Abstract

The femtosecond direct laser writing technique in glasses has been widely used and extensively studied during the last two decades. This technique provides a robust and efficient way to directly inscribe embedded 3D photonic devices in bulk glasses. Following direct laser writing, a local refractive index change (Δn) is induced that is generally classified under three distinguished types (type I, type II & type III). Each type allows for the fabrication of its own variety of 3D photonic components. However, in silver containing glasses, direct laser writing induces the creation of a new type of refractive index change, called type Argentum (type A). It is based on the creation of silver clusters that allow for the creation of optical waveguides. In this paper, we report that both type I and type Argentum modifications could be triggered in silver containing glasses by finely choosing the inscription parameters. A comparative study between both types of single mode waveguides is presented taking into account the morphology, Δn profile and the guided mode profile. Finally, we highlight the originality of type Argentum waveguides paving the way for promising applications not accessible by type I waveguides.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
  41. K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  42. S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
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  43. R. Osellame, G. Della Valle, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. Cerullo, “Lasing in femtosecond laser written optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. A 93(1), 17–26 (2008).
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  44. J.-P. Bérubé and R. Vallée, “Femtosecond laser direct inscription of surface skimming waveguides in bulk glass,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3074–3077 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2018 (2)

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Guérineau, L. Loi, Y. Petit, S. Danto, A. Fargues, L. Canioni, and T. Cardinal, “Structural influence on the femtosecond laser ability to create fluorescent patterns in silver-containing sodium-gallium phosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(12), 3748–3760 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, J.-C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallée, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Bérubé and R. Vallée, “Femtosecond laser direct inscription of surface skimming waveguides in bulk glass,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3074–3077 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

J. Lapointe, F. Parent, E. S. de Lima Filho, S. Loranger, and R. Kashyap, “Toward the integration of optical sensors in smartphone screens using femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 40(23), 5654–5657 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

2012 (2)

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. S. Salter, A. Jesacher, J. B. Spring, B. J. Metcalf, N. Thomas-Peter, R. D. Simmonds, N. K. Langford, I. A. Walmsley, and M. J. Booth, “Adaptive slit beam shaping for direct laser written waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 37(4), 470–472 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

2010 (3)

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

C. Maurel, T. Cardinal, M. Bellec, L. Canioni, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, J. J. Videau, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Luminescence properties of silver zinc phosphate glasses following different irradiations,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1514–1518 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083107 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W.-J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9443–9458 (2008).
[Crossref]

W.-J. Chen, S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, “Broadband directional couplers fabricated in bulk glass with high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11470 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B 77(10), 104205 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, G. Della Valle, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. Cerullo, “Lasing in femtosecond laser written optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. A 93(1), 17–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 332–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (5)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

1996 (1)

Abou Khalil, A.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, J.-C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallée, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ams, M.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Ams, G. Marshall, D. Spence, and M. Withford, “Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5676–5681 (2005).
[Crossref]

Arai, A.

Arriola, A.

Audouard, E.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B 77(10), 104205 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bellec, M.

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Maurel, T. Cardinal, M. Bellec, L. Canioni, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, J. J. Videau, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Luminescence properties of silver zinc phosphate glasses following different irradiations,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1514–1518 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bernier, M.

Berube, J. P.

Bérubé, J.-P.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, J.-C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallée, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Bérubé and R. Vallée, “Femtosecond laser direct inscription of surface skimming waveguides in bulk glass,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3074–3077 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Bérubé, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modifications in fluoride glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 598–611 (2013).
[Crossref]

Booth, M. J.

Borrelli, N. F.

Bourhis, K.

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bousquet, B.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Maurel, T. Cardinal, M. Bellec, L. Canioni, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, J. J. Videau, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Luminescence properties of silver zinc phosphate glasses following different irradiations,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1514–1518 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bovatsek, J.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083107 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brasselet, E.

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Brow, R. K.

