Abstract

We present an original experimental approach to the investigation of radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) mechanisms in optical fiber preforms. This protocol combines thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) measurements with the characterization of RIA annealing during TSL readouts. It is systematically applied to compositions of increasing complexity to resolve the specific role played by each dopant. Silicate, aluminosilicate, Yb-doped silicate, Yb-doped and Yb,Ce-codoped aluminosilicate preform samples are examined. Annealing processes are described in detail as a function of temperature throughout TSL readouts. The protocol reveals the temperature ranges at which trapped-carrier states forming intrinsic or dopant-related color centers are released, thus enabling the assessment of their activation energies. Metastable Ce2+ ions are proved to be formed by electron trapping under irradiation. Along with the formation of Ce3++, they play a crucial role in the RIA mitigation.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

8 May 2019: A typographical correction was made to the title.


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References

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2018 (4)

P.D. Dragic, M. Cavillon, and J. Ballato, “Materials for optical fiber lasers: A review,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 5(4), 041301 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Girard, A. Morana, A. Ladaci, T. Robin, L. Mescia, J.-J. Bonnefois, M. Boutilier, J. Mekki, A. Paveau, B. Cadier, E. Marin, Y. Ouerdane, and A. Boukenter, “Recent advances in radiation-hardened fiber-based technologies for space applications,” J. Opt. 20(9), 093001 (2018).
[Crossref]

U. Röpke, S. Jetschke, and M. Leich, “Linkage of photodarkening parameters to microscopic quantities in Yb-doped fiber material,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35(12), 3126–3133 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Shao, J. Ren, F. Wang, N. Ollier, F. Xie, X. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Yu, and L. Hu, “Origin of the radiation-induced darkening in Yb3+/Al3+/P5+-doped silica glasses: Effect of the P/Al ratio,” J. Phys. Chem. B 122(10), 2809–2820 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

M. R. Cicconi, D. R. Neuville, W. Blanc, J.-F. Lupi, M. Vermillac, and D. de Ligny, “Cerium/aluminium correlation in aluminosilicate glasses and optical silica fiber preforms,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 475, 85–95 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Delepine-Lesoille, S. Girard, M. Landolt, J. Bertrand, I. Planes, A. Boukenter, E. Marin, G. Humbert, S. Leparmentier, J.-L. Auguste, and Y. Ouerdane, “France’s state of the art distributed optical fibre sensors qualified for the monitoring of the French underground repository for high level and intermediate level long lived radioactive waste,” Sensors 17(6), 1377 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

2014 (2)

2013 (3)

M. Benabdesselam, F. Mady, S. Girard, Y. Mebrouk, J.-B. Duchez, M. Gaillardin, and P. Paillet, “Performance of a Ge-doped optical fiber as a thermoluminescent dosimeter,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(6), 4251–4256 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Girard, J. Kuhnhenn, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, M. Van Uffelen, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, and C. Marcandella, “Radiation effects on silica-based optical fibers: recent advances and future challenges,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 60(3), 2015–2036 (2013).
[Crossref]

D.L. Griscom, “A minireview of the natures of radiation-induced point defects in pure and doped silica glasses and their visible/near-IR absorption bands, with emphasis on self-trapped holes and how they can be controlled,” Phys. Res. Int. 2013, 1–14 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

D. L. Griscom, “Trapped-electron centers in pure and glassy silica: A review and synthesis,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(8-9), 1945–1962 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. L. Griscom, “On the natures of radiation-induced point defects in GeO2-SiO2 glasses: reevaluation of a 26-year-old ESR and optical data set,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(3), 400–412 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (7)

M.-L. Brandily-Anne, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Specific absorption spectra of cerium in multicomponent silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2337–2343 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. J. Richardson, J. Nilsson, and W. A. Clarkson, “High power fiber lasers: current status and future perspectives,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B63–B92 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. G. Carlson, K. E. Keister, P. D. Dragic, A. Croteau, and J. G. Eden, “Photoexcitation of Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers at 250 nm: evidence for excitation transfer from oxygen deficiency centers to Yb3+,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27(10), 2087–2094 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Mady, M. Benabdesselam, and W. Blanc, “Thermoluminescence characterization of traps involved in the photodarkening of ytterbium-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3541–3543 (2010).
[Crossref]

V. A. Putsovarov, V. S. Aliev, T. V. Perevalov, V. A. Gritsenko, and A. P. Eliseev, “Electronic structure of an oxygen vacancy in Al2O3 from the results of ab-initio quantum-chemical calculations and photoluminescence experiments,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 111(6), 989–995 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. N. Trukhin, A. Sharakovski, J. Grube, and D. L. Griscom, “Sub-band-gap-excited luminescence of localized states in SiO2-Si and SiO2-Al glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(20-22), 982–986 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Vaccaro and M. Cannas, “The structural disorder of a silica network probed by site selective luminescence of the nonbridging oxygen hole center,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22(23), 235801 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

