Abstract

Spectroscopic ellipsometry is a prominent method for finding both the thickness and permittivity of unknown thin material films due to its sensitivity, flexibility, and self-referencing nature. For non-absorbing films, the thickness and permittivity can be readily retrieved due to an excess of data content, which produces a clearly defined best-fit for a series of test material parameters. However, in materials with absorption throughout the spectrum, there is often insufficient data content to uniquely characterize both film thickness and permittivity for the thin film material. This leads to a flat fit optimization curve that can produce apparently good fit results from a wide range of material parameters. To overcome this data content shortage, additional techniques are necessary to either increase the measured data content or reduce the unknown parameters and establish the unique material properties for the film. Here, we explore the use of spectroscopic ellipsometry combined with transmission intensity data and discuss the pitfalls of fitting such thin absorbing films. Specifically, we examine the case of titanium nitride, a rising refractory alternative plasmonic material and demonstrate that without proper ellipsometry fitting procedures, retrieved permittivity values can vary by a factor of three or more.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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2018 (2)

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Datta, J. C. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. Krishnamoorthy, K. MacDolnald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L. Piatkoqski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20(4), 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. P. Sugavaneshwar, S. Ishii, T. D. Dao, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, and T. Nagao, “Fabrication of Highly Metallic TiN Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition Method for Plasmonic Applications,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 814–819 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

D. Shah, H. Reddy, N. Kinsey, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Optical Properties of Plasmonic Ultrathin TiN Films,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(13), 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Catellani and A. Calzolari, “Plasmonic properties of refractory titanium nitride,” Phys. Rev. B 95(11), 115145 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Hu, X. Ren, A. N. Reed, T. Reese, D. Rhee, B. Howe, L. J. Lauhon, A. M. Urbas, and T. W. Odom, “Evolutionary Design and Prototyping of Single Crystalline Titanium Nitride Lattice Optics,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 606–612 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, and E. E. Marinero, “Surface-plasmon opto-magnetic field enhancement for all-optical magnetization switching,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(12), 4316 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

J. A. Briggs, G. V. Naik, T. A. Petach, B. K. Baum, D. Goldhaber-Gordon, and J. A. Dionne, “Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051110 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Merlo, N. T. Nesbitt, Y. M. Calm, A. H. Rose, L. D’Imperio, C. Yang, J. R. Naughton, M. J. Burns, K. Kempa, and M. J. Naughton, “Wireless communication system via nanoscale plasmonic antennas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31710 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Ndukaife, A. V. Kildishev, A. G. A. Nnanna, V. M. Shalaev, S. T. Wereley, and A. Boltasseva, “Long-range and rapid transport of individual nano-objects by a hybrid electrothermoplasmonic nanotweezer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 53–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

2014 (3)

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Guler, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Applied physics. Refractory plasmonics,” Science 344(6181), 263–264 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: Beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, H. B. T. Li, E. Verhagen, R. J. Walters, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Light trapping in ultrathin plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(S2Suppl 2), A237–A245 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Langereis, S. B. S. Heil, H. C. M. Knoops, W. Keuning, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry as a versatile tool for studying atomic layer deposition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(7), 073001 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

B. Johs and J. S. Hale, “Dielectric function representation by B-splines,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(4), 715–719 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. A. Synowicki, “Suppression of backside reflections from transparent substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(5), 1085–1088 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Lahav, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Biological sensing using transmission surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Langmuir 20(18), 7365–7367 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. Huber, D. Manova, S. Mändl, and B. Rauschenbach, “Optical characterization of TiN produced by metal-plasma immersion ion implantation,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 142–144, 418–423 (2001).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. Logothetidis, I. Alexandrou, and A. Papadopoulos, “In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to monitor the process of TiN x thin films deposited by reactive sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(3), 1043–1047 (1995).
[Crossref]

Accanto, N.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Datta, J. C. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. Krishnamoorthy, K. MacDolnald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L. Piatkoqski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20(4), 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Aizpurua, J.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Datta, J. C. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. Krishnamoorthy, K. MacDolnald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L. Piatkoqski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20(4), 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Alexandrou, I.

S. Logothetidis, I. Alexandrou, and A. Papadopoulos, “In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to monitor the process of TiN x thin films deposited by reactive sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(3), 1043–1047 (1995).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

Bagheri, S.

