Abstract

Tm3+-doped fluorophosphate glasses with varying Ba(PO3)2 content were prepared by the melt quenching technique and their thermal and optical properties were investigated by studying differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectra, fluorescence spectra, decay curves, transmission and absorption spectra. The Judd-Ofelt theory was applied to calculate the intensity parameters of the resultant glass. The glass forming criterion was obtained to be 146 °C. The gain coefficient and fluorescence lifetime of Tm3+-doped fluorophosphate glass with 20 mol% Ba(PO3)2 were 3.045 × 10−21 cm2 × ms and 0.406 ms, respectively, which are the highest value among the fluorophosphate glasses with similar components to the best of our knowledge. These results clearly indicate that the prepared fluorophosphate glass is an attractive candidate for 2 μm lasers and as a gain media for optical amplifier applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, S. Xu, X. Li, J. Zhang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, H. Xia, and R. Hua, “A universal approach for calculating the Judd-Ofelt parameters of RE3+ in powdered phosphors and its application for the β-NaYF4:Er3+/Yb3+ phosphor derived from auto-combustion-assisted fluoridation,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20(23), 15876–15883 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sui, B. Chen, J. Zhang, X. Li, S. Xu, J. Sun, Y. Zhang, L. Tong, X. Luo, and H. Xia, “Examination of Judd-Ofelt calculation and temperature self-reading for Tm3+ and Tm3+/Yb3+ doped LiYF4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 198, 77–83 (2018).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

X. Wen, G. Tang, Q. Yang, X. Chen, Q. Qian, Q. Zhang, and Z. Yang, “Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 μm laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20344 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

K. Linganna, K. Suresh, S. Ju, W. T. Han, C. K. Jayasankar, and V. Venkatramu, “Optical properties of Er3+-doped K-Ca-Al fluorophosphate glasses for optical amplification at 1.53 μm,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(8), 1689–1703 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Wei, Y. Tian, F. Chen, M. Cai, J. Zhang, X. Jing, F. Wang, Q. Zhang, and S. Xu, “Mid-infrared fluorescence, energy transfer process and rate equation analysis in Er3+ doped germanate glass,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6060 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Li, C. Tian, Y. Tian, T. Wei, B. Li, X. Jing, F. Ruan, and F. Wang, “Mid-infrared emission properties and energy transfer evaluation in Tm3+-doped fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Lumin. 162, 58–62 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

X. Wang, K. Li, C. Yu, D. Chen, and L. Hu, “Effect of Tm2O3 concentration and hydroxyl content on the emission properties of Tm3+-doped silicate glasses,” J. Lumin. 147(3), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, X. Wang, L. Wang, P. Kuan, M. Li, W. Li, X. Fan, K. Li, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Realization of 2 μm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125, 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

T. Feng, F. P. Yan, Q. Li, W. J. Peng, S. Y. Tan, S. C. Feng, P. Liu, and X. D. Wen, “A stable wavelength-tunable single frequency and single polarization linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 23(2), 025101 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Wang, X. Meng, F. Yin, Y. Feng, G. Qin, and W. Qin, “Heavily erbium-doped low-hydroxyl fluorotellurite glasses for 2.7 μm laser applications,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(8), 1127–1136 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. X. Cao, H. F. Hu, and F. X. Gan, “Study on the Optical Properties of Fluorophosphate Glass,” Journal of Zhengzhou University 34(4), 90–93 (2013).

J. Yuan, S. X. Shen, W. C. Wang, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Enhanced 2.0 μm emission from Ho3+ bridged by Yb3+ in Nd3+/Yb3+/Ho3+ triply doped tungsten tellurite glasses for a diode-pump 2.0 μm laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(13), 133506 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

Y. Zheng, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, “Optical transition, excitation state absorption, and energy transfer study of Er3+, Nd3+ single doped, and Er3+/Nd3+ codoped tellurite glasses for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(6), 1766–1772 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zheng, B. Chen, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, L. I. Xiangping, and L. Huang, “Composition-dependent optical transitions and 2.0 μm emission properties of Ho3+ in xGeO2-(80–x)TeO2-9.5ZnF2-10NaF-0.5Ho2O3 glasses,” J. Rare Earths 29(10), 924–928 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Zhang, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Infrared luminescence of Tm3+/Yb3+codoped lanthanum aluminum germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 285 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. F. Li, G. N. Wang, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Broadband 2μm emission in Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped TeO2-WO3-La2O3 glass,” Solid State Commun. 150(39–40), 1915–1918 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (5)

