Abstract

Layered two-dimensional (2D) materials provide a wide range of unique properties as compared to their bulk counterpart, making them ideal for heterogeneous integration for on-chip interconnects. Hence, a detailed understanding of the loss and index change on Si integrated platform is a prerequisite for advances in opto-electronic devices impacting optical communication technology, signal processing, and possibly photonic-based computing. Here, we present an experimental guide to characterize transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), once monolithically integrated into the silicon photonic platform at 1.55 μm wavelength. We describe the passive tunable coupling effect of the resonator in terms of loss induced as a function of 2D material layer coverage length and thickness. Further, we demonstrate a TMDC-ring based hybrid platform where resonance shift has been mapped out as a function of flake thickness, which correlates well with our simulated data. These experimental findings on passive TMDC-Si hybrid platform open up a new dimension by controlling the effective change in loss and index, which may lead to the potential application of 2D material based active on chip photonics.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

R. Amin, Z. Ma, R. Maiti, S. Khan, J. B. Khurgin, H. Dalir, and V. J. Sorger, “Attojoule-efficient graphene optical modulators,” Appl. Opt. 57(18), D130–D140 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Amin, R. Maiti, C. Carfano, Z. Ma, M. H. Tahersima, Y. Lilach, D. Ratnayake, H. Dalir, and V. J. Sorger, “0.52 V-mm ITO-based Mach-Zehnder Modulator in Silicon Photonics,” APL Photon. 3(12), 126104 (2018).
[Crossref]

R. A. Hemnani, C. Carfano, J. P. Tischler, M. H. Tahersima, R. Maiti, L. Bartels, R. Agarwal, and V. J. Sorger, “Towards a 2D Printer: A Deterministic Cross Contamination-free Transfer Method for Atomically Layered Materials,” 2D Materials 6(1), 015006 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

B. Lee, W. Liu, C. H. Naylor, J. Park, S. C. Malek, J. S. Berger, A. T. C. Johnson, and R. Agarwal, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton-Plasmon Polariton Coupling in Monolayer MoS2 Integrated with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Lattice,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4541–4547 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Bie, G. Grosso, M. Heuck, M. M. Furchi, Y. Cao, J. Zheng, D. Bunandar, E. Navarro-Moratalla, L. Zhou, D. K. Efetov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, J. Kong, D. Englund, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “A MoTe2-based light-emitting diode and photodetector for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(12), 1124–1129 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. N. Tsigaridas, “A study on refractive index sensors based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Photonic Sens. 7(3), 217–225 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Manzeli, D. Ovchinnikov, D. Pasquier, O. V. Yazyev, and A. Kis, “2D transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(8), 17033 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. A. Miller, “Attojoule optoelectronics for low-energy information processing and communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(3), 346–396 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

T. K. Fryett, K. L. Seyler, J. Zheng, C.-H. Liu, X. Xu, and A. Majumdar, “Silicon Photonic Crystal Cavity Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation from Monolayer Wse2,” 2D Mater 4(1), 015031 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

G. Wei, T. K. Stanev, D. A. Czaplewski, I. W. Jung, and N. P. Stern, “Silicon-nitride photonic circuits interfaced with monolayer MoS2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091112 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. H. Han, N. J. Kybert, C. H. Naylor, B. S. Lee, J. Ping, J. H. Park, J. Kang, S. Y. Lee, Y. H. Lee, R. Agarwal, and A. T. Johnson, “Seeded growth of highly crystalline molybdenum disulphide monolayers at controlled locations,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. Phare, Y. H. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ding, X. Zhu, S. Xiao, H. Hu, L. H. Frandsen, N. A. Mortensen, and K. Yvind, “Effective electro-optical modulation with high extinction ratio by a graphene–silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4393–4400 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photon 9, 247-252 (2015).

