Abstract

We demonstrate tunable green lasing from a bromide-based organic-inorganic perovskite thin-film. The optical feedback required for laser emission is provided by a circular grating that forms a disk Bragg resonator inside a spin-coated 200 nm thin-film of methylammonium lead tri-bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3). As the emission spectrum below as well as above the lasing threshold is reasonably affected by the Bragg grating resonance, it becomes possible to engineer and thus tune the emission between 541 and 552 nm. Our study incorporates the influence of the temperature on both the linear optical properties as well as the emission.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (8)

J. Luo, X. Wang, S. Li, J. Liu, Y. Guo, G. Niu, L. Yao, Y. Fu, L. Gao, Q. Dong, C. Zhao, M. Leng, F. Ma, W. Liang, L. Wang, S. Jin, J. Han, L. Zhang, J. Etheridge, J. Wang, Y. Yan, E. H. Sargent, and J. Tang, “Efficient and stable emission of warm-white light from lead-free halide double perovskites,” Nature 563(7732), 541–545 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Xing, Y. Zhao, M. Askerka, L. N. Quan, X. Gong, W. Zhao, J. Zhao, H. Tan, G. Long, L. Gao, Z. Yang, O. Voznyy, J. Tang, Z. H. Lu, Q. Xiong, and E. H. Sargent, “Color-stable highly luminescent sky-blue perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1–8 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, J. Moon, A. Gharajeh, R. Haroldson, R. Hawkins, W. Hu, A. Zakhidov, and Q. Gu, “Room-Temperature Continuous-Wave Operation of Organometal Halide Perovskite Lasers,” ACS Nano 12(11), 10968–10976 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Pourdavoud, A. Mayer, M. Buchmüller, K. Brinkmann, T. Häger, T. Hu, R. Heiderhoff, I. Shutsko, P. Görrn, Y. Chen, H. C. Scheer, and T. Riedl, “Distributed Feedback Lasers Based on MAPbBr3,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 3(4), 1700253 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Kim, L. Zhao, J. S. Price, A. J. Grede, K. Roh, A. N. Brigeman, M. Lopez, B. P. Rand, and N. C. Giebink, “Hybrid perovskite light emitting diodes under intense electrical excitation,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4893 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, H. Lu, Y. Yang, and M. C. Beard, “Excitonic Effects in Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskites,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9(10), 2595–2603 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Mathies, P. Brenner, G. Hernandez-Sosa, I. A. Howard, U. W. Paetzold, and U. Lemmer, “Inkjet-printed perovskite distributed feedback lasers,” Opt. Express 26(2), A144–A152 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Linnenbank, M. Saliba, L. Gui, B. Metzger, S. G. Tikhodeev, J. Kadro, G. Nasti, A. Abate, A. Hagfeldt, M. Graetzel, and H. Giessen, “Temperature dependent two-photon photoluminescence of CH3NH3PbBr3: structural phase and exciton to free carrier transition,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(3), 511 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

P. J. Cegielski, S. Neutzner, C. Porschatis, H. Lerch, J. Bolten, S. Suckow, A. R. S. Kandada, B. Chmielak, A. Petrozza, T. Wahlbrink, and A. L. Giesecke, “Integrated perovskite lasers on a silicon nitride waveguide platform by cost-effective high throughput fabrication,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13199 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Gong, Y. Wang, S. Liu, P. Zeng, X. Yang, R. Liang, Q. Ou, X. Wu, and S. Zhang, “All-inorganic perovskite-based distributed feedback resonator,” Opt. Express 25(24), A1154–A1161 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wolf, J. S. Kim, and T. W. Lee, “Structural and Thermal Disorder of Solution-Processed CH3NH3PbBr3 Hybrid Perovskite Thin Films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(12), 10344–10348 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Gholipour, A. M. Ali, F. Tajabadi, W. Tress, N. Taghavinia, M. Grätzel, A. Abate, F. De Angelis, C. A. Gaggioli, E. Mosconi, A. Hagfeldt, and M. Saliba, “Globularity-Selected Large Molecules for a New Generation of Multication Perovskites,” Adv. Mater. 29(38), 1702005 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. R. Harwell, G. L. Whitworth, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Green Perovskite Distributed Feedback Lasers,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 11727 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. R. Leyden, L. Meng, Y. Jiang, L. K. Ono, L. Qiu, E. J. Juarez-Perez, C. Qin, C. Adachi, and Y. Qi, “Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes by Chemical Vapor Deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8(14), 3193–3198 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. X. Tao, X. Cao, and P. A. Bobbert, “Accurate and efficient band gap predictions of metal halide perovskites using the DFT-1/2 method: GW accuracy with DFT expense,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

N. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Ge, S. Zhang, Y. Miao, W. Zou, C. Yi, Y. Sun, Y. Cao, R. Yang, Y. Wei, Q. Guo, Y. Ke, M. Yu, Y. Jin, Y. Liu, Q. Ding, D. Di, L. Yang, G. Xing, H. Tian, C. Jin, F. Gao, R. H. Friend, J. Wang, and W. Huang, “Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on solution-processed self-organized multiple quantum wells,” Nat. Photonics 10(11), 699–704 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Saliba, S. M. Wood, J. B. Patel, P. K. Nayak, J. Huang, J. A. Alexander-Webber, B. Wenger, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Hörantner, J. T. W. Wang, R. J. Nicholas, L. M. Herz, M. B. Johnston, S. M. Morris, H. J. Snaith, and M. K. Riede, “Structured Organic-Inorganic Perovskite toward a Distributed Feedback Laser,” Adv. Mater. 28(5), 923–929 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. S. Alias, I. Dursun, M. I. Saidaminov, E. M. Diallo, P. Mishra, T. K. Ng, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “Optical constants of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Opt. Express 24(15), 16586 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

G. Niu, X. Guo, and L. Wang, “Review of recent progress in chemical stability of perovskite solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A 3(17), 8970–8980 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, G. De Luca, M. Fiebig, W. Heiss, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8056 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Priante, I. Dursun, M. S. Alias, D. Shi, V. A. Melnikov, T. K. Ng, O. F. Mohammed, O. M. Bakr, and B. S. Ooi, “The recombination mechanisms leading to amplified spontaneous emission at the true-green wavelength in CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(8), 081902 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. M. Soufiani, F. Huang, P. Reece, R. Sheng, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Polaronic exciton binding energy in iodide and bromide organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(23), 231902 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Sadhanala, S. Ahmad, B. Zhao, N. Giesbrecht, P. M. Pearce, F. Deschler, R. L. Z. Hoye, K. C. Gödel, T. Bein, P. Docampo, S. E. Dutton, M. F. L. De Volder, and R. H. Friend, “Blue-Green Color Tunable Solution Processable Organolead Chloride-Bromide Mixed Halide Perovskites for Optoelectronic Applications,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6095–6101 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X.-Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

B. R. Sutherland, S. Hoogland, M. M. Adachi, C. T. O. Wong, and E. H. Sargent, “Conformal organohalide perovskites enable lasing on spherical resonators,” ACS Nano 8(10), 10947–10952 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, X. Liu, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Room-Temperature Near-Infrared High - Q Perovskite Whispering- Gallery Planar Nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5995–6001 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Deschler, M. Price, S. Pathak, L. E. Klintberg, D. D. Jarausch, R. Higler, S. Hüttner, T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, H. J. Snaith, M. Atatüre, R. T. Phillips, and R. H. Friend, “High photoluminescence efficiency and optically pumped lasing in solution-processed mixed halide perovskite semiconductors,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(8), 1421–1426 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. De Wolf, J. Holovsky, S. J. Moon, P. Löper, B. Niesen, M. Ledinsky, F. J. Haug, J. H. Yum, and C. Ballif, “Organometallic halide perovskites: Sharp optical absorption edge and its relation to photovoltaic performance,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(6), 1035–1039 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Leijtens, S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, R. Lindblad, E. M. J. Johansson, I. J. McPherson, H. Rensmo, J. M. Ball, M. M. Lee, and H. J. Snaith, “Electronic properties of meso-superstructured and planar organometal halide perovskite films: Charge trapping, photodoping, and carrier mobility,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7147–7155 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Saliba, K. W. Tan, H. Sai, D. T. Moore, T. Scott, W. Zhang, L. A. Estroff, U. Wiesner, and H. J. Snaith, “Influence of thermal processing protocol upon the crystallization and photovoltaic performance of organic-inorganic lead trihalide perovskites,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(30), 17171–17177 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2009 (2)

