Abstract

Graphene has been used as an electrically tunable material for switchable devices. A large area fabrication of Al-doped ZnO/Al2O3/graphene/Al2O3/gold/silicon device was enabled by a spin-processible hydrophilic mono-layer graphene oxide. The graphene was obtained directly from graphene oxide during the atomic layer deposition without other extra steps. A significant shift of Raman frequency up to 360 cm−1 was observed from graphene in the fabricated device, indicating a structural change in graphene. The absorption from the device was tunable with a negative voltage applied on the Al-doped ZnO side. The generated absorption change was sustainable when the voltage was off and erasable when a positive voltage was applied. The sustainability of tuned optical property in the graphene under investigation can lead to a design of device with less power consumption and many other applications.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  42. K. F. Mak, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Seeing Many-Body Effects in Single- and Few-Layer Graphene: Observation of Two-Dimensional Saddle-Point Excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(4), 046401 (2011).
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  43. F. M. Kin, F. H. Jornada, K. He, J. Deslippe, N. Petrone, J. Hone, J. Shan, S. G. Louie, and T. F. Heinz, “Tuning Many-Body Interactions in Graphene: The Effects of Doping on Excitons and Carrier Lifetimes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(20), 207401 (2014).
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  44. J. Marinbo, B. Hrvoje, and S. Marin, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(24), 245435 (2009).
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    [Crossref]

2018 (1)

P. Kang, K. Kim, and S. Nam, “Mechanically reconfigurable architecture graphene for tunable plasmonic Resonances,” Light Sci. Appl. 7(1), 17 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

D. George, L. Li, D. Lowell, J. Ding, J. Cui, H. Zhang, U. Philipose, and Y. Lin, “Electrically tunable diffraction efficiency from gratings in Al-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(7), 071110 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Samavati, Z. Samavati, A. F. Ismail, M. H. D. Othman, M. A. Rahman, A. K. Zulhairun, and I. S. Amiri, “Structural, optical and electrical evolution of Al and Ga co-doped ZnO/SiO2/glass thin film: role of laser power density,” RSC Advances 7(57), 35858–35868 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. George, M. Adewole, S. Hassan, D. Lowell, J. Cui, H. Zhang, U. Philipose, and Y. Lin, “Coupling of Surface Plasmon Polariton in Al-doped ZnO with Fabry–Pérot Resonance for Total Light Absorption,” Photonics 4(4), 35 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

Y. W. Huang, H. W. H. Lee, R. Sokhoyan, R. A. Pala, K. Thyagarajan, S. Han, D. P. Tsai, and H. A. Atwater, “Gate-Tunable Conducting Oxide Metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(9), 5319–5325 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Guo, R. D. Schaller, J. B. Ketterson, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultrafast switching of tunable infrared plasmons in indium tin oxide nonfood arrays with large absolute amplitude,” Nat. Photonics 10(4), 267–273 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Qiao, X. N. Xu, Y. Qiu, H. C. Xiao, and Y. F. Zhu, “Simultaneous Reduction and Functionalization of Graphene Oxide by 4-Hydrazinobenzenesulfonic Acid for Polymer Nanocomposites,” Nanomaterials (Basel) 6(2), 29 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. George, L. Li, Y. Jiang, D. Lowell, M. Mao, S. Hassan, J. Ding, J. Cui, H. Zhang, U. Philipose, and Y. Lin, “Localized Surface Plasmon Polariton Resonance in Holographically Structured Al-doped ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 120(4), 043109 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Horng, H. B. Balch, A. F. McGuire, H. Z. Tsai, P. R. Forrester, M. F. Crommie, B. Cui, and F. Wang, “Imaging electric field dynamics with graphene optoelectronics,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 13704 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (9)

O. Balci, E. O. Polat, N. Kakenov, and C. Kocabas, “Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6628 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. F. Schlich, P. Zalden, A. M. Lindenberg, and R. Spolenak, “Color switching with enhanced optical contrast in ultrathin phase-change materials and semiconductors induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 178–182 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Gu, A. Andryieuski, Y. Hao, Y. Li, J. Hone, C. W. Wong, A. Lavrinenko, T. Low, and T. F. Heinz, “Photonic and Plasmonic Guided Modes in Graphene–Silicon Photonic Crystals,” ACS Photonics 2(11), 1552–1558 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ukhtary, E. Hasdeo, A. Nugraha, and R. Saito, “Fermi energy-dependence of electromagnetic wave absorption in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Express 8(5), 055102 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Beams, L. Gustavo Cançado, and L. Novotny, “Raman characterization of defects and dopants in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 27(8), 083002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. R. Carvalho, Y. Hao, A. Righi, J. F. Rodriguez-Nieva, L. Colombo, R. S. Ruoff, M. A. Pimenta, and C. Fantini, “Probing carbon isotope effects on the Raman spectra of graphene with different 13C concentrations,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 92(12), 125406 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Ki Min, S. K. Kim, S. Jun Kim, S. Ho Kim, M. A. Kang, C. Y. Park, W. Song, S. Myung, J. Lim, and K. S. An, “Electrical Double Layer Capacitance in a Graphene-embedded Al2O3 Gate Dielectric,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Park, J. H. Kang, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically Tunable Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Metafilm Absorbers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15754 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kinsey, D. Clayton, J. Kim, F. Marcello, M. S. Vladimir, and B. Alexandra, “Epsilon-near-zero Al-doped ZnO for ultrafast switching at telecom wavelengths,” Optica 2(7), 616–622 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. M. Kin, F. H. Jornada, K. He, J. Deslippe, N. Petrone, J. Hone, J. Shan, S. G. Louie, and T. F. Heinz, “Tuning Many-Body Interactions in Graphene: The Effects of Doping on Excitons and Carrier Lifetimes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(20), 207401 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

