Abstract

Plasmonic color generation based on gap-plasmon resonators finds an increasing role in subwavelength fade-free color printing, data storage and information encoding due to its high spatial resolution and mechanical/chemical stability. However, most of the current designs are limited to trivial spectral responses, leading to subtractive colors with restricted ranges of their color palettes. Here, we design a plasmonic color metasurface made of an aluminum resonator array, producing strong gap plasmon resonance and nearly perfect light absorption that results in enhanced color saturation. The range of color palette is broadly increased by introducing polarization-dependent supercell of plasmonic resonators, forming “i-patterned” dimers. Such a plasmonic color metasurface holds a great promise for color displays, polarization-multiplexing system, image encryption, and steganography.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (5)

A. M. Shaltout, J. Kim, A. Boltasseva, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Ultrathin and multicolour optical cavities with embedded metasurfaces,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2673 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Sabra, S. I. Azzam, M. Song, M. Povolotskyi, A. H. Aly, and A. V. Kildishev, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for subtractive color filtering: optimized nonlinear regression models,” Opt. Lett. 43(19), 4815–4818 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, S. Kamin, G. Zheng, F. Neubrech, S. Zhang, and N. Liu, “Addressable metasurfaces for dynamic holography and optical information encryption,” Sci. Adv. 4(6), r6768 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Song, X. Li, M. Pu, Y. Guo, K. Liu, H. Yu, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Color display and encryption with a plasmonic polarizing metamirror,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 323–331 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Ding, Y. Yang, R. A. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

E. Heydari, J. R. Sperling, S. L. Neale, A. W. Clark, and H. Esmaeil, “Plasmonic color filters as dual-state nanopixels for high-density microimage encoding,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 27(35), 1701866 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Yue, S. Gao, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Highly reflective subtractive color filters capitalizing on a silicon metasurface integrated with nanostructured aluminum mirrors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600285 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Duan, S. Kamin, and N. Liu, “Dynamic plasmonic colour display,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14606 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wang, X. Wang, C. Yan, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Full Color Generation Using Silver Tandem Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 11(5), 4419–4427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Song, H. Yu, J. Luo, and Z. Zhang, “Tailoring Infrared Refractory Plasmonic Material to Broadband Circularly Polarized Thermal Emitter,” Plasmonics 12(3), 649–654 (2017).
[Crossref]

X.-G. Luo, M.-B. Pu, X. Li, and X.-L. Ma, “Broadband spin Hall effect of light in single nanoapertures,” Light Sci. Appl. 6(6), e16276 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

Y. Wang, M. Song, M. Pu, Y. Gu, C. Hu, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, H. Yu, and X. Luo, “Staked Graphene for Tunable Terahertz Absorber with Customized Bandwidth,” Plasmonics 11(5), 1201–1206 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Song, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, M. Pu, L. Liu, W. Zhang, H. Yu, and X. Luo, “Nanofocusing beyond the near-field diffraction limit via plasmonic Fano resonance,” Nanoscale 8(3), 1635–1641 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Miyata, H. Hatada, and J. Takahara, “Full-Color Subwavelength Printing with Gap-Plasmonic Optical Antennas,” Nano Lett. 16(5), 3166–3172 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhu, C. Vannahme, E. Højlund-Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, and A. Kristensen, “Plasmonic colour laser printing,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(4), 325–329 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. D. James, P. Mulvaney, and A. Roberts, “The Plasmonic Pixel: Large Area, Wide Gamut Color Reproduction Using Aluminum Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3817–3823 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, A. W. Clark, and J. M. Cooper, “Dual color plasmonic pixels create a polarization controlled nano color palette,” ACS Nano 10(1), 492–498 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Chen, S.-W. Wang, X. Liu, R. Ji, Z. Li, X. Chen, Y. Chen, and W. Lu, “Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units,” Opt. Express 24(2), A92–A103 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

R. J. H. Ng, X. M. Goh, and J. K. W. Yang, “All-metal nanostructured substrates as subtractive color reflectors with near-perfect absorptance,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32597–32605 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. McPeak, S. V. Jayanti, S. J. P. Kress, S. Meyer, S. Iotti, A. Rossinelli, and D. J. Norris, “Plasmonic films can easily be better: rules and recipes,” ACS Photonics 2(3), 326–333 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Højlund-Nielsen, X. Zhu, M. S. Carstensen, M. K. Sørensen, C. Vannahme, N. Asger Mortensen, and A. Kristensen, “Polarization-dependent aluminum metasurface operating at 450 nm,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28829–28835 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Gérard and S. K. Gray, “Aluminium plasmonics,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 48(18), 184001 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. S. King, L. Liu, X. Yang, B. Cerjan, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano Resonant Aluminum Nanoclusters for Plasmonic Colorimetric Sensing,” ACS Nano 9(11), 10628–10636 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11045 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (8)