Y. Ye, Z. J. Wong, X. Lu, X. Ni, H. Zhu, X. Chen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Monolayer excitonic laser,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 733–737 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Mukherjee, R. Maiti, A. Midya, S. Das, and S. K. Ray, “Tunable direct bandgap optical transitions in MoS2 nanocrystals for photonic devices,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 760–768 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

C. Yim, M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, S. Winters, I. Mirza, J. G. Lunney, and G. S. Duesberg, “Investigation of the optical properties of MoS2 thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103114 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wu, S. Buckley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, A. Majumdar, and X. Xu, “Control of Two-Dimensional Excitonic Light Emission via Photonic Crystal,” 2D Mater 1(1), 011001 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S. F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z. X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

X. Gan, Y. Gao, K. Fai Mak, X. Yao, R. J. Shiue, A. van der Zande, M. E. Trusheim, F. Hatami, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of monolayer MoS2 in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Xu, T. Liang, M. Shi, and H. Chen, “Graphene-like two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Rev. 113(5), 3766–3798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

R. Mas-Ballesté, C. Gómez-Navarro, J. Gómez-Herrero, and F. Zamora, “2D materials: to graphene and beyond,” Nanoscale 3(1), 20–30 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-Layer MoS2 Transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kim, D. Sun, W. Lu, Z. Cheng, Y. Zhu, D. Le, T. S. Rahman, and L. Bartels, “Toward the growth of an aligned single-layer MoS2 film,” Langmuir 27(18), 11650–11653 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C. Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically Thin MoS2: A New Direct-Gap Semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Freitag, “Graphene: nanoelectronics goes flat out,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 455–457 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

D. T. Pierce and W. E. Spicer, “Electronic structure of amorphous Si from photoemission and optical studies,” Phys. Rev. B 5(8), 3017–3029 (1972).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, R.

R. A. Hemnani, C. Carfano, J. P. Tischler, M. H. Tahersima, R. Maiti, L. Bartels, R. Agarwal, and V. J. Sorger, “Towards a 2D Printer: A Deterministic Cross Contamination-free Transfer Method for Atomically Layered Materials,” 2D Materials 6(1), 015006 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Lee, W. Liu, C. H. Naylor, J. Park, S. C. Malek, J. S. Berger, A. T. C. Johnson, and R. Agarwal, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton-Plasmon Polariton Coupling in Monolayer MoS2 Integrated with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Lattice,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4541–4547 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. H. Han, N. J. Kybert, C. H. Naylor, B. S. Lee, J. Ping, J. H. Park, J. Kang, S. Y. Lee, Y. H. Lee, R. Agarwal, and A. T. Johnson, “Seeded growth of highly crystalline molybdenum disulphide monolayers at controlled locations,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amin, R.

R. Amin, Z. Ma, R. Maiti, S. Khan, J. B. Khurgin, H. Dalir, and V. J. Sorger, “Attojoule-efficient graphene optical modulators,” Appl. Opt. 57(18), D130–D140 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Amin, R. Maiti, C. Carfano, Z. Ma, M. H. Tahersima, Y. Lilach, D. Ratnayake, H. Dalir, and V. J. Sorger, “0.52 V-mm ITO-based Mach-Zehnder Modulator in Silicon Photonics,” APL Photon. 3(12), 126104 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bartels, L.

R. A. Hemnani, C. Carfano, J. P. Tischler, M. H. Tahersima, R. Maiti, L. Bartels, R. Agarwal, and V. J. Sorger, “Towards a 2D Printer: A Deterministic Cross Contamination-free Transfer Method for Atomically Layered Materials,” 2D Materials 6(1), 015006 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Kim, D. Sun, W. Lu, Z. Cheng, Y. Zhu, D. Le, T. S. Rahman, and L. Bartels, “Toward the growth of an aligned single-layer MoS2 film,” Langmuir 27(18), 11650–11653 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berger, J. S.

