Abstract

The valley degree of freedom possessed by electronic excitations in transition metal dichalcogenides is providing new opportunities for information processing and optoelectronics. Valley contrasting polarization selection rules present unique opportunities for optical control in valleytronic devices. Critical to devices leveraging the valley degree of freedom is the ability to tailor optical valley polarizability and its degree of coherence. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the electric field control of both valley polarization and valley coherence in a monolayer of tungsten diselenide that has been incorporated into a van der Waals heterostructure. We find the competition between electron-hole exchange, radiative decay and pure dephasing determines the ability to control valley polarization and coherence of both excitons and trions.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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  7. K. He, N. Kumar, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, K. F. Mak, H. Zhao, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 026803 (2014).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. C. Chakraborty, L. Qiu, K. Konthasinghe, A. Mukherjee, S. Dhara, and N. Vamivakas, “3d Localized Trions in Monolayer WSe2 in a Charge Tunable van der Waals Heterostructure,” Nano Lett. 18, 2859–2863 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. J. Klein, J. Wierzbowski, A. Regler, J. Becker, F. Heimbach, K. Müller, M. Kaniber, and J. J. Finley, “Stark Effect Spectroscopy of Mono- and Few-Layer MoS2,” Nano Lett. 16, 1554–1559 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoglu, “Valley Zeeman effect in elementary optical excitations of monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Phys. 11, 141–147 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. G. Aivazian, Z. Gong, A. M. Jones, R.-L. Chu, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, C. Zhang, D. Cobden, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Magnetic control of valley pseudospin in monolayer WSe 2,” Nat. Phys. 11, 148–152 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. Z. Maialle, E. A. de Andrada e Silva, and L. J. Sham, “Exciton spin dynamics in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 15776–15788 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  34. A. Balocchi, Q. H. Duong, P. Renucci, B. L. Liu, C. Fontaine, T. Amand, D. Lagarde, and X. Marie, “Full Electrical Control of the Electron Spin Relaxation in GaAs Quantum Wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 136604 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. W. Yang, J. Shang, J. Wang, X. Shen, B. Cao, N. Peimyoo, C. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, C. Cong, W. Huang, and T. Yu, “Electrically Tunable Valley-Light Emitting Diode (vLED) Based on CVD-Grown Monolayer WS  2,” Nano Lett. 16, 1560–1567 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. K. F. Mak, K. He, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS 2 by optical helicity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 494–498 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. G. Wang, X. Marie, B. Liu, T. Amand, C. Robert, F. Cadiz, P. Renucci, and B. Urbaszek, “Control of Exciton Valley Coherence in Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 187401 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  38. K. Hao, G. Moody, F. Wu, C. K. Dass, L. Xu, C.-H. Chen, L. Sun, M.-Y. Li, L.-J. Li, A. H. MacDonald, and X. Li, “Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe 2,” Nat. Phys. 12, 677–682 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  39. K. Hao, L. Xu, F. Wu, P. Nagler, K. Tran, X. Ma, C. Schüller, T. Korn, A. H. MacDonald, G. Moody, and X. Li, “Trion valley coherence in monolayer semiconductors,” 2D Mater. 4, 025105 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. H. Yu, X. Cui, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors,” Nat. Sci. Rev. 2, 57–70 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  41. A. Singh, K. Tran, M. Kolarczik, J. Seifert, Y. Wang, K. Hao, D. Pleskot, N. M. Gabor, S. Helmrich, N. Owschimikow, U. Woggon, and X. Li, “Long-Lived Valley Polarization of Intravalley Trions in Monolayer WSe 2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 257402 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2018 (4)