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength Plasmonic Color Printing Protected for Ambient Use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Olson, A. Manjavacas, L. Liu, W. S. Chang, B. Foerster, N. S. King, M. W. Knight, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and S. Link, “Vivid, full-color aluminum plasmonic pixels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(40), 14348–14353 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Goh, Y. Zheng, S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, K. Kumar, C.-W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5361 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Li, U. Guler, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, J. Guan, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Refractory Plasmonics with Titanium Nitride: Broadband Metamaterial Absorber,” Adv. Mater. 26(47), 7959–7965 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Shrestha, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Aluminum Plasmonics Based Highly Transmissive Polarization-Independent Subtractive Color Filters Exploiting a Nanopatch Array,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6672–6678 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. R. Shrestha, C.-S. Park, and S.-S. Lee, “Enhancement of color saturation and color gamut enabled by a dual-band color filter exhibiting an adjustable spectral response,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3691–3704 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Coloration of Plastic Consumer Products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C.-W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Plasmonic Color Palettes for Photorealistic Printing with Aluminum Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

M. Song, H. Yu, C. Hu, M. Pu, Z. Zhang, J. Luo, and X. Luo, “Conversion of broadband energy to narrowband emission through double-sided metamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32207–32216 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Si, Y. Zhao, J. Lv, M. Lu, F. Wang, H. Liu, N. Xiang, T. J. Huang, A. J. Danner, J. Teng, and Y. J. Liu, “Reflective plasmonic color filters based on lithographically patterned silver nanorod arrays,” Nanoscale 5(14), 6243–6248 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(9), 557–561 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, J.-Y. Ou, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical response of plasmonic relief meta-surfaces,” J. Opt. 14(11), 114002 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Zhu, S. Xiao, L. Shi, X. Liu, J. Zi, O. Hansen, and N. A. Mortensen, “A stretch-tunable plasmonic structure with a polarization-dependent response,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5237–5242 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ellenbogen, K. Seo, and K. B. Crozier, “Chromatic plasmonic polarizers for active visible color filtering and polarimetry,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 1026–1031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

Y. Huo, C. C. Fesenmaier, and P. B. Catrysse, “Microlens performance limits in sub-2µm pixel CMOS image sensors,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5861–5872 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Xu, Y.-K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat. Commun. 1(5), 59 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

S. Furukawa, T. Masui, and N. Imanaka, “Synthesis of new environment-friendly yellow pigments,” J. Alloys Compd. 418(1–2), 255–258 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Kinoshita and S. Yoshioka, “Structural Colors in Nature: The Role of Regularity and Irregularity in the Structure,” ChemPhysChem 6(8), 1442–1459 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

P. Vukusic and J. R. Sambles, “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature 424(6950), 852–855 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

G. Ghosh, “Dispersion-equation coefficients for the refractive index and birefringence of calcite and quartz crystals,” Opt. Commun. 163(1–3), 95–102 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[Crossref]

Albrektsen, O.

A. S. Roberts, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Subwavelength Plasmonic Color Printing Protected for Ambient Use,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 783–787 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aly, A. H.

Asger Mortensen, N.

Azzam, S. I.

Boltasseva, A.

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W. Yue, S. Gao, S.-S. Lee, E.-S. Kim, and D.-Y. Choi, “Highly reflective subtractive color filters capitalizing on a silicon metasurface integrated with nanostructured aluminum mirrors,” Laser Photonics Rev. 11(3), 1600285 (2017).
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M. Song, X. Li, M. Pu, Y. Guo, K. Liu, H. Yu, X. Ma, and X. Luo, “Color display and encryption with a plasmonic polarizing metamirror,” Nanophotonics 7(1), 323–331 (2018).
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T. Xu, Y.-K. Wu, X. Luo, and L. J. Guo, “Plasmonic nanoresonators for high-resolution colour filtering and spectral imaging,” Nat. Commun. 1(5), 59 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, C.

H. Wang, X. Wang, C. Yan, H. Zhao, J. Zhang, C. Santschi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Full Color Generation Using Silver Tandem Nanodisks,” ACS Nano 11(5), 4419–4427 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J. K. W.

R. J. H. Ng, X. M. Goh, and J. K. W. Yang, “All-metal nanostructured substrates as subtractive color reflectors with near-perfect absorptance,” Opt. Express 23(25), 32597–32605 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. M. Goh, Y. Zheng, S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, K. Kumar, C.-W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5361 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, D. Zhu, X. M. Goh, Y. M. Wang, K. Kumar, C.-W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Plasmonic Color Palettes for Photorealistic Printing with Aluminum Nanostructures,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4023–4029 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kumar, H. Duan, R. S. Hegde, S. C. W. Koh, J. N. Wei, and J. K. W. Yang, “Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(9), 557–561 (2012).
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Yang, J. K. W. W.