B. Lee, W. Liu, C. H. Naylor, J. Park, S. C. Malek, J. S. Berger, A. T. C. Johnson, and R. Agarwal, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton-Plasmon Polariton Coupling in Monolayer MoS2 Integrated with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Lattice,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4541–4547 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bie, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Bie, G. Grosso, M. Heuck, M. M. Furchi, Y. Cao, J. Zheng, D. Bunandar, E. Navarro-Moratalla, L. Zhou, D. K. Efetov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, J. Kong, D. Englund, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “A MoTe2-based light-emitting diode and photodetector for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(12), 1124–1129 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bradley, A. J.

M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S. F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z. X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brivio, J.

B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-Layer MoS2 Transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buckley, S.

S. Wu, S. Buckley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, A. Majumdar, and X. Xu, “Control of Two-Dimensional Excitonic Light Emission via Photonic Crystal,” 2D Mater 1(1), 011001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bunandar, D.

Y. Q. Bie, G. Grosso, M. Heuck, M. M. Furchi, Y. Cao, J. Zheng, D. Bunandar, E. Navarro-Moratalla, L. Zhou, D. K. Efetov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, J. Kong, D. Englund, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “A MoTe2-based light-emitting diode and photodetector for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(12), 1124–1129 (2017).
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S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
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Khan, S.

Khurgin, J. B.

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D. Kim, D. Sun, W. Lu, Z. Cheng, Y. Zhu, D. Le, T. S. Rahman, and L. Bartels, “Toward the growth of an aligned single-layer MoS2 film,” Langmuir 27(18), 11650–11653 (2011).
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A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C. Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
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S. Manzeli, D. Ovchinnikov, D. Pasquier, O. V. Yazyev, and A. Kis, “2D transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(8), 17033 (2017).
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Q. H. Wang, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, A. Kis, J. N. Coleman, and M. S. Strano, “Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(11), 699–712 (2012).
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B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-Layer MoS2 Transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
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N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photon 9, 247-252 (2015).

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Y. Q. Bie, G. Grosso, M. Heuck, M. M. Furchi, Y. Cao, J. Zheng, D. Bunandar, E. Navarro-Moratalla, L. Zhou, D. K. Efetov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, J. Kong, D. Englund, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “A MoTe2-based light-emitting diode and photodetector for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(12), 1124–1129 (2017).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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D. Kim, D. Sun, W. Lu, Z. Cheng, Y. Zhu, D. Le, T. S. Rahman, and L. Bartels, “Toward the growth of an aligned single-layer MoS2 film,” Langmuir 27(18), 11650–11653 (2011).
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B. Lee, W. Liu, C. H. Naylor, J. Park, S. C. Malek, J. S. Berger, A. T. C. Johnson, and R. Agarwal, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton-Plasmon Polariton Coupling in Monolayer MoS2 Integrated with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Lattice,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4541–4547 (2017).
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G. H. Han, N. J. Kybert, C. H. Naylor, B. S. Lee, J. Ping, J. H. Park, J. Kang, S. Y. Lee, Y. H. Lee, R. Agarwal, and A. T. Johnson, “Seeded growth of highly crystalline molybdenum disulphide monolayers at controlled locations,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6128 (2015).
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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically Thin MoS2: A New Direct-Gap Semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
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G. H. Han, N. J. Kybert, C. H. Naylor, B. S. Lee, J. Ping, J. H. Park, J. Kang, S. Y. Lee, Y. H. Lee, R. Agarwal, and A. T. Johnson, “Seeded growth of highly crystalline molybdenum disulphide monolayers at controlled locations,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6128 (2015).
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G. H. Han, N. J. Kybert, C. H. Naylor, B. S. Lee, J. Ping, J. H. Park, J. Kang, S. Y. Lee, Y. H. Lee, R. Agarwal, and A. T. Johnson, “Seeded growth of highly crystalline molybdenum disulphide monolayers at controlled locations,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6128 (2015).
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C. T. Phare, Y. H. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
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N. Youngblood, C. Chen, S. J. Koester, and M. Li, “Waveguide-integrated black phosphorus photodetector with high responsivity and low dark current,” Nat. Photon 9, 247-252 (2015).