C. Chakraborty, L. Qiu, K. Konthasinghe, A. Mukherjee, S. Dhara, and N. Vamivakas, “3d Localized Trions in Monolayer WSe2 in a Charge Tunable van der Waals Heterostructure,” Nano Lett. 18, 2859–2863 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Roch, N. Leisgang, G. Froehlicher, P. Makk, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, C. Schönenberger, and R. J. Warburton, “Quantum-Confined Stark Effect in a MoS  2 Monolayer van der Waals Heterostructure,” Nano Lett. 18, 1070–1074 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Dhara, C. Chakraborty, K. M. Goodfellow, L. Qiu, T. A. Oloughlin, G. W. Wicks, S. Bhattacharjee, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Anomalous dispersion of microcavity trion-polaritons,” Nat. Phys. 14, 130–133 (2018).
[Crossref]

W.-B. Shi, L. Zhang, D. Wang, R.-L. Zhang, Y. Zhu, L.-H. Zhang, R. Peng, W. Bao, R.-H. Fan, and M. Wang, “Hybrid coupling enhances photoluminescence of monolayer MoS 2 on plasmonic nanostructures,” Opt. Lett. 43, 4128–4131(2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

K. Hao, L. Xu, F. Wu, P. Nagler, K. Tran, X. Ma, C. Schüller, T. Korn, A. H. MacDonald, G. Moody, and X. Li, “Trion valley coherence in monolayer semiconductors,” 2D Mater. 4, 025105 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Chakraborty, K. M. Goodfellow, S. Dhara, A. Yoshimura, V. Meunier, and N. Vamivakas, “Quantum-confined Stark effect of individual defects in a van der Waals heterostructure,” Nano Lett. 17, 2253–2258 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. Zhao, K. F. Mak, and J. Shan, “Probing the Spin-Polarized Electronic Band Structure in Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides by Optical Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 17, 740–746 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (11)

C. Palacios-Berraquero, M. Barbone, D. M. Kara, X. Chen, I. Goykhman, D. Yoon, A. K. Ott, J. Beitner, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Atatüre, “Atomically thin quantum light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Commun. 7, 12978 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ye, J. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. Ye, H. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Electrical generation and control of the valley carriers in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 598–602 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Schaibley, H. Yu, G. Clark, P. Rivera, J. S. Ross, K. L. Seyler, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Valleytronics in 2d materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 16055 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Rivera, K. L. Seyler, H. Yu, J. R. Schaibley, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Valley-polarized exciton dynamics in a 2d semiconductor heterostructure,” Science 351, 688–691 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Klein, J. Wierzbowski, A. Regler, J. Becker, F. Heimbach, K. Müller, M. Kaniber, and J. J. Finley, “Stark Effect Spectroscopy of Mono- and Few-Layer MoS2,” Nano Lett. 16, 1554–1559 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Singh, K. Tran, M. Kolarczik, J. Seifert, Y. Wang, K. Hao, D. Pleskot, N. M. Gabor, S. Helmrich, N. Owschimikow, U. Woggon, and X. Li, “Long-Lived Valley Polarization of Intravalley Trions in Monolayer WSe 2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 257402 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, J. Shang, J. Wang, X. Shen, B. Cao, N. Peimyoo, C. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, C. Cong, W. Huang, and T. Yu, “Electrically Tunable Valley-Light Emitting Diode (vLED) Based on CVD-Grown Monolayer WS  2,” Nano Lett. 16, 1560–1567 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wang, X. Marie, B. Liu, T. Amand, C. Robert, F. Cadiz, P. Renucci, and B. Urbaszek, “Control of Exciton Valley Coherence in Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Monolayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 187401 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Hao, G. Moody, F. Wu, C. K. Dass, L. Xu, C.-H. Chen, L. Sun, M.-Y. Li, L.-J. Li, A. H. MacDonald, and X. Li, “Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe 2,” Nat. Phys. 12, 677–682 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Branny, G. Wang, S. Kumar, C. Robert, B. Lassagne, X. Marie, B. D. Gerardot, and B. Urbaszek, “Discrete quantum dot like emitters in monolayer MoSe2: Spatial mapping, magneto-optics, and charge tuning,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 142101 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Chakraborty, K. M. Goodfellow, and A. Nick Vamivakas, “Localized emission from defects in MoSe_2 layers,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 2081 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (9)