Bulgakova, N. M.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B 77(10), 104205 (2008).
[Crossref]

Burakov, I. M.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B 77(10), 104205 (2008).
[Crossref]

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Canioni, L.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Guérineau, L. Loi, Y. Petit, S. Danto, A. Fargues, L. Canioni, and T. Cardinal, “Structural influence on the femtosecond laser ability to create fluorescent patterns in silver-containing sodium-gallium phosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(12), 3748–3760 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, J.-C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallée, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Maurel, T. Cardinal, M. Bellec, L. Canioni, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, J. J. Videau, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Luminescence properties of silver zinc phosphate glasses following different irradiations,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1514–1518 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cardinal, T.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Guérineau, L. Loi, Y. Petit, S. Danto, A. Fargues, L. Canioni, and T. Cardinal, “Structural influence on the femtosecond laser ability to create fluorescent patterns in silver-containing sodium-gallium phosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(12), 3748–3760 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, J.-C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallée, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Maurel, T. Cardinal, M. Bellec, L. Canioni, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, J. J. Videau, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Luminescence properties of silver zinc phosphate glasses following different irradiations,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1514–1518 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, G. Della Valle, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. Cerullo, “Lasing in femtosecond laser written optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. A 93(1), 17–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chahid-Erraji, A.

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[Crossref]

Charles, N.

Chen, W.-J.

Chichkov, B. N.

Chimier, B.

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chiodo, N.

R. Osellame, G. Della Valle, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. Cerullo, “Lasing in femtosecond laser written optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. A 93(1), 17–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Maurel, T. Cardinal, M. Bellec, L. Canioni, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, J. J. Videau, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Luminescence properties of silver zinc phosphate glasses following different irradiations,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1514–1518 (2009).
[Crossref]

Crespi, A.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

D’Ambrosio, V.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

Danto, S.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Guérineau, L. Loi, Y. Petit, S. Danto, A. Fargues, L. Canioni, and T. Cardinal, “Structural influence on the femtosecond laser ability to create fluorescent patterns in silver-containing sodium-gallium phosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(12), 3748–3760 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, J.-C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallée, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

Davis, K. M.

de Lima Filho, E. S.

De Silvestri, S.

Dekker, P.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[Crossref]

Della Valle, G.

R. Osellame, G. Della Valle, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. Cerullo, “Lasing in femtosecond laser written optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. A 93(1), 17–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

Desmoulin, J.-C.

A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, J.-C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallée, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Duchateau, G.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dussauze, M.

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eaton, S.

Eaton, S. M.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ehrt, D.

D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 332–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fargin, E.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fargues, A.

T. Guérineau, L. Loi, Y. Petit, S. Danto, A. Fargues, L. Canioni, and T. Cardinal, “Structural influence on the femtosecond laser ability to create fluorescent patterns in silver-containing sodium-gallium phosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(12), 3748–3760 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

Flamini, F.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, L. B.

Fuerbach, A.

A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2978–2986 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. Withford, “Direct Laser Written Multimode Waveguides for Astronomical Applications,” in Advanced Photonics & Renewable Energy (Optical Society of America, Karlsruhe, 2010), p. JThA28.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gagne, M.

García, J. F.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gonzalez, H. M.

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gross, S.

A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2978–2986 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. Withford, “Direct Laser Written Multimode Waveguides for Astronomical Applications,” in Advanced Photonics & Renewable Energy (Optical Society of America, Karlsruhe, 2010), p. JThA28.

Guérineau, T.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Guérineau, L. Loi, Y. Petit, S. Danto, A. Fargues, L. Canioni, and T. Cardinal, “Structural influence on the femtosecond laser ability to create fluorescent patterns in silver-containing sodium-gallium phosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(12), 3748–3760 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hayden, J. S.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[Crossref]

Herman, P.

Herman, P. R.

Hertel, I. V.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B 77(10), 104205 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hirao, K.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, L.

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ho, S.

Husakou, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B 77(10), 104205 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huser, T. R.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ippen, E. P.

Jesacher, A.

Jovanovic, N.

A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2978–2986 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. Withford, “Direct Laser Written Multimode Waveguides for Astronomical Applications,” in Advanced Photonics & Renewable Energy (Optical Society of America, Karlsruhe, 2010), p. JThA28.

Kanehira, S.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kashyap, R.

Kazansky, P.

Kittel, T.

D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 332–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kowalevicz, A. M.

Krol, D. M.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, N. Troy, S. T. Reis, R. K. Brow, and D. M. Krol, “Direct femtosecond laser waveguide writing inside zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Express 19(9), 7929–7936 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, N. Troy, S. T. Reis, R. K. Brow, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, and D. M. Krol, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in zinc phosphate glasses [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 845–855 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083107 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lahaye, M.

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lancaster, D. G.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lancry, M.

Langford, N. K.

Lapointe, J.

Laporta, P.

R. Osellame, G. Della Valle, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. Cerullo, “Lasing in femtosecond laser written optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. A 93(1), 17–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lawrence, J.