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A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C. Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
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M. Xu, T. Liang, M. Shi, and H. Chen, “Graphene-like two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Rev. 113(5), 3766–3798 (2013).
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C. T. Phare, Y. H. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
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T. K. Fryett, K. L. Seyler, J. Zheng, C.-H. Liu, X. Xu, and A. Majumdar, “Silicon Photonic Crystal Cavity Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation from Monolayer Wse2,” 2D Mater 4(1), 015031 (2016).
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B. Lee, W. Liu, C. H. Naylor, J. Park, S. C. Malek, J. S. Berger, A. T. C. Johnson, and R. Agarwal, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton-Plasmon Polariton Coupling in Monolayer MoS2 Integrated with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Lattice,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4541–4547 (2017).
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M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S. F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z. X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
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D. Kim, D. Sun, W. Lu, Z. Cheng, Y. Zhu, D. Le, T. S. Rahman, and L. Bartels, “Toward the growth of an aligned single-layer MoS2 film,” Langmuir 27(18), 11650–11653 (2011).
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Y. Ye, Z. J. Wong, X. Lu, X. Ni, H. Zhu, X. Chen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Monolayer excitonic laser,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 733–737 (2015).
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R. Amin, R. Maiti, C. Carfano, Z. Ma, M. H. Tahersima, Y. Lilach, D. Ratnayake, H. Dalir, and V. J. Sorger, “0.52 V-mm ITO-based Mach-Zehnder Modulator in Silicon Photonics,” APL Photon. 3(12), 126104 (2018).
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R. Amin, Z. Ma, R. Maiti, S. Khan, J. B. Khurgin, H. Dalir, and V. J. Sorger, “Attojoule-efficient graphene optical modulators,” Appl. Opt. 57(18), D130–D140 (2018).
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R. A. Hemnani, C. Carfano, J. P. Tischler, M. H. Tahersima, R. Maiti, L. Bartels, R. Agarwal, and V. J. Sorger, “Towards a 2D Printer: A Deterministic Cross Contamination-free Transfer Method for Atomically Layered Materials,” 2D Materials 6(1), 015006 (2018).
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T. K. Fryett, K. L. Seyler, J. Zheng, C.-H. Liu, X. Xu, and A. Majumdar, “Silicon Photonic Crystal Cavity Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation from Monolayer Wse2,” 2D Mater 4(1), 015031 (2016).
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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically Thin MoS2: A New Direct-Gap Semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
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B. Lee, W. Liu, C. H. Naylor, J. Park, S. C. Malek, J. S. Berger, A. T. C. Johnson, and R. Agarwal, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton-Plasmon Polariton Coupling in Monolayer MoS2 Integrated with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Lattice,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4541–4547 (2017).
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S. Wu, S. Buckley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, A. Majumdar, and X. Xu, “Control of Two-Dimensional Excitonic Light Emission via Photonic Crystal,” 2D Mater 1(1), 011001 (2014).
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S. Mukherjee, R. Maiti, A. Midya, S. Das, and S. K. Ray, “Tunable direct bandgap optical transitions in MoS2 nanocrystals for photonic devices,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 760–768 (2015).
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Mirza, I.