A. Kristensen, J. K. W. W. Yang, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Link, P. Nordlander, N. J. Halas, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic colour generation,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(1), 16088 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

F. Cheng, J. Gao, T. S. Luk, and X. Yang, “Structural color printing based on plasmonic metasurfaces of perfect light absorption,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11045 (2015).
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N. S. King, L. Liu, X. Yang, B. Cerjan, H. O. Everitt, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fano Resonant Aluminum Nanoclusters for Plasmonic Colorimetric Sensing,” ACS Nano 9(11), 10628–10636 (2015).
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Yang, Y.

F. Ding, Y. Yang, R. A. Deshpande, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “A review of gap-surface plasmon metasurfaces: fundamentals and applications,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1129–1156 (2018).
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J. S. Clausen, E. Højlund-Nielsen, A. B. Christiansen, S. Yazdi, M. Grajower, H. Taha, U. Levy, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Coloration of Plastic Consumer Products,” Nano Lett. 14(8), 4499–4504 (2014).
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M. Song, H. Yu, J. Luo, and Z. Zhang, “Tailoring Infrared Refractory Plasmonic Material to Broadband Circularly Polarized Thermal Emitter,” Plasmonics 12(3), 649–654 (2017).
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X. M. Goh, Y. Zheng, S. J. Tan, L. Zhang, K. Kumar, C.-W. Qiu, and J. K. W. Yang, “Three-dimensional plasmonic stereoscopic prints in full colour,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5361 (2014).
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Zhang, S.

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M. Song, H. Yu, C. Hu, M. Pu, Z. Zhang, J. Luo, and X. Luo, “Conversion of broadband energy to narrowband emission through double-sided metamaterials,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32207–32216 (2013).
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Zhao, H.

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M. Song, C. Wang, Z. Zhao, M. Pu, L. Liu, W. Zhang, H. Yu, and X. Luo, “Nanofocusing beyond the near-field diffraction limit via plasmonic Fano resonance,” Nanoscale 8(3), 1635–1641 (2016).
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Zi, J.

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M. Song, H. Yu, J. Luo, and Z. Zhang, “Tailoring Infrared Refractory Plasmonic Material to Broadband Circularly Polarized Thermal Emitter,” Plasmonics 12(3), 649–654 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, M. Song, M. Pu, Y. Gu, C. Hu, Z. Zhao, C. Wang, H. Yu, and X. Luo, “Staked Graphene for Tunable Terahertz Absorber with Customized Bandwidth,” Plasmonics 11(5), 1201–1206 (2016).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the metasurface based on gap plasmon resonator arrays. The thicknesses of the top layer hm and insulator spacer hd are fixed to 30 nm and 20 nm, respectively. The periodicity of the array is 200 nm. (b) Simulated optical absorption spectra of the metasurface with varying widths of the resonator w (65 nm, 85 nm, and 110 nm). (c) Cross-section view of electric and magnetic field distribution at wavelengths of 445 nm, 532 nm and 665 nm, corresponding to the three absorption spectra positions in (b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Left panel: Simulated reflectance spectra of the metasurface as the width of the aluminum (Al) resonator increases from 60 nm to 110 nm with a step of 5 nm. Right panel: a broad palette of subtractive colors calculated from the corresponding reflectance spectra. (b) Chromaticity coordinates corresponding to the simulated spectra.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic diagram of the supercell of the anisotropic plasmonic color metasurface. The supercell consists of a pair of centrosymmetric i-patterned dimers. Each i-patterned dimeris combined of a square shaped resonator and a rectangular shaped resonator. (b) Simulated reflectance spectra of the updated metasurface with varying widths and lengths (w, l) of the rectangular resonators (85 nm, 65 nm), (110 nm, 65 nm) and (110 nm, 85 nm). The three insets show the calculated colors of the corresponding spectral responses.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a), (b) Simulated color results of the anisotropic plasmonic color metasurface under (a) y- and (b) x-polarized illumination. (b) Chromaticity coordinates corresponding to the simulated spectra. The black and white curves show the color palette achieved by the metasurface upon y- and x-polarized illumination, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Overview of a “7-segment display” pattern with three different types of supercells. (b) Simulated color display upon different incident polarizations. Different information states can be clearly revealed with reduced “cross-talk” effect.

Equations (2)

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X= λ x ¯ ( λ )I( λ )R( λ )dλ K , Y= λ y ¯ ( λ )I( λ )R( λ )dλ K , Z= λ z ¯ ( λ )I( λ )R( λ )dλ K .
x= X X+Y+Z y= Y X+Y+Z

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