A. N. Trukhin, J. Teteris, A. Fedotov, D. L. Griscom, and G. Buscarino, “Photosensitivity of SiO2-Al and SiO2-Na glasses under ArF (193 nm) laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(18-21), 1066–1074 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Engholm, P. Jelger, F. Laurell, and L. Norin, “Improved photodarkening resistivity in ytterbium-doped fiber lasers by cerium codoping,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1285–1287 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Fasoli, A. Vedda, A. Lauria, F. Moretti, E. Rizzelli, N. Chiodini, F. Meinardi, and M. Nikl, “Effect of reducing sintering atmosphere on Ce-doped sol-gel silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(18-21), 1140–1144 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Leich, U. Röpke, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, V. Reichel, and J. Kirchhof, “Non-isothermal bleaching of photodarkened Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12588–12593 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Söderlund, J. J. Montiel i Ponsoda, J. P. Koplow, and S. Honkanen, “Thermal bleaching of photodarkening-induced loss in ytterbium-doped fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2637–2639 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

M. Engholm, L. Norin, and D. Aberg, “Strong UV absorption and visible luminescence in ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate glass under UV excitation,” Opt. Lett. 32(22), 3352–3354 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. N. Trukhin, J. Troks, and D. L. Griscom, “Thermostimulated and electron spin resonance in X-ray- and photon-irradiated oxygen-deficient silica,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353(16-17), 1560–1566 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

M. Cannas, L. Vaccaro, and B. Boizot, “Spectroscopic parameters related to non-bridging oxygen hole centers in amorphous-SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(3), 203–208 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

N. Kuzuu and H. Horikoshi, “X-ray induced absorption in fused silica containing various amounts of OH,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(9), 093508 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

T. Suzuki, L. Skuja, K. Kajihara, M. Hirano, T. Kamiya, and H. Hosono, “Electronic structure of oxgen dangling bond in glassy SiO2: The role of Hyperconjugation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(18), 186404 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Dorenbos, “Systematic behavior in trivalent lanthanide charge transfer energies,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 15(49), 8417–8434 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

T. Uchino, M. Takahashi, and T. Yoko, “Formation and decay mechanisms of electron-hole pairs in amorphous SiO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(7), 1147–1149 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. Hosono, K. Kajihara, T. Suzuki, Y. Ikuta, L. Skuja, and M. Hirano, “Vaccum ultraviolet optical absorption of non-bridging oxygen hole centers in SiO2 glasses,” Solid State Commun. 122(3-4), 117–120 (2002).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

L. Skuja, “Optically active oxygen-deficiency-related centers in amorphous silicon dioxide,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 16–48 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

H. Hosono and H. Kawazoe, “Radiation-induced coloring and paramagnetic centers in synthetic SiO2:Al glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B 91(1-4), 510–514 (1994).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

R. Masut and C. M. Penchina, “Photoionization cross-section for δ-shell deep levels,” Phys. Status Solidi B 130(2), 737–742 (1985).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

K. L. Brower, “Electron paramagnetic resonance of AlE’ centers in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B 20(5), 1799–1811 (1979).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

E. J. Friebele, “Radiation-protection of fiber optic materials: effects of cerium doping on the radiation-induced absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 27(4), 210–212 (1975).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

J. S. Stroud, “Color-center kinetics in cerium-containing glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 43(7), 2442–2450 (1965).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

J. S. Stroud, “Color centers in a cerium-containing silicate glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(4), 836–841 (1962).
[Crossref]

Aberg, D.

Aliev, V. S.

V. A. Putsovarov, V. S. Aliev, T. V. Perevalov, V. A. Gritsenko, and A. P. Eliseev, “Electronic structure of an oxygen vacancy in Al2O3 from the results of ab-initio quantum-chemical calculations and photoluminescence experiments,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 111(6), 989–995 (2010).
[Crossref]

Auguste, J.-L.

S. Delepine-Lesoille, S. Girard, M. Landolt, J. Bertrand, I. Planes, A. Boukenter, E. Marin, G. Humbert, S. Leparmentier, J.-L. Auguste, and Y. Ouerdane, “France’s state of the art distributed optical fibre sensors qualified for the monitoring of the French underground repository for high level and intermediate level long lived radioactive waste,” Sensors 17(6), 1377 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ballato, J.