X. Sun and A. Yariv, “Surface-emitting circular DFB, disk-, and ring-Bragg resonator lasers with chirped gratings. II: nonuniform pumping and far-field patterns,” Opt. Express 17(1), 1–6 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Miyasaka, A. Kojima, K. Teshima, and Y. Shirai, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

N. Moll, R. F. Mahrt, C. Bauer, H. Giessen, B. Schnabel, E. B. Kley, and U. Scherf, “Evidence for bandedge lasing in a two-dimensional photonic bandgap polymer laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(5), 734–736 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Kitazawa, Y. Watanabe, and Y. Nakamura, “Optical properties of CH3NH3PbX3 (X = halogen) and their mixed-halide crystals,” J. Mater. Sci. 37(17), 3585–3587 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

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J. Xing, Y. Zhao, M. Askerka, L. N. Quan, X. Gong, W. Zhao, J. Zhao, H. Tan, G. Long, L. Gao, Z. Yang, O. Voznyy, J. Tang, Z. H. Lu, Q. Xiong, and E. H. Sargent, “Color-stable highly luminescent sky-blue perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1–8 (2018).
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J. Xing, Y. Zhao, M. Askerka, L. N. Quan, X. Gong, W. Zhao, J. Zhao, H. Tan, G. Long, L. Gao, Z. Yang, O. Voznyy, J. Tang, Z. H. Lu, Q. Xiong, and E. H. Sargent, “Color-stable highly luminescent sky-blue perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1–8 (2018).
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Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, X. Liu, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Room-Temperature Near-Infrared High - Q Perovskite Whispering- Gallery Planar Nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5995–6001 (2014).
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S. Yakunin, L. Protesescu, F. Krieg, M. I. Bodnarchuk, G. Nedelcu, M. Humer, G. De Luca, M. Fiebig, W. Heiss, and M. V. Kovalenko, “Low-threshold amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from colloidal nanocrystals of caesium lead halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 8056 (2015).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) SEM image showing the circular grating surrounding the flat central disc. (b) FIB cut of the grating visualizing its dimensions. (c) Microscope image of a circular DFB structure spin-coated with CH3NH3PbBr3. (d) AFM image of a spin-coated grating surrounding the central disk, whereas the marked square is enlarged in figure (e).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) (colored, right axis) Emission spectra for different pump densities normalized to their individual maximal value along with the linear transmission spectrum (black, left axis) of the DFB grating. b) Same spectra as in (a) plotted in a logarithmic scale. (c) Peak intensity of the emission as function of the pump density for a grating period of 271 nm at 5 K. (d) FWHM of the emission plotted as a function of the pump density.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Normalized peak intensity plotted for different polarization angles to compare the emission from photoluminescence (black), structure with a pump power below threshold (red) and above threshold (red). (b) Measured spectra without a polarization filter.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) The transmission spectra of different grating periods at 5 K normalized to an unstructured part of the perovskite thin-film. (b) Laser emission from the different gratings at 5 K at a pump density of 6.5 µJ cm-2.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Center wavelength of the grating resonance as a function of temperature for the different grating periods. (b) Wavelength of the laser emission over temperature for different periods.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Emission spectra for 281 nm grating period at different temperatures close to the threshold pump density. (b) The same spectra normalized to each maximal value.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Threshold density as a function of temperature for different grating periods.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Linear and logarithmic spectra for (a) 261 nm, (b) 271 nm and (c) 281 nm grating period at 5 K at different excitation densities.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Linear and logarithmic spectra for (a) 271 nm, (b) 276 nm and (c) 281 nm grating period at 75 K at different excitation densities.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Linear and logarithmic spectra for (a) 271 nm and (b) 281 nm grating period at 150 K at different excitation densities.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Linear and logarithmic spectra for 281 nm grating period at 225 K at different excitation densities.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Linear and logarithmic spectra from the photoluminescence measured from an unstructured part of the fabricated sample at a temperature of 75 K at different excitation densities.

Equations (1)

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λBragg=2Λneffm

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