Baker, J. H.

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barton, D. R.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Datta, J. C. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. Krishnamoorthy, K. MacDolnald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L. Piatkoqski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20(4), 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Baum, B. K.

J. A. Briggs, G. V. Naik, T. A. Petach, B. K. Baum, D. Goldhaber-Gordon, and J. A. Dionne, “Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051110 (2016).
[Crossref]

Berrier, A.

Boltasseva, A.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Datta, J. C. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. Krishnamoorthy, K. MacDolnald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L. Piatkoqski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20(4), 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Shah, H. Reddy, N. Kinsey, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Optical Properties of Plasmonic Ultrathin TiN Films,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(13), 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Dutta, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, and E. E. Marinero, “Surface-plasmon opto-magnetic field enhancement for all-optical magnetization switching,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(12), 4316 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. C. Ndukaife, A. V. Kildishev, A. G. A. Nnanna, V. M. Shalaev, S. T. Wereley, and A. Boltasseva, “Long-range and rapid transport of individual nano-objects by a hybrid electrothermoplasmonic nanotweezer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 53–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Kinsey, M. Ferrera, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Examining nanophotonics for integrated hybrid systems: a review of plasmonic interconnects and modulators using traditional and alternative materials [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32(1), 121 (2015).
[Crossref]

U. Guler, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Applied physics. Refractory plasmonics,” Science 344(6181), 263–264 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: Beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. V. Naik, J. Kim, and A. Boltasseva, “Oxides and nitrides as alternative plasmonic materials in the optical range [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 1(6), 1090 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boriskina, S. V.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Datta, J. C. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. Krishnamoorthy, K. MacDolnald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L. Piatkoqski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20(4), 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

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M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Datta, J. C. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. Krishnamoorthy, K. MacDolnald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L. Piatkoqski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20(4), 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Vaskevich, A.

M. Lahav, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Biological sensing using transmission surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Langmuir 20(18), 7365–7367 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verhagen, E.

Verma, P.

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

Verschuuren, M. A.

Walter, R.

Walters, R. J.

Wang, D.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Datta, J. C. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. Krishnamoorthy, K. MacDolnald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L. Piatkoqski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20(4), 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Datta, J. C. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. Krishnamoorthy, K. MacDolnald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L. Piatkoqski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20(4), 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wereley, S. T.

J. C. Ndukaife, A. V. Kildishev, A. G. A. Nnanna, V. M. Shalaev, S. T. Wereley, and A. Boltasseva, “Long-range and rapid transport of individual nano-objects by a hybrid electrothermoplasmonic nanotweezer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 53–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, P. R.

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

J. M. Merlo, N. T. Nesbitt, Y. M. Calm, A. H. Rose, L. D’Imperio, C. Yang, J. R. Naughton, M. J. Burns, K. Kempa, and M. J. Naughton, “Wireless communication system via nanoscale plasmonic antennas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31710 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Datta, J. C. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. Krishnamoorthy, K. MacDolnald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L. Piatkoqski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20(4), 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zgrabik, C. M.

Zhang, X.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Datta, J. C. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. Krishnamoorthy, K. MacDolnald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L. Piatkoqski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20(4), 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Datta, J. C. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. Krishnamoorthy, K. MacDolnald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L. Piatkoqski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20(4), 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

ACS Photonics (2)

J. Hu, X. Ren, A. N. Reed, T. Reese, D. Rhee, B. Howe, L. J. Lauhon, A. M. Urbas, and T. W. Odom, “Evolutionary Design and Prototyping of Single Crystalline Titanium Nitride Lattice Optics,” ACS Photonics 4(3), 606–612 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. P. Sugavaneshwar, S. Ishii, T. D. Dao, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, and T. Nagao, “Fabrication of Highly Metallic TiN Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition Method for Plasmonic Applications,” ACS Photonics 5(3), 814–819 (2018).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

G. V. Naik, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Alternative plasmonic materials: Beyond gold and silver,” Adv. Mater. 25(24), 3264–3294 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

D. Shah, H. Reddy, N. Kinsey, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Optical Properties of Plasmonic Ultrathin TiN Films,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(13), 1–5 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. A. Briggs, G. V. Naik, T. A. Petach, B. K. Baum, D. Goldhaber-Gordon, and J. A. Dionne, “Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(5), 051110 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Logothetidis, I. Alexandrou, and A. Papadopoulos, “In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to monitor the process of TiN x thin films deposited by reactive sputtering,” J. Appl. Phys. 77(3), 1043–1047 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