M. Wang, L. Yi, G. Wang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2 μm emission performance in Ho3+-doped fluorophosphate glasses sensitized with Er3+ and Tm3+ under 800 nm excitation,” Solid State Commun. 149(29-30), 1216–1220 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “2μm lasers with fluoride crystals: Research and development,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33(2–4), 61–109 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Kermaoui and F. Pellé, “Synthesis and infrared spectroscopic properties of Tm3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 469(1), 601–608 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, L. Yi, Y. Chen, C. Yu, G. Wang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Effect of Al(PO3)3 content on physical, chemical and optical properties of fluorophosphate glasses for 2 μmapplication,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 114(1), 295–299 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Richards, Y. Tsang, D. Binks, J. Lousteau, and A. Jha, “2 μm Tm3+/Yb3+-doped tellurite fibre laser,” J. Mater. Sci. 20(1), 317–320 (2009).

2008 (1)

2007 (5)

H. Lin, X. Wang, L. Lin, C. Li, D. Yang, and S. Tanabe, “Near-infrared emission character of Tm3+-doped heavy metal tellurite glasses for optical amplifiers and 1.8 µm infrared laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(12), 3567–3572 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. D. Jackson, A. Sabella, A. Hemming, S. Bennetts, and D. G. Lancaster, “High-power 83 W holmium-doped silica fiber laser operating with high beam quality,” Opt. Lett. 32(3), 241–243 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, Z. Yao, J. Zong, and S. Jiang, “Highly efficient high-power thulium-doped germanate glass fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 638–640 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Richards, S. Shen, A. Jha, Y. Tsang, and D. Binks, “Infrared emission and energy transfer in Tm3+, Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Yb3+-doped tellurite fibre,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6546–6551 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. X. Chen, Q. Y. Zhang, G. F. Yang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Mid-infrared emission characteristic and energy transfer of Ho3+-doped tellurite glass sensitized by Tm 3+.,” J. Fluoresc. 17(3), 301–307 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Jeong, P. Dupriez, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, and S. D. Jackson, “Power scaling of 2 μm ytterbium-sensitised thulium-doped silica fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm,” Electron. Lett. 41(4), 173–174 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

M. R. Ozalp, G. Özen, A. Sennaroglu, and A. Kurt, “Stimulated and spontaneous emission probabilities of Tm3+ in TeO2-CdCl2 glass: the role of the local structure,” Opt. Commun. 1(1-6), 281–289 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Ding, P. Y. Shih, S. W. Yung, K. L. Hsu, and T. S. Chin, “The properties and structure of Sn□Ca□P□O□F glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 82(1), 61–67 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24(3), 563–574 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. C. Kwong, M. R. Nugent, L. Michalski, T. Ngo, K. Rajan, Y. J. Tung, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Hack, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, and J. J. Brown, “High operational stability of electro phosphorescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(1), 162–164 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (5)

B. Karmakar, P. Kundu, and R. N. Dwivedi, “IR spectra and their application for evaluating physical properties of fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 289(1–3), 155–162 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, M. Montagna, C. Duverger, V. Tikhomirov, A. Jha, M. Ferrari, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, and M. Fossi, “Erbium-activated aluminum fluoride glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284(1–3), 243–248 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Lebullenger, L. A. O. Nunes, and A. C. Hernandes, “Properties of glasses from fluoride to phosphate composition,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284(1), 55–60 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. D. Martino, L. F. Santos, A. C. Marques, and R. M. Almeida, “Vibrational spectra and structure of alkali germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 293-295(1), 394–401 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Shojiya, Y. Kawamoto, and K. Kadono, “Judd–Ofelt parameters and multiphonon relaxation of Ho3+ions in ZnCl2-based glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(9), 4944–4950 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Dianov, O. I. Medvedkov, G. A. Ivanov, V. A. Aksenov, V. M. Paramonov, S. A. Vasiliev, and E. V. Pershina, “Efficient silica-based Ho3+ fibre laser for 2 μm spectral region pumped at 1.15 μm,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1015–1016 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, and J. Heo, “Spectroscopic Properties of and Energy Transfer in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 Glass Doped with Er2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82(10), 2762–2768 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. M.S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69(1), 3–17 (1999).