C. Chakraborty, L. Kinnischtzke, K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Voltage-controlled quantum light from an atomically thin semiconductor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 507–511 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tonndorf, R. Schmidt, R. Schneider, J. Kern, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, A. Castellanos-Gomez, H. S. J. van der Zant, S. Michaelis de Vasconcellos, and R. Bratschitsch, “Single-photon emission from localized excitons in an atomically thin semiconductor,” Optica 2, 347 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoglu, “Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe 2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 491–496 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Goodfellow, C. Chakraborty, R. Beams, L. Novotny, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Direct On-Chip Optical Plasmon Detection with an Atomically Thin Semiconductor,” Nano Lett. 15, 5477–5481 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, X. Cui, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors,” Nat. Sci. Rev. 2, 57–70 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoglu, “Valley Zeeman effect in elementary optical excitations of monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Phys. 11, 141–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Aivazian, Z. Gong, A. M. Jones, R.-L. Chu, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, C. Zhang, D. Cobden, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Magnetic control of valley pseudospin in monolayer WSe 2,” Nat. Phys. 11, 148–152 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Withers, O. Del Pozo-Zamudio, A. Mishchenko, A. Rooney, A. Gholinia, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, S. Haigh, A. Geim, A. Tartakovskii, and K. Novoselov, “Light-emitting diodes by band-structure engineering in van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Mater. 14, 301–306 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

B. Zhu, H. Zeng, J. Dai, Z. Gong, and X. Cui, “Anomalously robust valley polarization and valley coherence in bilayer WS2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 111, 11606–11611 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Zhang, T. Oka, R. Suzuki, J. T. Ye, and Y. Iwasa, “Electrically Switchable Chiral Light-Emitting Transistor,” Science 344, 725–728 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, R. Molenaar, V. Singh, L. Janssen, H. S. J. v. d. Zant, and G. A. Steele, “Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping,” 2D Mater. 1, 011002 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. He, N. Kumar, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, K. F. Mak, H. Zhao, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 026803 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Chernikov, T. C. Berkelbach, H. M. Hill, A. Rigosi, Y. Li, O. B. Aslan, D. R. Reichman, M. S. Hybertsen, and T. F. Heinz, “Exciton Binding Energy and Nonhydrogenic Rydberg Series in Monolayer WS 2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113076802 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Chakraborty, R. Beams, K. M. Goodfellow, G. W. Wicks, L. Novotny, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Optical antenna enhanced graphene photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 241114 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. M. Goodfellow, R. Beams, C. Chakraborty, L. Novotny, and A. N. Vamivakas, “Integrated nanophotonics based on nanowire plasmons and atomically thin material,” Optica 1, 149 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Geim and I. V. Grigorieva, “Van der Waals heterostructures,” Nature 499, 419–425 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wu, J. S. Ross, G.-B. Liu, G. Aivazian, A. Jones, Z. Fei, W. Zhu, D. Xiao, W. Yao, D. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Electrical tuning of valley magnetic moment through symmetry control in bilayer MoS2,” Nat. Phys. 9, 149–153 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, K. He, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Control of valley polarization in monolayer MoS 2 by optical helicity,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7, 494–498 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

A. Balocchi, Q. H. Duong, P. Renucci, B. L. Liu, C. Fontaine, T. Amand, D. Lagarde, and X. Marie, “Full Electrical Control of the Electron Spin Relaxation in GaAs Quantum Wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 136604 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

M. Z. Maialle, E. A. de Andrada e Silva, and L. J. Sham, “Exciton spin dynamics in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 15776–15788 (1993).
[Crossref]

Aivazian, G.

G. Aivazian, Z. Gong, A. M. Jones, R.-L. Chu, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, C. Zhang, D. Cobden, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Magnetic control of valley pseudospin in monolayer WSe 2,” Nat. Phys. 11, 148–152 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wu, J. S. Ross, G.-B. Liu, G. Aivazian, A. Jones, Z. Fei, W. Zhu, D. Xiao, W. Yao, D. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Electrical tuning of valley magnetic moment through symmetry control in bilayer MoS2,” Nat. Phys. 9, 149–153 (2013).
[Crossref]

Allain, A. V.