M. I. Stockman, K. Kneipp, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, S. Saha, A. Datta, J. C. Ndukaife, N. Kinsey, H. Reddy, U. Guler, V. M. Shalaev, A. Boltasseva, B. Gholipour, H. Krishnamoorthy, K. MacDolnald, C. Soci, N. I. Zheludev, V. Savinov, R. Singh, P. Groß, C. Lienau, M. Vadai, M. L. Solomon, D. R. Barton, M. Lawrence, J. A. Dionne, S. V. Boriskina, R. Esteban, J. Aizpurua, X. Zhang, S. Yang, D. Wang, W. Wang, T. W. Odom, N. Accanto, P. M. de Roque, I. M. Hancu, L. Piatkoqski, N. F. van Hulst, and M. F. Kling, “Roadmap on plasmonics,” J. Opt. 20(4), 043001 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Langereis, S. B. S. Heil, H. C. M. Knoops, W. Keuning, M. C. M. van de Sanden, and W. M. M. Kessels, “In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry as a versatile tool for studying atomic layer deposition,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(7), 073001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

M. Lahav, A. Vaskevich, and I. Rubinstein, “Biological sensing using transmission surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Langmuir 20(18), 7365–7367 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

P. R. West, S. Ishii, G. V. Naik, N. K. Emani, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Searching for better plasmonic materials,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 795–808 (2010).
[Crossref]

Materials (Basel) (1)

P. Patsalas, N. Kalfagiannis, and S. Kassavetis, “Optical properties and plasmonic performance of titanium nitride,” Materials (Basel) 8(6), 3128–3154 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

J. C. Ndukaife, A. V. Kildishev, A. G. A. Nnanna, V. M. Shalaev, S. T. Wereley, and A. Boltasseva, “Long-range and rapid transport of individual nano-objects by a hybrid electrothermoplasmonic nanotweezer,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 11(1), 53–59 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nat. Photonics 3(7), 388–394 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. Meinzer, W. L. Barnes, and I. R. Hooper, “Plasmonic meta-atoms and metasurfaces,” Nat. Photonics 8(12), 889–898 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Catellani and A. Calzolari, “Plasmonic properties of refractory titanium nitride,” Phys. Rev. B 95(11), 115145 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (2)

R. A. Synowicki, “Suppression of backside reflections from transparent substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(5), 1085–1088 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Johs and J. S. Hale, “Dielectric function representation by B-splines,” Phys. Status Solidi 205(4), 715–719 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. M. Merlo, N. T. Nesbitt, Y. M. Calm, A. H. Rose, L. D’Imperio, C. Yang, J. R. Naughton, M. J. Burns, K. Kempa, and M. J. Naughton, “Wireless communication system via nanoscale plasmonic antennas,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31710 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (2)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Guler, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Applied physics. Refractory plasmonics,” Science 344(6181), 263–264 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

P. Huber, D. Manova, S. Mändl, and B. Rauschenbach, “Optical characterization of TiN produced by metal-plasma immersion ion implantation,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 142–144, 418–423 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. N. Hilfiker, N. Singh, T. Tiwald, D. Convey, S. M. Smith, J. H. Baker, and H. G. Tompkins, “Survey of methods to characterize thin absorbing films with Spectroscopic Ellipsometry,” Thin Solid Films 516(22), 7979–7989 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

J. N. Hilfiker, R. A. Synowicki, and H. G. Tompkins, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry methods for thin absorbing coatings,” in 51st Annual Technical Conference Proceedings of the Society of Vacuum Coaters (2008), pp. 511–516.

H. G. Tompkins and J. N. Hilfiker, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry : Practical Application to Thin Film Characterization (n.d.).

J. N. Hilfiker and T. Tiwald, “Dielectric Function Modelling,” H. Fujiwara , R. Collins (Eds.), Spectrosc. Ellipsom. Photovoltaics, Springer (2018).

S. M. Edlou, J. C. Simons, G. A. Al-Jumaily, and N. A. Raouf, “Optical and electrical properties of reactively sputtered TiN, ZrN, and HfN thin films,” in SPIE 2262, Optical Thin Films IV: New Developments (1994), Vol. 2262, pp. 96–106.