1998 (1)

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, “Efficient gain-switched operation of a Tm-doped silica fiber laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(5), 779–789 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

W. Seeber, S. Barth, F. Seifert, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and D. Ehrt, “New Yb-doped fluoride phosphate laser glass-structural investigations using probe ions,” J. Lumin. 72(74), 449–450 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

X. L. Zou and H. Toratani, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfers in Tm3+ singlyand, Tm3+/Ho3+ doubly-doped glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 195(1–2), 113–124 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

N. Rigout, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chemical and physical compatibilities of fluoride and fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184(1), 319–323 (1995).
[Crossref]

N. Rigout, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chemical and physical compatibilities of fluoride and fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184(1), 319–323 (1995).
[Crossref]

B. Peng and T. Izumitani, “Optical properties, fluorescence mechanisms and energy transfer in Tm3+, Ho3+, and Tm3+-Ho3+ doped near-infrared laser glasses, sensitized by Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 4(6), 797–810 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. Ehrt, “Structure and properties of fluoride phosphate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 1992, 1761 (1992).

1989 (1)

D. C. Hanna, M. J. McCarthy, I. R. Perry, and P. J. Suni, “Efficient high-power continuous-wave operation of monomode Tm-doped fibre laser at 2 μm pumped by Nd:YAG laser at 1.064 μm,” Electron. Lett. 25(20), 1365–1366 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

R. Reisfeld and C. K. Jørgensen, “Excited state phenomena in vitreous materials,” Handbook on the physics and chemistry of rare earths 9, 1–90 (1987).

1986 (1)

L. Koudelka, J. Klikorka, M. Frumar, M. Pisárčik, V. Kellö, V. D. Khalilev, V. I. Vakhrameev, and G. D. Chkhenkeli, “Raman spectra and structure of FP glasses of (1-x)Ba(PO3)2-x LiR-AlF6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 85(1–2), 204–210 (1986).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

M. Weber, J. Lynch, D. Blackburn, and D. Cronin, “Dependence of the stimulated emission cross section of Yb3+ on host glass composition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(10), 1600–1608 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

Q. Mi, “Partial dispersions of optical FP glasse,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 52(1), 347–356 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. J. Videau, J. Portier, and B. Piriou, “Raman spectroscopic studies of fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 48(2–3), 385–392 (1982).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

S. A. Brawer and W. B. White, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of the structure of silicate glasses. I. the binary alkali silicates,” J. Chem. Phys. 63(6), 2421–2432 (1975).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

D. E. Mccumer, “Theory of photon-terminated opticalmasers,” Phys. Rev. 134, A299 (1964).

Adam, J. L.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24(3), 563–574 (2003).
[Crossref]

N. Rigout, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chemical and physical compatibilities of fluoride and fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184(1), 319–323 (1995).
[Crossref]

N. Rigout, J. L. Adam, and J. Lucas, “Chemical and physical compatibilities of fluoride and fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184(1), 319–323 (1995).
[Crossref]

Aksenov, V. A.

A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Dianov, O. I. Medvedkov, G. A. Ivanov, V. A. Aksenov, V. M. Paramonov, S. A. Vasiliev, and E. V. Pershina, “Efficient silica-based Ho3+ fibre laser for 2 μm spectral region pumped at 1.15 μm,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1015–1016 (2000).
[Crossref]

Almeida, R. M.

D. D. Martino, L. F. Santos, A. C. Marques, and R. M. Almeida, “Vibrational spectra and structure of alkali germanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 293-295(1), 394–401 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bai, G.

M. Li, G. Bai, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Investigation on Tm3+-doped silicate glass for 1.8 mm emission,” J. Lumin. 132(7), 1830–1835 (2012).
[Crossref]

Barth, S.

W. Seeber, S. Barth, F. Seifert, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and D. Ehrt, “New Yb-doped fluoride phosphate laser glass-structural investigations using probe ions,” J. Lumin. 72(74), 449–450 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bennetts, S.

Binks, D.

Biswal, M. M.S.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. M.S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69(1), 3–17 (1999).

Blackburn, D.

M. Weber, J. Lynch, D. Blackburn, and D. Cronin, “Dependence of the stimulated emission cross section of Yb3+ on host glass composition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(10), 1600–1608 (1983).
[Crossref]

Braun, A.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. M.S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69(1), 3–17 (1999).

Brawer, S. A.

