticle doping for high power fiber lasers at eye-safer wavelengths,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13903–13915 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, B. Rock, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Overview of transparent optical ceramics for high-energy lasers at NRL,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), F210–F221 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Laser Based on Highly Doped Lu2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of Directed Energy 5(1), 93–104 (2013).

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Ceramic windows and gain media for high-energy lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021003 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Shaw, S. Bayya, W. Kim, J. Myers, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, R. Thapa, S. Bowman, R. Gattass, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Progress in Development of Clad Single Crystal Fibers,” 18th Annual Directed Energy Symposium, March 7-11, 2016, Albuquerque, NM.

J. Myers, W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, S. Qadri, D. Rhonehouse, C. Askins, J. Peele, R. Thapa, R. Bekele, C. McClain, and J. Sanghera, “Development of Thin Film Claddings for Single Crystal Optical Fiber,” OSA Advanced Photonics Congress, Novel Optical Materials And Applications, NoTu4D.4, Zurich, Switzerland (July 2-5, 2018) (2018).

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, C. G. Askins, M. P. Hunt, B. A. Marcheschi, J. Fontana, J. R. Peele, W. Kim, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. K. Pattnaik, L. D. Merkle, M. Dubinskii, Y. M. Chen, I. A. Dajani, and C. Mart, “Nanoparticle Doping for Improved Er-doped Fiber Lasers,” Fiber Lasers XIV: Technology and Systems, Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 10083 UNSP 100831P (2017).

Sanghera, J. S.

Shaw, B.

W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, B. Rock, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Overview of transparent optical ceramics for high-energy lasers at NRL,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), F210–F221 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Laser Based on Highly Doped Lu2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of Directed Energy 5(1), 93–104 (2013).

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Ceramic windows and gain media for high-energy lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021003 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Shaw, S. Bayya, W. Kim, J. Myers, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, R. Thapa, S. Bowman, R. Gattass, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Progress in Development of Clad Single Crystal Fibers,” 18th Annual Directed Energy Symposium, March 7-11, 2016, Albuquerque, NM.

J. Myers, W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, S. Qadri, D. Rhonehouse, C. Askins, J. Peele, R. Thapa, R. Bekele, C. McClain, and J. Sanghera, “Development of Thin Film Claddings for Single Crystal Optical Fiber,” OSA Advanced Photonics Congress, Novel Optical Materials And Applications, NoTu4D.4, Zurich, Switzerland (July 2-5, 2018) (2018).

Shaw, L. B.

Shimonya, Y.

R. Feldmana, Y. Shimonya, E. Lebiusha, and Y. Golan, “Effect of hot acid etching on the mechanical strengthof ground YAG laser elements,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(4), 839–846 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shugart, K.

Shverdin, M. Y.

Siders, C. W.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, J. E. Heebner, P. H. Pax, A. K. Sridharan, A. L. Bullington, R. J. Beach, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” SPIE768611, 768611 (2010).

Simakov, N.

Snitzer, E.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1988), paper PD5 https://doi.org/10.1364/OFS.1988.PD5

Sridharan, A. K.

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, J. E. Heebner, P. H. Pax, A. K. Sridharan, A. L. Bullington, R. J. Beach, C. W. Siders, C. P. J. Barty, and M. Dubinskii, “Power scaling analysis of fiber lasers and amplifiers based on non-silica materials,” SPIE768611, 768611 (2010).

Stappaerts, E. A.

Stockbarger, D. C.

D. C. Stockbarger, “The Production of Large Single Crystals of Lithium Fluoride,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 7(3), 133–136 (1936).
[Crossref]

Stutzki, F.

Thapa, R.

R. Thapa, D. Gibson, R. R. Gattass, C. Askins, W. Kim, S. Bayya, L. B. Shaw, and J. S. Sanghera, “Fusion splicing of highly dissimilar YAG crystal fiber and silica fiber with reaction bonding,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2560–2566 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Myers, W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, S. Qadri, D. Rhonehouse, C. Askins, J. Peele, R. Thapa, R. Bekele, C. McClain, and J. Sanghera, “Development of Thin Film Claddings for Single Crystal Optical Fiber,” OSA Advanced Photonics Congress, Novel Optical Materials And Applications, NoTu4D.4, Zurich, Switzerland (July 2-5, 2018) (2018).

B. Shaw, S. Bayya, W. Kim, J. Myers, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, R. Thapa, S. Bowman, R. Gattass, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Progress in Development of Clad Single Crystal Fibers,” 18th Annual Directed Energy Symposium, March 7-11, 2016, Albuquerque, NM.

Tumminelli, R.

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1988), paper PD5 https://doi.org/10.1364/OFS.1988.PD5

Tünnermann, A.

Urbas, A.

Usechak, N.

Vargas, A.

Villalobos, G.

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, B. Rock, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Overview of transparent optical ceramics for high-energy lasers at NRL,” Appl. Opt. 54(31), F210–F221 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Laser Based on Highly Doped Lu2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of Directed Energy 5(1), 93–104 (2013).