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. Withford, “Direct Laser Written Multimode Waveguides for Astronomical Applications,” in Advanced Photonics & Renewable Energy (Optical Society of America, Karlsruhe, 2010), p. JThA28.

Le Camus, A.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, M. J.

Little, D. J.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Loi, L.

Loranger, S.

Magrini, L.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

Marangoni, M.

Marshall, G.

Marshall, G. D.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
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Mataloni, P.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

Matthews, J. C. F.

Maurel, C.

C. Maurel, T. Cardinal, M. Bellec, L. Canioni, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, J. J. Videau, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Luminescence properties of silver zinc phosphate glasses following different irradiations,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1514–1518 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mazur, E.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B 77(10), 104205 (2008).
[Crossref]

Meshcheryakov, Y. P.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B 77(10), 104205 (2008).
[Crossref]

Messaddeq, S. H.

Messaddeq, Y.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. P. Berube, S. H. Messaddeq, M. Bernier, I. Skripachev, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallee, “Tailoring the refractive index of Ge-S based glass for 3D embedded waveguides operating in the mid-IR region,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26103–26116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Metcalf, B. J.

Miese, C.

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. Withford, “Direct Laser Written Multimode Waveguides for Astronomical Applications,” in Advanced Photonics & Renewable Energy (Optical Society of America, Karlsruhe, 2010), p. JThA28.

Miese, C. T.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

Minoshima, K.

Miura, K.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ng, M. L.

Nolte, S.

D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 332–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41(21), 4360–4364 (2002).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, J. L.

Olaizola, S. M.

Osellame, R.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, N. Troy, S. T. Reis, R. K. Brow, R. M. Vazquez, R. Osellame, and D. M. Krol, “Femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in zinc phosphate glasses [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(5), 845–855 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, G. Della Valle, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. Cerullo, “Lasing in femtosecond laser written optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. A 93(1), 17–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Palmer, G.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Parent, F.

Petit, Y.

T. Guérineau, L. Loi, Y. Petit, S. Danto, A. Fargues, L. Canioni, and T. Cardinal, “Structural influence on the femtosecond laser ability to create fluorescent patterns in silver-containing sodium-gallium phosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(12), 3748–3760 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, J.-C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallée, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Politi, A.

Polli, D.

Poumellec, B.

Rab, A. S.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ramponi, R.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Reichman, W. B.

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083107 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reis, S. T.

Richardson, M.

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Maurel, T. Cardinal, M. Bellec, L. Canioni, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, J. J. Videau, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Luminescence properties of silver zinc phosphate glasses following different irradiations,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1514–1518 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Risbud, S. H.

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[Crossref]

Rosenfeld, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B 77(10), 104205 (2008).
[Crossref]

Royon, A.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Salter, P. S.

Schaffer, C. B.

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sciarrino, F.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shah, L.

Simmonds, R. D.

Skripachev, I.

Smetanina, E.

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

Spagnolo, N.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

Spence, D.

Spring, J. B.

Stoian, R.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B 77(10), 104205 (2008).
[Crossref]

Streltsov, A. M.

Sugimoto, N.

Svelto, O.

R. Osellame, G. Della Valle, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. Cerullo, “Lasing in femtosecond laser written optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. A 93(1), 17–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

Taccheo, S.

R. Osellame, G. Della Valle, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. Cerullo, “Lasing in femtosecond laser written optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. A 93(1), 17–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Osellame, S. Taccheo, M. Marangoni, R. Ramponi, P. Laporta, D. Polli, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Femtosecond writing of active optical waveguides with astigmatically shaped beams,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(7), 1559–1567 (2003).
[Crossref]

Talaga, D.

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

Thomas-Peter, N.

Treguer, M.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Maurel, T. Cardinal, M. Bellec, L. Canioni, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, J. J. Videau, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Luminescence properties of silver zinc phosphate glasses following different irradiations,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1514–1518 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

Troy, N.

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 332–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41(21), 4360–4364 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tuthill, P. G.

Vallee, R.

Vallée, R.

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, J.-C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallée, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Bérubé and R. Vallée, “Femtosecond laser direct inscription of surface skimming waveguides in bulk glass,” Opt. Lett. 41(13), 3074–3077 (2016).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Bérubé, M. Bernier, and R. Vallée, “Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index modifications in fluoride glass,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 598–611 (2013).
[Crossref]

Varkentina, N.

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vazquez, R. M.

Videau, J. J.

C. Maurel, T. Cardinal, M. Bellec, L. Canioni, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, J. J. Videau, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Luminescence properties of silver zinc phosphate glasses following different irradiations,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1514–1518 (2009).
[Crossref]

Videau, J.-J.