S. A. Brawer and W. B. White, “Raman spectroscopic investigation of the structure of silicate glasses. I. the binary alkali silicates,” J. Chem. Phys. 63(6), 2421–2432 (1975).
[Crossref]

Brown, J. J.

R. C. Kwong, M. R. Nugent, L. Michalski, T. Ngo, K. Rajan, Y. J. Tung, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Hack, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, and J. J. Brown, “High operational stability of electro phosphorescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(1), 162–164 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cai, M.

T. Wei, Y. Tian, F. Chen, M. Cai, J. Zhang, X. Jing, F. Wang, Q. Zhang, and S. Xu, “Mid-infrared fluorescence, energy transfer process and rate equation analysis in Er3+ doped germanate glass,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6060 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, G. X.

G. X. Cao, H. F. Hu, and F. X. Gan, “Study on the Optical Properties of Fluorophosphate Glass,” Journal of Zhengzhou University 34(4), 90–93 (2013).

Chen, B.

Y. Zhang, B. Chen, S. Xu, X. Li, J. Zhang, J. Sun, X. Zhang, H. Xia, and R. Hua, “A universal approach for calculating the Judd-Ofelt parameters of RE3+ in powdered phosphors and its application for the β-NaYF4:Er3+/Yb3+ phosphor derived from auto-combustion-assisted fluoridation,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20(23), 15876–15883 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sui, B. Chen, J. Zhang, X. Li, S. Xu, J. Sun, Y. Zhang, L. Tong, X. Luo, and H. Xia, “Examination of Judd-Ofelt calculation and temperature self-reading for Tm3+ and Tm3+/Yb3+ doped LiYF4 single crystals,” J. Lumin. 198, 77–83 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Zheng, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, “Optical transition, excitation state absorption, and energy transfer study of Er3+, Nd3+ single doped, and Er3+/Nd3+ codoped tellurite glasses for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(6), 1766–1772 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zheng, B. Chen, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, L. I. Xiangping, and L. Huang, “Composition-dependent optical transitions and 2.0 μm emission properties of Ho3+ in xGeO2-(80–x)TeO2-9.5ZnF2-10NaF-0.5Ho2O3 glasses,” J. Rare Earths 29(10), 924–928 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

X. Wang, K. Li, C. Yu, D. Chen, and L. Hu, “Effect of Tm2O3 concentration and hydroxyl content on the emission properties of Tm3+-doped silicate glasses,” J. Lumin. 147(3), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, X. Wang, L. Wang, P. Kuan, M. Li, W. Li, X. Fan, K. Li, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Realization of 2 μm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125, 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Li, G. Zhang, X. Wang, L. Hu, P. Kuan, D. Chen, and M. Wang, “Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite glass single mode fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10115–10121 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Zhang, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Infrared luminescence of Tm3+/Yb3+codoped lanthanum aluminum germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 285 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

T. Wei, Y. Tian, F. Chen, M. Cai, J. Zhang, X. Jing, F. Wang, Q. Zhang, and S. Xu, “Mid-infrared fluorescence, energy transfer process and rate equation analysis in Er3+ doped germanate glass,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6060 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

Q. Zhang, G. Chen, G. Zhang, J. Qiu, and D. Chen, “Infrared luminescence of Tm3+/Yb3+codoped lanthanum aluminum germanate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 285 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. X.

G. X. Chen, Q. Y. Zhang, G. F. Yang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Mid-infrared emission characteristic and energy transfer of Ho3+-doped tellurite glass sensitized by Tm 3+.,” J. Fluoresc. 17(3), 301–307 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Wen, G. Tang, Q. Yang, X. Chen, Q. Qian, Q. Zhang, and Z. Yang, “Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 μm laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20344 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

M. Wang, L. Yi, Y. Chen, C. Yu, G. Wang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Effect of Al(PO3)3 content on physical, chemical and optical properties of fluorophosphate glasses for 2 μmapplication,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 114(1), 295–299 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L.

Y. Zheng, B. Chen, H. Zhong, J. Sun, L. Cheng, X. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Tian, W. Lu, J. Wan, T. Yu, L. Huang, H. Yu, and H. Lin, “Optical transition, excitation state absorption, and energy transfer study of Er3+, Nd3+ single doped, and Er3+/Nd3+ codoped tellurite glasses for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(6), 1766–1772 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zheng, B. Chen, J. Sun, L. Cheng, H. Zhong, L. I. Xiangping, and L. Huang, “Composition-dependent optical transitions and 2.0 μm emission properties of Ho3+ in xGeO2-(80–x)TeO2-9.5ZnF2-10NaF-0.5Ho2O3 glasses,” J. Rare Earths 29(10), 924–928 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chin, T. S.