C. Yim, M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, S. Winters, I. Mirza, J. G. Lunney, and G. S. Duesberg, “Investigation of the optical properties of MoS2 thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103114 (2014).
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M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S. F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z. X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
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S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
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S. Mukherjee, R. Maiti, A. Midya, S. Das, and S. K. Ray, “Tunable direct bandgap optical transitions in MoS2 nanocrystals for photonic devices,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 760–768 (2015).
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Y. Q. Bie, G. Grosso, M. Heuck, M. M. Furchi, Y. Cao, J. Zheng, D. Bunandar, E. Navarro-Moratalla, L. Zhou, D. K. Efetov, T. Taniguchi, K. Watanabe, J. Kong, D. Englund, and P. Jarillo-Herrero, “A MoTe2-based light-emitting diode and photodetector for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(12), 1124–1129 (2017).
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B. Lee, W. Liu, C. H. Naylor, J. Park, S. C. Malek, J. S. Berger, A. T. C. Johnson, and R. Agarwal, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton-Plasmon Polariton Coupling in Monolayer MoS2 Integrated with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Lattice,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4541–4547 (2017).
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Y. Ye, Z. J. Wong, X. Lu, X. Ni, H. Zhu, X. Chen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Monolayer excitonic laser,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 733–737 (2015).
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S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
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C. Yim, M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, S. Winters, I. Mirza, J. G. Lunney, and G. S. Duesberg, “Investigation of the optical properties of MoS2 thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103114 (2014).
[Crossref]

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S. Manzeli, D. Ovchinnikov, D. Pasquier, O. V. Yazyev, and A. Kis, “2D transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(8), 17033 (2017).
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B. Lee, W. Liu, C. H. Naylor, J. Park, S. C. Malek, J. S. Berger, A. T. C. Johnson, and R. Agarwal, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton-Plasmon Polariton Coupling in Monolayer MoS2 Integrated with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Lattice,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4541–4547 (2017).
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G. H. Han, N. J. Kybert, C. H. Naylor, B. S. Lee, J. Ping, J. H. Park, J. Kang, S. Y. Lee, Y. H. Lee, R. Agarwal, and A. T. Johnson, “Seeded growth of highly crystalline molybdenum disulphide monolayers at controlled locations,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6128 (2015).
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S. Manzeli, D. Ovchinnikov, D. Pasquier, O. V. Yazyev, and A. Kis, “2D transition metal dichalcogenides,” Nat. Rev. Mater. 2(8), 17033 (2017).
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C. T. Phare, Y. H. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 9(8), 511–514 (2015).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S. F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z. X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
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B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-Layer MoS2 Transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
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B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-Layer MoS2 Transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
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D. Kim, D. Sun, W. Lu, Z. Cheng, Y. Zhu, D. Le, T. S. Rahman, and L. Bartels, “Toward the growth of an aligned single-layer MoS2 film,” Langmuir 27(18), 11650–11653 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. Amin, R. Maiti, C. Carfano, Z. Ma, M. H. Tahersima, Y. Lilach, D. Ratnayake, H. Dalir, and V. J. Sorger, “0.52 V-mm ITO-based Mach-Zehnder Modulator in Silicon Photonics,” APL Photon. 3(12), 126104 (2018).
[Crossref]

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S. Mukherjee, R. Maiti, A. Midya, S. Das, and S. K. Ray, “Tunable direct bandgap optical transitions in MoS2 nanocrystals for photonic devices,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 760–768 (2015).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Wu, S. Buckley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, A. Majumdar, and X. Xu, “Control of Two-Dimensional Excitonic Light Emission via Photonic Crystal,” 2D Mater 1(1), 011001 (2014).
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M. M. Ugeda, A. J. Bradley, S. F. Shi, F. H. da Jornada, Y. Zhang, D. Y. Qiu, W. Ruan, S. K. Mo, Z. Hussain, Z. X. Shen, F. Wang, S. G. Louie, and M. F. Crommie, “Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1091–1095 (2014).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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S. V. Morozov, K. S. Novoselov, M. I. Katsnelson, F. Schedin, D. C. Elias, J. A. Jaszczak, and A. K. Geim, “Giant intrinsic carrier mobilities in graphene and its bilayer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 016602 (2008).
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T. K. Fryett, K. L. Seyler, J. Zheng, C.-H. Liu, X. Xu, and A. Majumdar, “Silicon Photonic Crystal Cavity Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation from Monolayer Wse2,” 2D Mater 4(1), 015031 (2016).
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Y. Ye, Z. J. Wong, X. Lu, X. Ni, H. Zhu, X. Chen, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Monolayer excitonic laser,” Nat. Photonics 9(11), 733–737 (2015).
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Zhu, Y.