M. Freitag, T. Low, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Photoconductivity of biased graphene,” Nat. Photonics 7(1), 53–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Gan, R. J. Shiue, Y. Gao, I. Meric, T. F. Heinz, K. Shepared, J. Hone, S. Assefa, and D. Englung, “Chip-integrated Ultrafast Graphene Photodetector with High Responsivity,” Nat. Photonics 7(11), 883–887 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. C. Dong, S. Jiang, C. Zhang, L. G. Chen, L. Zhang, Y. Liao, J. Aizpurua, Y. Luo, J. L. Yang, and J. G. Hou, “Chemical mapping of a single molecule by plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering,” Nature 498(7452), 82–86 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, and F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Cleary, R. Soref, and J. R. Hendrickson, “Long-wave infrared tunable thin-film perfect absorber utilizing highly doped silicon-on-sapphire,” Opt. Express 21(16), 19363–19374 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

M. A. Kats, D. Sharma, J. Lin, P. Genevet, R. Blanchard, Z. Yang, M. M. Qazilbash, D. N. Basov, S. Ramanathan, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin perfect absorber employing a tunable phase change material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(22), 221101 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Sensale-Rodriguez, R. Yan, M. M. Kelly, T. Fang, K. Tahy, W. S. Hwang, D. Jena, L. Liu, and H. G. Xing, “Broadband graphene terahertz modulators enabled by intraband transitions,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 780 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, L. Jub, F. Wang, and T. F. Heinz, “Optical spectroscopy of graphene: From the far infrared to the ultraviolet,” Sol. Stat. Comm. B 152(15), 1341–1349 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Seeing Many-Body Effects in Single- and Few-Layer Graphene: Observation of Two-Dimensional Saddle-Point Excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(4), 046401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Lui, Z. Q. Li, K. F. Mak, E. Cappelluti, and T. F. Heinz, “Observation of an electrically tunable band gap in trilayer graphene,” Nat. Phys. 7(12), 944–947 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “The Evolution of Electronic Structure in Few-Layer Graphene Revealed by Optical Spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(34), 14999–15004 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

L. Cao, J. S. White, J. S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8(8), 643–647 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. M. Malard, M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Raman Spectroscopy in Graphene,” Phys. Rep. 473(5-6), 51–87 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Marinbo, B. Hrvoje, and S. Marin, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

K. N. Kudin, B. Ozbas, H. C. Schniepp, R. K. Prud’homme, I. A. Aksay, and R. Car, “Raman spectra of Graphite Oxide and Functionalized Graphene Sheets,” Nano Lett. 8(1), 36–41 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adewole, M.

D. George, M. Adewole, S. Hassan, D. Lowell, J. Cui, H. Zhang, U. Philipose, and Y. Lin, “Coupling of Surface Plasmon Polariton in Al-doped ZnO with Fabry–Pérot Resonance for Total Light Absorption,” Photonics 4(4), 35 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J. H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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Aizpurua, J.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of multiple-layer film device where gold, 20-nm Al2O3, graphene, 3-nm Al2O3, 100 nm AZO were stacked on n-type silicon. (b) SEM of cleaved cross-section of fabricated device as designed in (a).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Raman spectrum from graphene oxide drop-coated on Si wafer. (b) Raman spectrum measured from the cross-section of AZO/3-nm Al2O3/graphene/20-nm Al2O3/gold/silicon device. The blue line (referring to the primary axis) was measured at a spot close to AZO and graphene and the red line (referring to the secondary axis) was measured at a location close to silicon on the cross-section.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulated reflection spectra from 100-nm AZO/Al2O3/gold/silicon with a different Al2O3 thickness of 5, 23, 100 and 380 nm, respectively. (b) measured reflection from a device of 100-nm AZO/5-nm Al2O3/gold/silicon (blue) and from a device of 100-nm AZO/3-nm Al2O3/graphene/20-nm Al2O3/gold/silicon (red).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured (solid lines) and simulated (dashed line and squares) (R-2V-R0)/R0 for devices with and without graphene: i.e. 100-nm AZO/3-nm Al2O3/graphene/20-nm Al2O3/gold/silicon and 100-nm AZO/5-nm Al2O3/gold/silicon, respectively. (b) measured (RV-R0)/R0 from a device of 100-nm AZO/3-nm Al2O3/graphene/20-nm Al2O3/gold/silicon when a voltage sequence was applied to the AZO side of the device. The reason for a feature at 5793 is unknown. If the graphene is crumpled due to the trapped charges, plasmonic resonances will appear in mid-infrared [39].
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Capacitance-voltage characterization at 10 kHz for the device of 100-nm AZO/3-nm Al2O3/graphene/20-nm Al2O3/gold/silicon. Arrows indicate the sweep directions. Inset is the schematic of two capacitors in series across the 3-nm and 20-nm Al2O3, respectively. (b) Measured negative open-circuit voltages as a function of solar powers when the device of 100-nm AZO/3-nm Al2O3/graphene/20-nm Al2O3/gold/silicon was illuminated by a solar simulator.

Equations (4)

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v`=v ( m c × m c )/( m c + m c ) ( m Al × m c )/( m Al + m c )
ε(ω)= ε b ω p 2 ω 2 +i Γ p ω + f 1 ω 1 2 ω 1 2 ω 2 i Γ 1 ω
d 2 ϕ(x) d x 2 = ρ(x) ε AZO q ε AZO N d { e q ϕ(x)/ ( k B T) 1 }
A(ω)= 4π c ( E F e 2 π × γ (ω) 2 + γ 2 + e 2 8 [ tanh( ω+2 E F Γ )+tanh( ω2 E F Γ ) ] +resonance term )