J. Y. Ding, P. Y. Shih, S. W. Yung, K. L. Hsu, and T. S. Chin, “The properties and structure of Sn□Ca□P□O□F glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 82(1), 61–67 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chkhenkeli, G. D.

L. Koudelka, J. Klikorka, M. Frumar, M. Pisárčik, V. Kellö, V. D. Khalilev, V. I. Vakhrameev, and G. D. Chkhenkeli, “Raman spectra and structure of FP glasses of (1-x)Ba(PO3)2-x LiR-AlF6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 85(1–2), 204–210 (1986).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y. G.

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, and J. Heo, “Spectroscopic Properties of and Energy Transfer in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 Glass Doped with Er2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82(10), 2762–2768 (1999).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W. A.

Y. Jeong, P. Dupriez, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, and S. D. Jackson, “Power scaling of 2 μm ytterbium-sensitised thulium-doped silica fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm,” Electron. Lett. 41(4), 173–174 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cornacchia, F.

F. Cornacchia, A. Toncelli, and M. Tonelli, “2μm lasers with fluoride crystals: Research and development,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 33(2–4), 61–109 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cronin, D.

M. Weber, J. Lynch, D. Blackburn, and D. Cronin, “Dependence of the stimulated emission cross section of Yb3+ on host glass composition,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(10), 1600–1608 (1983).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E. M.

A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Dianov, O. I. Medvedkov, G. A. Ivanov, V. A. Aksenov, V. M. Paramonov, S. A. Vasiliev, and E. V. Pershina, “Efficient silica-based Ho3+ fibre laser for 2 μm spectral region pumped at 1.15 μm,” Electron. Lett. 36(12), 1015–1016 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ding, J. Y.

J. Y. Ding, P. Y. Shih, S. W. Yung, K. L. Hsu, and T. S. Chin, “The properties and structure of Sn□Ca□P□O□F glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 82(1), 61–67 (2003).
[Crossref]

Doualan, J. L.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24(3), 563–574 (2003).
[Crossref]

Duan, X. M.

Dupriez, P.

Y. Jeong, P. Dupriez, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. Y. Shen, W. A. Clarkson, and S. D. Jackson, “Power scaling of 2 μm ytterbium-sensitised thulium-doped silica fibre laser diode-pumped at 975 nm,” Electron. Lett. 41(4), 173–174 (2005).
[Crossref]

Duverger, C.

S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, M. Montagna, C. Duverger, V. Tikhomirov, A. Jha, M. Ferrari, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, and M. Fossi, “Erbium-activated aluminum fluoride glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284(1–3), 243–248 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dwivedi, R. N.

B. Karmakar, P. Kundu, and R. N. Dwivedi, “IR spectra and their application for evaluating physical properties of fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 289(1–3), 155–162 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

W. Seeber, S. Barth, F. Seifert, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and D. Ehrt, “New Yb-doped fluoride phosphate laser glass-structural investigations using probe ions,” J. Lumin. 72(74), 449–450 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ehrt, D.

W. Seeber, S. Barth, F. Seifert, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and D. Ehrt, “New Yb-doped fluoride phosphate laser glass-structural investigations using probe ions,” J. Lumin. 72(74), 449–450 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. Ehrt, “Structure and properties of fluoride phosphate glasses,” Proc. SPIE 1992, 1761 (1992).

Fan, X.

X. Liu, X. Wang, L. Wang, P. Kuan, M. Li, W. Li, X. Fan, K. Li, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Realization of 2 μm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125, 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feng, S. C.

T. Feng, F. P. Yan, Q. Li, W. J. Peng, S. Y. Tan, S. C. Feng, P. Liu, and X. D. Wen, “A stable wavelength-tunable single frequency and single polarization linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 23(2), 025101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feng, T.

T. Feng, F. P. Yan, Q. Li, W. J. Peng, S. Y. Tan, S. C. Feng, P. Liu, and X. D. Wen, “A stable wavelength-tunable single frequency and single polarization linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 23(2), 025101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

Ferrari, M.