D. Kim, D. Sun, W. Lu, Z. Cheng, Y. Zhu, D. Le, T. S. Rahman, and L. Bartels, “Toward the growth of an aligned single-layer MoS2 film,” Langmuir 27(18), 11650–11653 (2011).
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2D Mater (2)

S. Wu, S. Buckley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, F. Hatami, J. Vučković, A. Majumdar, and X. Xu, “Control of Two-Dimensional Excitonic Light Emission via Photonic Crystal,” 2D Mater 1(1), 011001 (2014).
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T. K. Fryett, K. L. Seyler, J. Zheng, C.-H. Liu, X. Xu, and A. Majumdar, “Silicon Photonic Crystal Cavity Enhanced Second-Harmonic Generation from Monolayer Wse2,” 2D Mater 4(1), 015031 (2016).
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2D Materials (1)

R. A. Hemnani, C. Carfano, J. P. Tischler, M. H. Tahersima, R. Maiti, L. Bartels, R. Agarwal, and V. J. Sorger, “Towards a 2D Printer: A Deterministic Cross Contamination-free Transfer Method for Atomically Layered Materials,” 2D Materials 6(1), 015006 (2018).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

S. Z. Butler, S. M. Hollen, L. Cao, Y. Cui, J. A. Gupta, H. R. Gutiérrez, T. F. Heinz, S. S. Hong, J. Huang, A. F. Ismach, E. Johnston-Halperin, M. Kuno, V. V. Plashnitsa, R. D. Robinson, R. S. Ruoff, S. Salahuddin, J. Shan, L. Shi, M. G. Spencer, M. Terrones, W. Windl, and J. E. Goldberger, “Progress, challenges, and opportunities in two-dimensional materials beyond graphene,” ACS Nano 7(4), 2898–2926 (2013).
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ACS Photonics (1)

S. Mukherjee, R. Maiti, A. Midya, S. Das, and S. K. Ray, “Tunable direct bandgap optical transitions in MoS2 nanocrystals for photonic devices,” ACS Photonics 2(6), 760–768 (2015).
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APL Photon. (1)

R. Amin, R. Maiti, C. Carfano, Z. Ma, M. H. Tahersima, Y. Lilach, D. Ratnayake, H. Dalir, and V. J. Sorger, “0.52 V-mm ITO-based Mach-Zehnder Modulator in Silicon Photonics,” APL Photon. 3(12), 126104 (2018).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Wei, T. K. Stanev, D. A. Czaplewski, I. W. Jung, and N. P. Stern, “Silicon-nitride photonic circuits interfaced with monolayer MoS2,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(9), 091112 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Gan, Y. Gao, K. Fai Mak, X. Yao, R. J. Shiue, A. van der Zande, M. E. Trusheim, F. Hatami, T. F. Heinz, J. Hone, and D. Englund, “Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of monolayer MoS2 in a photonic crystal nanocavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181119 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yim, M. O’Brien, N. McEvoy, S. Winters, I. Mirza, J. G. Lunney, and G. S. Duesberg, “Investigation of the optical properties of MoS2 thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 103114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chem. Rev. (1)

M. Xu, T. Liang, M. Shi, and H. Chen, “Graphene-like two-dimensional materials,” Chem. Rev. 113(5), 3766–3798 (2013).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Langmuir (1)

D. Kim, D. Sun, W. Lu, Z. Cheng, Y. Zhu, D. Le, T. S. Rahman, and L. Bartels, “Toward the growth of an aligned single-layer MoS2 film,” Langmuir 27(18), 11650–11653 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (3)