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Ceramic windows and gain media for high-energy lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021003 (2012).
[Crossref]

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L. Quintino, A. Costa, R. Miranda, and D. Yapp, “Welding with high power fiber lasers - A preliminary study,” Mater. Des. 28(4), 1231–1237 (2007).
[Crossref]

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C. D. McMillen, M. Manna, J. Fan, L. Zhu, and J. Kolis, “Revisiting the Hydrothermal growthof YAG,” J. Cryst. Growth 356, 58–64 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Zervas and C. Codemard, “High Power Fiber Lasers: A Review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(5), 219–241 (2014).
[Crossref]

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W. Kim, V. Nguyen, B. Shaw, L. Busse, C. Florea, D. Gibson, R. Gattass, S. Bayya, F. Kung, G. Chin, and F. Miklos, I. Aggarwal and J. Sanghera, “Recent progress in chalcogenide fiber technology at NRL,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 431, 8–15 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

R. Feldmana, Y. Shimonya, E. Lebiusha, and Y. Golan, “Effect of hot acid etching on the mechanical strengthof ground YAG laser elements,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(4), 839–846 (2008).
[Crossref]

Journal of Directed Energy (1)

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Laser Based on Highly Doped Lu2O3 Ceramics,” Journal of Directed Energy 5(1), 93–104 (2013).

Mater. Des. (1)

L. Quintino, A. Costa, R. Miranda, and D. Yapp, “Welding with high power fiber lasers - A preliminary study,” Mater. Des. 28(4), 1231–1237 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Kim, G. Villalobos, C. Baker, J. Frantz, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, B. Sadowski, M. Hunt, I. Aggarwal, and J. Sanghera, “Ceramic windows and gain media for high-energy lasers,” Opt. Eng. 52(2), 021003 (2012).
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B. Shaw, S. Bayya, W. Kim, J. Myers, C. Askins, J. Peele, D. Rhonehouse, R. Thapa, S. Bowman, R. Gattass, D. Gibson, and J. Sanghera, “Progress in Development of Clad Single Crystal Fibers,” 18th Annual Directed Energy Symposium, March 7-11, 2016, Albuquerque, NM.

J. Myers, W. Kim, B. Shaw, S. Bayya, S. Qadri, D. Rhonehouse, C. Askins, J. Peele, R. Thapa, R. Bekele, C. McClain, and J. Sanghera, “Development of Thin Film Claddings for Single Crystal Optical Fiber,” OSA Advanced Photonics Congress, Novel Optical Materials And Applications, NoTu4D.4, Zurich, Switzerland (July 2-5, 2018) (2018).

C. C. Baker, E. J. Friebele, A. A. Burdett, C. G. Askins, M. P. Hunt, B. A. Marcheschi, J. Fontana, J. R. Peele, W. Kim, J. Sanghera, J. Zhang, R. K. Pattnaik, L. D. Merkle, M. Dubinskii, Y. M. Chen, I. A. Dajani, and C. Mart, “Nanoparticle Doping for Improved Er-doped Fiber Lasers,” Fiber Lasers XIV: Technology and Systems, Proceedings of SPIE Volume: 10083 UNSP 100831P (2017).

E. Snitzer, H. Po, F. Hakimi, R. Tumminelli, and B. C. McCollum, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1988), paper PD5 https://doi.org/10.1364/OFS.1988.PD5

V. Fomin, M. Abramov, and A. Ferin, “10 kW single mode fiber laser,” in 5th International Symposium on High-Power Fiber Lasers and Their Applications, St. Petersburg Russia (2010).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. A schematic diagram of two-zone high-pressure hydrothermal growth chamber.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) State-of-the-art LHPG facility at NRL, (b) a schematic diagram of the LHPG system, (c) & (d) photograph images of actual fiber draw where a fiber diameter reduced from 100 µm to 17 µm using the state of the art LHPG machine.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Various RE doped YAG and Sesquioxide feed rods used in this study. (b) A photograph image of 250µm diameter under a letter. (c) A looped fiber with a bend diameter of ∼1 cm. (d) Microscope images of the endface of the 250 µm diameter crystal fibers. (e) Microscope images of the endface of the 35 µm diameter crystal fibers.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) A plot of diameter of the fiber vs. time of exposure to mixed acids. (b) Endfaces of YAG fiber before any acid etch showing 105 µm diameter (left), YAG fiber after 2 hours in 50:50 mixture of H3PO4 and H2SO4 acid at 225°C showing etching to 93 µm diameter and beginning of facet formation (middle), and YAG fiber after 4 hours in 50:50 mixture of H3PO4 and H2SO4 acid at 225°C showing deeper etching to 67 µm diameter (right). (c) A photographic image of a surface along the fiber length that underwent 4 hour etching where a sharp edge is shown.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) A photograph image of a fiber showing a spectacular failure of epitaxial growth due to unoptimized growth condition, (b) Endface photograph of a fiber cladded at unoptimized growth condition, (c) Endface photograph of an off-centered fiber.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Photograph images of a fiber showing progress during two-step growth process. Note the white sparkles on the surface are remaining nutrient that is removed by gentle sonication, (b) Fibers of various thickness obtained by two step growth process.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Microscopic image of hydrothermally cladded fibers with different shapes, octagon, hexagon, and square (a-c). Some intermediate shapes were also observed (d-f).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) A photograph image of endface of Yb:YAG core/YAG clad fiber showing its dimension, (b) Zoomed image showing good core/clad interface, and (c) EDX scan across core/clad indicating no noticeable diffusion and good stoichiometry of the composition.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Out-scattered HeNe light was captured by a camera with microscope objective at the input end (left) and output end (right) of a YAG-clad Yb:YAG core fiber. The data plots (bottom left and bottom right) show digitized pixel intensity along the length of the fiber for the input and output ends respectively. Note that the data plot uses different ordinate (vertical) scales.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. A schematic of gain measurements in the Yb:YAG fiber. Both signal and Pump was coupled into the core. A net peak gain of 19 dB was measured from 10% Yb:YAG core/YAG clad fiber. A core loss of 0.15 dB/cm (measured at 1300 nm) is reported.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Composition of fiber core and cladding regions determined by EDX.

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