S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, M. Montagna, C. Duverger, V. Tikhomirov, A. Jha, M. Ferrari, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, and M. Fossi, “Erbium-activated aluminum fluoride glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284(1–3), 243–248 (2001).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

R. C. Kwong, M. R. Nugent, L. Michalski, T. Ngo, K. Rajan, Y. J. Tung, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Hack, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, and J. J. Brown, “High operational stability of electro phosphorescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(1), 162–164 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fossi, M.

S. Ronchin, R. Rolli, M. Montagna, C. Duverger, V. Tikhomirov, A. Jha, M. Ferrari, G. C. Righini, S. Pelli, and M. Fossi, “Erbium-activated aluminum fluoride glasses: optical and spectroscopic properties,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284(1–3), 243–248 (2001).
[Crossref]

Frumar, M.

L. Koudelka, J. Klikorka, M. Frumar, M. Pisárčik, V. Kellö, V. D. Khalilev, V. I. Vakhrameev, and G. D. Chkhenkeli, “Raman spectra and structure of FP glasses of (1-x)Ba(PO3)2-x LiR-AlF6,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 85(1–2), 204–210 (1986).
[Crossref]

Gan, F. X.

G. X. Cao, H. F. Hu, and F. X. Gan, “Study on the Optical Properties of Fluorophosphate Glass,” Journal of Zhengzhou University 34(4), 90–93 (2013).

Giesen, A.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. M.S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69(1), 3–17 (1999).

Girard, S.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24(3), 563–574 (2003).
[Crossref]

Graf, M.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. M.S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69(1), 3–17 (1999).

Guo, Y.

M. Li, G. Bai, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Investigation on Tm3+-doped silicate glass for 1.8 mm emission,” J. Lumin. 132(7), 1830–1835 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hack, M.

R. C. Kwong, M. R. Nugent, L. Michalski, T. Ngo, K. Rajan, Y. J. Tung, M. S. Weaver, T. X. Zhou, M. Hack, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, and J. J. Brown, “High operational stability of electro phosphorescent devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(1), 162–164 (2002).
[Crossref]

Han, W. T.

Hanna, D. C.

D. C. Hanna, M. J. McCarthy, I. R. Perry, and P. J. Suni, “Efficient high-power continuous-wave operation of monomode Tm-doped fibre laser at 2 μm pumped by Nd:YAG laser at 1.064 μm,” Electron. Lett. 25(20), 1365–1366 (1989).
[Crossref]

Haquin, H.

J. L. Doualan, S. Girard, H. Haquin, J. L. Adam, and J. Montagne, “Spectroscopic properties and laser emission of Tm doped ZBLAN glass at 1.8 μm,” Opt. Mater. 24(3), 563–574 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hemming, A.

Heo, J.

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, and J. Heo, “Spectroscopic Properties of and Energy Transfer in PbO–Bi2O3–Ga2O3 Glass Doped with Er2O3,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 82(10), 2762–2768 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hernandes, A. C.

R. Lebullenger, L. A. O. Nunes, and A. C. Hernandes, “Properties of glasses from fluoride to phosphate composition,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284(1), 55–60 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hönninger, C.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, M. Graf, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, M. M.S. Biswal, J. Nees, A. Braun, G. A. Mourou, I. Johannsen, A. Giesen, W. Seeber, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast ytterbium-doped bulk lasers and laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 69(1), 3–17 (1999).

Hsu, K. L.

J. Y. Ding, P. Y. Shih, S. W. Yung, K. L. Hsu, and T. S. Chin, “The properties and structure of Sn□Ca□P□O□F glasses,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 82(1), 61–67 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hu, H. F.

G. X. Cao, H. F. Hu, and F. X. Gan, “Study on the Optical Properties of Fluorophosphate Glass,” Journal of Zhengzhou University 34(4), 90–93 (2013).

Hu, L.

X. Wang, K. Li, C. Yu, D. Chen, and L. Hu, “Effect of Tm2O3 concentration and hydroxyl content on the emission properties of Tm3+-doped silicate glasses,” J. Lumin. 147(3), 341–345 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, X. Wang, L. Wang, P. Kuan, M. Li, W. Li, X. Fan, K. Li, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Realization of 2 μm laser output in Tm3+-doped lead silicate double cladding fiber,” Mater. Lett. 125, 12–14 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Li, G. Bai, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Investigation on Tm3+-doped silicate glass for 1.8 mm emission,” J. Lumin. 132(7), 1830–1835 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Li, G. Zhang, X. Wang, L. Hu, P. Kuan, D. Chen, and M. Wang, “Tm3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped tungsten tellurite glass single mode fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10115–10121 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wang, L. Yi, G. Wang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2 μm emission performance in Ho3+-doped fluorophosphate glasses sensitized with Er3+ and Tm3+ under 800 nm excitation,” Solid State Commun. 149(29-30), 1216–1220 (2009).
[Crossref]