A. Splendiani, L. Sun, Y. Zhang, T. Li, J. Kim, C. Y. Chim, G. Galli, and F. Wang, “Emerging photoluminescence in monolayer MoS2,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1271–1275 (2010).
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B. Lee, W. Liu, C. H. Naylor, J. Park, S. C. Malek, J. S. Berger, A. T. C. Johnson, and R. Agarwal, “Electrical Tuning of Exciton-Plasmon Polariton Coupling in Monolayer MoS2 Integrated with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Lattice,” Nano Lett. 17(7), 4541–4547 (2017).
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Y. Ding, X. Zhu, S. Xiao, H. Hu, L. H. Frandsen, N. A. Mortensen, and K. Yvind, “Effective electro-optical modulation with high extinction ratio by a graphene–silicon microring resonator,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4393–4400 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

R. Mas-Ballesté, C. Gómez-Navarro, J. Gómez-Herrero, and F. Zamora, “2D materials: to graphene and beyond,” Nanoscale 3(1), 20–30 (2011).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

G. H. Han, N. J. Kybert, C. H. Naylor, B. S. Lee, J. Ping, J. H. Park, J. Kang, S. Y. Lee, Y. H. Lee, R. Agarwal, and A. T. Johnson, “Seeded growth of highly crystalline molybdenum disulphide monolayers at controlled locations,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6128 (2015).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Optical microscope image of (a) Bare SOI chip with micro ring resonators, (b) EBL patterned opening to transfer 2D materials on top of the ring resonator, (c) & (d) MoS2 flakes have been transferred on targeted device area by using our micro stamper based 2D printer setup.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 MoS2 loaded micro-ring resonator (MRR). (a) Schematic (b) optical microscope image of an MRR (R = 40 μm & W = 500 nm) covered by two monolayer MoS2 flakes with coverage lengths (l1 and l2) precisely transferred using our developed 2D printer technique [25]. (c) Transmission output before and after the transfer of monolayer MoS2 showing improvement of coupling efficiency. (d) & (e) optical microscope and AFM image of a MRR showing a multi-layer MoS2 flake with coverage length 22 μm and thickness of 30 nm, respectively. AFM cross section (inset) (f) Transmission output before and after the transfer of multilayer MoS2 flakes which display a gradual increase of visibility suggesting the improvement of coupling efficiency as it brings the device close to critically coupled regime after the transfer of the TMDCs layer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 MoS2 loaded Linear waveguides. (a) optical microscope image of the waveguide with an opening (400 μm x 100 μm) for TMDC transfer to keep all physical parameters unchanged during the optical measurement. (b) & (c) optical microscope image of waveguide covered by a monolayer CVD grown and a multilayer exfoliated flake with coverage length 10 μm and 50 μm, respectively. (d) Optical loss output as a function of monolayer coverage length originates mainly due to the edge scattering effect. The propagation loss (⍺TMDC-Si) for a TMDC-covered portion of the ring is found to be 0.012 dB/μm using cutback measurement. (e) Tunability of round-trip transmission coefficients explains the coupling improvement as a function of coverage length for four different thickness values.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Mode profile (electric |E|-field), obtained through Eigen mode analysis, for the portion of the ring with MoS2 transferred flakes (a) 20 nm and (b) 50 nm thick (Scale bar 200 nm). Variation of Resonance shift ( Δλ) and effective index change ( Δ n eff ) extracted from (c) as a function of MoS2 coverage length and (d) thickness, which is fully corroborated by a numerical simulation study.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Table of Losses associated with 2D materials with heterogeneously integrated Si Platform

Equations (4)

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T n = a 2 + r 2 2ar*cosφ 1+ a 2 r 2 2ar*cosφ
a 2 =exp( α Si (2πRl))*exp( α TMDSi *l)
Δ n eff = Δλ λ res * n eff,bare
n eff,ring = (2πRl)* n eff,bare +l* n eff 2πR

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