P.D. Dragic, M. Cavillon, and J. Ballato, “Materials for optical fiber lasers: A review,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 5(4), 041301 (2018).
[Crossref]

Benabdesselam, M.

Bertrand, J.

S. Delepine-Lesoille, S. Girard, M. Landolt, J. Bertrand, I. Planes, A. Boukenter, E. Marin, G. Humbert, S. Leparmentier, J.-L. Auguste, and Y. Ouerdane, “France’s state of the art distributed optical fibre sensors qualified for the monitoring of the French underground repository for high level and intermediate level long lived radioactive waste,” Sensors 17(6), 1377 (2017).
[Crossref]

Blanc, W.

Bobkov, K.K.

A.A. Rybaltovsky, K.K. Bobkov, V.V. Velmiskin, A.A. Umnikov, I.A. Shestakova, A.N. Guryanov, M.E. Likhachev, M.M. Bubnov, and E.M. Dianov, “The Yb-doped aluminosilicate fibers photodarkening mechanism based on the charge-transfer state excitation,” Proc. SPIE8961, 896116 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boizot, B.

M. Cannas, L. Vaccaro, and B. Boizot, “Spectroscopic parameters related to non-bridging oxygen hole centers in amorphous-SiO2,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(3), 203–208 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bonnefois, J.-J.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. RIA spectrum of the S sample after 10 kGy(SiO2) and a Gaussian decomposition attempt (peak positions and widths are indicated, with assignment).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a): TSL curve after a 10 kGy(SiO2) dose given in 15 min (right vertical axis) and TSL contour plot after a 1-h irradiation (see the grayscale and the emission wavelength in the left vertical axis), (b) detail of the TSL spectrum, integrated from 20 to 220 °C, and its Gaussian decomposition.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. RIA spectrum of the AS sample after 10 kGy(SiO2) and a Gaussian decomposition attempt (peak positions and widths are indicated, with probable assignment).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Mean TSL spectrum (between 50 and 100 °C) of the AS sample compared to that of obtained for the S sample, (b) TSL curve (right vertical scale) and TSL contour plot (grayscale) after irradiation at 10 kGy(SiO2), (c) RIA and its annealing at successive Tstop temperatures (Tstop values in plot labels), (d) Bleaching map built from (c), lines mark the centers of the RIA bands used in Fig. 3.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Attenuation spectrum of the S:Yb sample before irradiation, after irradiation at
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) TSL spectra of the S:Yb sample at 30, 140 and 280 °C. Inset: comparison of the 30°C spectrum (in black) with the usual emission cross-section of Yb3+ ions (in red) and the emission of the CT relaxation (in blue) reproduced from [36], (b) NIR TSL curve (right vertical scale), VIS TSL curve (acquired with PMT, renormalized), and TSL contour plot (grayscale) after a 10 kGy(SiO2) dose, (c) RIA and its annealing at successive Tstop temperatures (in plot labels), (d) Bleaching map built from (c), lines mark the centers of the bands used in Fig. 5.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Attenuation spectrum of the AS:Yb sample before and after irradiation and the corresponding RIA spectrum. The renormalized RIA spectrum of the S:Yb sample is shown for comparison. (b) Detail of the RIA in the 1-1.5 eV range showing the absorption loss at 976 nm. (c) Comparison between RIA of the AS:Yb and AS samples (the AS RIA is renormalized with respect to that of AS:Yb at 2.3 eV).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) NIR TSL curve (right vertical scale), VIS TSL curve (acquired with PMT, renormalized), and TSL contour plot (grayscale) of the AS:Yb sample after irradiation at 10 kGy(SiO2), (b) Bleaching map (black lines locate the main OA band centers)
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Attenuation spectrum of the AS:Yb,Ce sample before and after irradiation and the corresponding RIA spectrum. (b) Comparison between RIA spectra of the AS:Yb,Ce and AS:Yb samples. The latter is renormalized at the same maximum, in the spectral range of the main OA band of Yb2+ ions (3.4 eV).
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) TSL spectra of the AS:Yb,Ce sample at 30, 140 and 280 °C, (b) TSL contour plot (grayscale), NIR TSL curve and VIS TSL curve acquired with PMT (right vertical scale) after a 15-min irradiation at 10 kGy(SiO2), (c) TSL spectrum averaged between 100 and 150 °C, inset: detail of the VIS TSL spectrum compared to the ones of the S and AS samples, (d) Bleaching map (lines mark the main centers of some important RIA bands).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Names, compositions, thickness e and dopant concentrations of the preform samples used in this work (dopant contents in wt%, determined from Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectrometry measurements)