A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoglu, “Valley Zeeman effect in elementary optical excitations of monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Phys. 11, 141–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Srivastava, M. Sidler, A. V. Allain, D. S. Lembke, A. Kis, and A. Imamoglu, “Optically active quantum dots in monolayer WSe 2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 491–496 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. R. Schaibley, H. Yu, G. Clark, P. Rivera, J. S. Ross, K. L. Seyler, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Valleytronics in 2d materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 16055 (2016).
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A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wu, J. S. Ross, G.-B. Liu, G. Aivazian, A. Jones, Z. Fei, W. Zhu, D. Xiao, W. Yao, D. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Electrical tuning of valley magnetic moment through symmetry control in bilayer MoS2,” Nat. Phys. 9, 149–153 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, J.

P. Rivera, K. L. Seyler, H. Yu, J. R. Schaibley, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Valley-polarized exciton dynamics in a 2d semiconductor heterostructure,” Science 351, 688–691 (2016).
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G. Aivazian, Z. Gong, A. M. Jones, R.-L. Chu, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, C. Zhang, D. Cobden, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Magnetic control of valley pseudospin in monolayer WSe 2,” Nat. Phys. 11, 148–152 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

W. Yang, J. Shang, J. Wang, X. Shen, B. Cao, N. Peimyoo, C. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, C. Cong, W. Huang, and T. Yu, “Electrically Tunable Valley-Light Emitting Diode (vLED) Based on CVD-Grown Monolayer WS  2,” Nano Lett. 16, 1560–1567 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, W.

P. Rivera, K. L. Seyler, H. Yu, J. R. Schaibley, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Valley-polarized exciton dynamics in a 2d semiconductor heterostructure,” Science 351, 688–691 (2016).
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J. R. Schaibley, H. Yu, G. Clark, P. Rivera, J. S. Ross, K. L. Seyler, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Valleytronics in 2d materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 16055 (2016).
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G. Aivazian, Z. Gong, A. M. Jones, R.-L. Chu, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, C. Zhang, D. Cobden, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Magnetic control of valley pseudospin in monolayer WSe 2,” Nat. Phys. 11, 148–152 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, X. Cui, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors,” Nat. Sci. Rev. 2, 57–70 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
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S. Wu, J. S. Ross, G.-B. Liu, G. Aivazian, A. Jones, Z. Fei, W. Zhu, D. Xiao, W. Yao, D. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Electrical tuning of valley magnetic moment through symmetry control in bilayer MoS2,” Nat. Phys. 9, 149–153 (2013).
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Ye, J. T.

Y. J. Zhang, T. Oka, R. Suzuki, J. T. Ye, and Y. Iwasa, “Electrically Switchable Chiral Light-Emitting Transistor,” Science 344, 725–728 (2014).
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Y. Ye, J. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. Ye, H. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Electrical generation and control of the valley carriers in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 598–602 (2016).
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Y. Ye, J. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. Ye, H. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Electrical generation and control of the valley carriers in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 598–602 (2016).
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C. Chakraborty, K. M. Goodfellow, S. Dhara, A. Yoshimura, V. Meunier, and N. Vamivakas, “Quantum-confined Stark effect of individual defects in a van der Waals heterostructure,” Nano Lett. 17, 2253–2258 (2017).
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P. Rivera, K. L. Seyler, H. Yu, J. R. Schaibley, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Valley-polarized exciton dynamics in a 2d semiconductor heterostructure,” Science 351, 688–691 (2016).
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J. R. Schaibley, H. Yu, G. Clark, P. Rivera, J. S. Ross, K. L. Seyler, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Valleytronics in 2d materials,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 1, 16055 (2016).
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H. Yu, X. Cui, X. Xu, and W. Yao, “Valley excitons in two-dimensional semiconductors,” Nat. Sci. Rev. 2, 57–70 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
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W. Yang, J. Shang, J. Wang, X. Shen, B. Cao, N. Peimyoo, C. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, C. Cong, W. Huang, and T. Yu, “Electrically Tunable Valley-Light Emitting Diode (vLED) Based on CVD-Grown Monolayer WS  2,” Nano Lett. 16, 1560–1567 (2016).
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Zhang, L.-H.