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

Walmsley, I. A.

Will, M.

D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 332–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Will, S. Nolte, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Tünnermann, “Optical properties of waveguides fabricated in fused silica by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 41(21), 4360–4364 (2002).
[Crossref]

Williams, R. J.

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

Witcher, J. J.

Withford, M.

M. Ams, G. Marshall, D. Spence, and M. Withford, “Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5676–5681 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. Withford, “Direct Laser Written Multimode Waveguides for Astronomical Applications,” in Advanced Photonics & Renewable Energy (Optical Society of America, Karlsruhe, 2010), p. JThA28.

Withford, M. J.

A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2978–2986 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yoshino, F.

Zandrini, T.

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

Y. Petit, S. Danto, T. Guérineau, A. Abou Khalil, A. Le Camus, E. Fargin, G. Duchateau, J.-P. Bérubé, R. Vallée, Y. Messaddeq, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “On the femtosecond laser-induced photochemistry in silver-containing oxide glasses: mechanisms, related optical and physico-chemical properties, and technological applications,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 7(5), 291–309 (2018).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (2)

R. Osellame, G. Della Valle, N. Chiodo, S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, and G. Cerullo, “Lasing in femtosecond laser written optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. A 93(1), 17–26 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. B. Schaffer, J. F. García, and E. Mazur, “Bulk heating of transparent materials using a high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser,” Appl. Phys. A 76(3), 351–354 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. (2)

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, and D. M. Krol, “Modification of the fused silica glass network associated with waveguide fabrication using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 367–372 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. W. Chan, T. R. Huser, S. H. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, “Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2371–2373 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (1)

S. Gross, M. Ams, G. Palmer, C. T. Miese, R. J. Williams, G. D. Marshall, A. Fuerbach, D. G. Lancaster, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast Laser Inscription in Soft Glasses: A Comparative Study of Athermal and Thermal Processing Regimes for Guided Wave Optics,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 332–348 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J.-C. Desmoulin, Y. Petit, L. Canioni, M. Dussauze, M. Lahaye, H. M. Gonzalez, E. Brasselet, and T. Cardinal, “Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering,” J. Appl. Phys. 118(21), 213104 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, W. B. Reichman, A. Arai, J. Bovatsek, and D. M. Krol, “Changes to the network structure of Er–Yb doped phosphate glass induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 083107 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, and M. J. Withford, “Mechanism of femtosecond-laser induced refractive index change in phosphate glass under a low repetition-rate regime,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033110 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

C. Maurel, T. Cardinal, M. Bellec, L. Canioni, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, J. J. Videau, J. Choi, and M. Richardson, “Luminescence properties of silver zinc phosphate glasses following different irradiations,” J. Lumin. 129(12), 1514–1518 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

K. Bourhis, A. Royon, M. Bellec, J. Choi, A. Fargues, M. Treguer, J.-J. Videau, D. Talaga, M. Richardson, T. Cardinal, and L. Canioni, “Femtosecond laser structuring and optical properties of a silver and zinc phosphate glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2658–2665 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Ehrt, T. Kittel, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond-laser-writing in various glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345-346, 332–337 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

M. Bellec, A. Royon, K. Bourhis, J. Choi, B. Bousquet, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, J.-J. Videau, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “3D Patterning at the Nanoscale of Fluorescent Emitters in Glass,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(37), 15584–15588 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

F. Flamini, L. Magrini, A. S. Rab, N. Spagnolo, V. D’Ambrosio, P. Mataloni, F. Sciarrino, T. Zandrini, A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, and R. Osellame, “Thermally reconfigurable quantum photonic circuits at telecom wavelength by femtosecond laser micromachining,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e354 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (12)

K. Minoshima, A. M. Kowalevicz, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fabrication of coupled mode photonic devices in glass by nonlinear femtosecond laser materials processing,” Opt. Express 10(15), 645–652 (2002).
[Crossref]

L. Shah, A. Arai, S. Eaton, and P. Herman, “Waveguide writing in fused silica with a femtosecond fiber laser at 522 nm and 1 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(6), 1999–2006 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Ams, G. Marshall, D. Spence, and M. Withford, “Slit beam shaping method for femtosecond laser direct-write fabrication of symmetric waveguides in bulk glasses,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5676–5681 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W.-J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9443–9458 (2008).
[Crossref]