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G. X. Chen, Q. Y. Zhang, G. F. Yang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Mid-infrared emission characteristic and energy transfer of Ho3+-doped tellurite glass sensitized by Tm 3+.,” J. Fluoresc. 17(3), 301–307 (2007).
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X. Wen, G. Tang, Q. Yang, X. Chen, Q. Qian, Q. Zhang, and Z. Yang, “Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 μm laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20344 (2016).
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Yao, Z.

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Yu, C.

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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K. F. Li, G. N. Wang, J. J. Zhang, and L. L. Hu, “Broadband 2μm emission in Tm3+-Ho3+ co-doped TeO2-WO3-La2O3 glass,” Solid State Commun. 150(39–40), 1915–1918 (2010).
[Crossref]

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X. Wen, G. Tang, Q. Yang, X. Chen, Q. Qian, Q. Zhang, and Z. Yang, “Highly Tm3+ doped germanate glass and its single mode fiber for 2.0 μm laser,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 20344 (2016).
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J. Yuan, S. X. Shen, W. C. Wang, M. Y. Peng, Q. Y. Zhang, and Z. H. Jiang, “Enhanced 2.0 μm emission from Ho3+ bridged by Yb3+ in Nd3+/Yb3+/Ho3+ triply doped tungsten tellurite glasses for a diode-pump 2.0 μm laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(13), 133506 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 DSC curves of FP20 sample.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Raman spectra of FP20-FP60 samples.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorption spectra of FP20-FP60 samples. Inset shows the variation of integral absorption intensities of 3H63F4 transition with the change in Ba(PO3)2 content.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Infrared transmission spectra of FP20-FP60 samples, (b) The variation of OH- absorption coefficient as a function of Ba(PO3)2 content.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fluorescence spectra of FP20-FP60 samples.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Absorption and emission cross-section of FP20 sample.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Fluorescence decay curves for the 3F4 level of FP20-FP60 samples.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Gain coefficient curves for different values of the population inversion for the FP20 sample. The inset is the maximum gain coefficients of FP20-FP60 samples.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Characteristic temperatures of FP glasses with different Ba(PO3)2 content.

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Table 2 J-O strength parameters (Ωt = 2,4,6, × 10−20 cm2) for Tm3+ in the studied FP glasses

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Table 3 Calculated line strengths for electric-dipole transition (Sed), Transition probabilities (Arad), branching ratios (β), and radiative lifetime (τR) of FP20.

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Table 4 The calculated emission cross-section σ e m , measured lifetime τ m and σ e m × τ m of 3F43H6 transition of FP20-FP60 samples.

Equations (12)

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f exp = 2.303 m c 2 π e 2 N d λ 2 O D ( λ ) d λ
f t h e d = 8 π m c v 3 h ( 2 J + 1 ) ( n ( v ) 2 + 2 ) 2 9 n t = 2 , 4 , 6 Ω t ( Ψ J | | U λ | | Ψ ' J ' )
f t h m d = h v n ( v ) 6 m c ( 2 J + 1 ) | Ψ J | | L + 2 S | | Ψ ' J ' | 2
δ = i N ( f e x i f t h i ) 2 N 3
A e d J J ' = 64 π 4 e 2 v 3 n ( n 2 + 2 ) 2 27 h ( 2 J + 1 ) t = 2 , 4 , 6 Ω t | Ψ J | | U λ | | Ψ ' J ' | 2
A m d J J ' = 16 π 4 e 2 n 3 3 h ( 2 J + 1 ) m 2 c 2 | Ψ J | | L + 2 S | | Ψ ' J ' | 2
τ r a d J = 1 J ' A r a d J J '
β J J ' = A r a d J J ' J ' A r a d J J '
α O H = 1 L ln T 0 T
σ a b s = 2.303 × log ( I 0 I ) N l
σ e m = σ a b s [ Z l Z u ] exp ( E Z L h c λ 1 k T )
G ( λ ) = N [ P σ e m ( λ ) ( 1 P ) σ a b s ( λ ) ]

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