L. M. Otto, A. T. Hammack, S. Aloni, D. F. Ogletree, D. L. Olynick, S. Dhuey, B. J. H. Stadler, and A. M. Schwartzberg, “Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition for plasmonic TiN,” in Nanophotonics Materials, S. Cabrini, G. Lérondel, A. M. Schwartzberg, and T. Mokari, eds. (2016), p. 99190N.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics : Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

A. A. Maradudin, J. R. Sambles, and W. L. Barnes, Modern Plasmonics. (Elsevier Science, 2014).

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Plasmonic Nanoguides and Circuits (Distributed by World Scientific Pub, 2009).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of spectroscopic ellipsometry. Here, a light source with wavelength λ is configured to produce an arbitrary polarization state (Ei) by a variable polarizer. The incident beam is then used to interrogate the sample at an angle θ. The polarization state of the reflected beam (Eo) is altered by the interaction with the sample. After passing through an analyzer, which allows the polarization state of the reflected beam to be measured at two perpendicular states, the complex s and p reflection coefficients of the sample can be determined.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of data balance for a) transparent film, b) semi-absorbing film, and c) thin absorbing film. For transparent and semi-absorbing films, the ellipsometry measurement are sufficient to allow for unique retrieval of the refractive index and thickness. However, for absorbing films, the ellipsometry measurements alone are insufficient to allow for a unique retrieval of the optical properties and thickness, and additional information should be added to improve the confidence of the result.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Mean Squared Error (MSE) vs Thickness for a thin TiN layer using general oscillator and B-Spline dispersion equations to fit only SE data. The general oscillator shows a distinct minimum at 48 nm and the B-Spline has a flat, low MSE fit from 20 to 120 nm leading to a large ambiguity in fit quality.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Logarithmic surface plot of Mean Squared Error for various resistivity and thickness combinations. The elongated trough shows a strong correlation between thickness and resistivity which induces a large variability in material properties.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 B-Spline fit for various thicknesses calculated real and imaginary permittivity a) and b) and figure of merit c). Despite each fit having a low Mean Squared Error fit, a large change in optical properties is seen between each fit with almost 3 × variation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 a) Balance of variables with transmission included. The balance favors measured values, which is ideal for fitting. b) Transmission measured and generated with B-Spline fits shown in Fig. 5. The 50 nm fit is closest to the actual measured transmission of the film.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 a) Mean Squared Error vs thickness for various weightings of transmission. Fits with transmission included have a sharp ‘v’ providing a unique fit for thickness at 47 nm. b) Two dimensional parameter uniqueness comparing resistivity and thickness. The conical trough is ideal, showing a unique fit between the thickness and resistivity parameters.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 a) Real (left axis) and Imaginary (right axis) permittivities of samples A, B, and C when using SE data alone fit with a Drude and two Lorentz oscillators (GenOsc). The fit thicknesses have clear deviations from a linear growth. b) Real (left axis) and Imaginary (right axis) permittivities of samples A, B, and C with transmission measurements fit with a Drude and two Lorentz oscillators(GenOsc). The trend is now seen that material quality does not strongly depend on the thickness of the film and a linear growth rate is found. c) AFM measurement of a step in the TiN films verifying the thicknesses obtained. The curvature seen in C is attributed to etching under the mask, more prevalent in C due to additional time of etch. d) AFM measurement of sample A showing <1nm surface roughness. Other samples illustrate similar roughness.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Correlation matrix between thickness, resistivity, and scattering time using GenOsc models. The correlation between thickness and resistivity or thickness and scattering time being close to ± 1 is non-ideal, meaning there is not uniqueness to the fit.

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Table 2 Correlation matrix with transmission included in the calculation. The correlation between thickness and resistivity or thickness and scattering time are no longer close to ± 1 so the correlation is broken

Equations (3)

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r ˜ p r ˜ s =tanΨ e iΔ
ε= ε + j f j ω 0j 2 ω 2 iΓω ω p 2 ω 2 +iγω
MSE= 1 3nm i n [ [ N E i N G i .001 ] 2 + [ C E i C G i .001 ] 2 + [ S E i S G i .001 ] 2 ]

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