W.-J. Chen, S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, and P. R. Herman, “Broadband directional couplers fabricated in bulk glass with high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11470 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Bellec, A. Royon, B. Bousquet, K. Bourhis, M. Treguer, T. Cardinal, M. Richardson, and L. Canioni, “Beat the diffraction limit in 3D direct laser writing in photosensitive glass,” Opt. Express 17(12), 10304–10318 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. B. Fletcher, J. J. Witcher, N. Troy, S. T. Reis, R. K. Brow, and D. M. Krol, “Direct femtosecond laser waveguide writing inside zinc phosphate glass,” Opt. Express 19(9), 7929–7936 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lapointe, M. Gagne, M. J. Li, and R. Kashyap, “Making smart phones smarter with photonics,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15473–15483 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. P. Berube, S. H. Messaddeq, M. Bernier, I. Skripachev, Y. Messaddeq, and R. Vallee, “Tailoring the refractive index of Ge-S based glass for 3D embedded waveguides operating in the mid-IR region,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26103–26116 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2978–2986 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

E. Smetanina, B. Chimier, Y. Petit, N. Varkentina, E. Fargin, L. Hirsch, T. Cardinal, L. Canioni, and G. Duchateau, “Modeling of cluster organization in metal-doped oxide glasses irradiated by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 93(1), 013846 (2016).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Y. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, “Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates,” Phys. Rev. B 77(10), 104205 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

A. Abou Khalil, J.-P. Bérubé, S. Danto, J.-C. Desmoulin, T. Cardinal, Y. Petit, R. Vallée, and L. Canioni, “Direct laser writing of a new type of waveguides in silver containing glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11124 (2017).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. Withford, “Direct Laser Written Multimode Waveguides for Astronomical Applications,” in Advanced Photonics & Renewable Energy (Optical Society of America, Karlsruhe, 2010), p. JThA28.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Top View white light illumination (a.i) for type I waveguide (b.i) type A waveguide. Top view fluorescence of (a.ii) type I waveguide (b.ii) type A waveguide. Side view white light illumination of (a.iii) type I waveguide (b.iii) type A waveguide. Side view fluorescence image of (a.iv) type I waveguide (b.iv) type A waveguide. Two different morphologies were observed for each type of modification. The difference of the color of fluorescence is due to different high pass filters used in each observation.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Laser parameters for both lasers used for the writing process: (orange) T-pulse 200 laser used for the inscription of type A modification, (blue) Ti:Saphire laser used for the inscription of type I modification. (a) laser fluence (b) laser irradiance (c) calculated laser dose absorbed as a function of the writing speed.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Top view phase image of (a.i) type I waveguide, (b.i) type A waveguide. Refractive index profile of (a.ii) type I waveguide exhibiting one single positive Δn peak of 2 × 10−3, (b.ii) Type A waveguide exhibiting two positive Δn peaks of 2.3 × 10−3. DLW conditions for type I: (Ep = 0.65 μJ - v = 5 mm/s – Trep=250 kHz - NA = 0.55–160 μm below the surface), type A (Ep = 42 nJ- v = 60 μm/s -Trep =9.8 MHz - NA = 0.75 -160 μm below the surface).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Near-field mode profile following laser injection at 630 nm for (a.i) type I waveguide (b.i) type A waveguide. Normalized horizontal intensity averaged along the horizontal axis of (a.ii) type I mode profile exhibiting a FWHM of 4.5 µm (b.ii) type A mode profile. Normalized vertical intensity average along the vertical axis of (a.iii) type I mode profile exhibiting a FWHM of 5.2 µm (b.iii) type A mode profile exhibiting a FWHM of 5.2 µm. A circular mode profile exhibited by type I waveguide compared to an elliptical one for type A waveguide while exhibiting more or less the same dimensions.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Various optical path differences (OPD) profiles measured by the SID4Bio (see Experimental method section) for (a) type I waveguides (b) type A waveguides as a function of the (i) writing speed (ii) pulse energy. The type I Δn flips its sign as a function of the laser parameters whereas type A is always a positive one. The Δn values are retrieved from the OPD measured using the SID4Bio by dividing the OPD by the thickness of the waveguide.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The new suggested classification of the different types of modification/refractive index change fluence in glasses as a function of the laser fluence.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Table summarizing the parameters of the two lasers used for laser writing

Equations (3)

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Δ T = Q 0 ρ C p
Q o = E D π 3 / 2 w 2 NL z NL
E D = α ( 4 ) 9 T π ( w N L 3 ) 2 I 4 3 4 z N L

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