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Y.-M. He, G. Clark, J. R. Schaibley, Y. He, M.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Wei, X. Ding, Q. Zhang, W. Yao, X. Xu, C.-Y. Lu, and J.-W. Pan, “Single quantum emitters in monolayer semiconductors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10, 497–502 (2015).
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Y. Ye, J. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. Ye, H. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Electrical generation and control of the valley carriers in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 598–602 (2016).
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Y. J. Zhang, T. Oka, R. Suzuki, J. T. Ye, and Y. Iwasa, “Electrically Switchable Chiral Light-Emitting Transistor,” Science 344, 725–728 (2014).
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Zhao, B.

A. M. Jones, H. Yu, N. J. Ghimire, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, J. S. Ross, B. Zhao, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, D. Xiao, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Optical generation of excitonic valley coherence in monolayer WSe2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 634–638 (2013).
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K. He, N. Kumar, L. Zhao, Z. Wang, K. F. Mak, H. Zhao, and J. Shan, “Tightly bound excitons in monolayer WSe2,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 026803 (2014).
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Y. Ye, J. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. Ye, H. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Electrical generation and control of the valley carriers in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 598–602 (2016).
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Y. Ye, J. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. Ye, H. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Electrical generation and control of the valley carriers in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 598–602 (2016).
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B. Zhu, H. Zeng, J. Dai, Z. Gong, and X. Cui, “Anomalously robust valley polarization and valley coherence in bilayer WS2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 111, 11606–11611 (2014).
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Y. Ye, J. Xiao, H. Wang, Z. Ye, H. Zhu, M. Zhao, Y. Wang, J. Zhao, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Electrical generation and control of the valley carriers in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11, 598–602 (2016).
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W. Yang, J. Shang, J. Wang, X. Shen, B. Cao, N. Peimyoo, C. Zou, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, C. Cong, W. Huang, and T. Yu, “Electrically Tunable Valley-Light Emitting Diode (vLED) Based on CVD-Grown Monolayer WS  2,” Nano Lett. 16, 1560–1567 (2016).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the van der Waals heterostructure used to form a vertical field effect diode. Inset: Band diagram of the monolayer under a vertically applied electric field. (b) Voltage controlled PL spectra. The neutral exciton X   0 and negative charged exciton, the trion, X   1 are indicated.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Energy and (b) PL intensity of the neutral exciton (X   0 ) and trion (X   ) as a function of voltage extracted by peak fitting from Fig. 1(b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Circular polarization resolved PL spectra at 0V. Black (Gray) curve is co-(cross-) polarized PL signal. Excitation is σ + polarized. (b) Exciton and trion degree of circular polarization (DoCP) as a function of voltage. (c) Illustration depicting valley depolarization due to the electron-hole exchange interaction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)-(b) Linear polarization resolved PL spectra at -8V and 8V respectively. Black (Grey) curve is co-(cross-) polarized signal with respect to the vertically polarized excitation laser. (c) DoLP as a function of voltage for the neutral exciton peak for H (solid blue triangle) and V (empty triangle) polarized excitation. (d) DoLP as a function of voltage for the trion peak for H (solid red triangle) and V (empty triangle) polarized excitation. (e) Illustration of the coherent superposition of thetwo valleys with no change in relative phase for the neutral exciton upon excitation with linearly polarized light (f) Illustration of an intervalley and intravalley trion with electron-hole (eh) and electron-electron (ee) exchange interactions. Linear excitation will also generate the time reversal partners.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E = E 0 μ F α F 2
D o C P = I + I I + + I × 100 = 1 1 + 2 ( γ v / γ )
D o L P = I H I V I H + I V × 100 1 1 + 2 ( γ v + γ d e p ) / γ
D o L P γ X γ d e p X

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