Abstract

We report on the demonstration of polarization sensitive black phosphorus (P) nanomechanical resonators. Thanks to the unique in-plane optical anisotropy of black P crystals, optical absorption varies depending on the polarization of incident light, which translates into the difference in shifts of resonance frequency. We employ two-dimensional (2D) black P drumhead resonators operating in the ~5−10 MHz range to reveal the polarization responsivity. For an optical illumination with fixed intensity, we observe an ~0.4−0.6 MHz resonance frequency shift upon 90° change of polarization angle. The observed polarization responsivity of resonance frequency can be harnessed to realize polarimetric nanodevices to detect the optical polarization rotation of optically active substances. Further, from polarization sensitive resonance frequency shift, it is viable to identify two unknown in-plane crystal directions, armchair (AC) and zigzag (ZZ), of black P crystals.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (5)

M. Basharat, M. Ding, H. Cai, Y. Li, and J. Fang, “Analysis of influence factors of Faraday rotation measurement by magneto-optic modulation,” Proc. SPIE 10621, 1062103 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Islam, W. Du, V. Pashaei, H. Jia, Z. Wang, J. Lee, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Discerning black phosphorus crystal orientation and anisotropy by polarized reflectance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(30), 25629–25637 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Islam, A. van den Akker, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Anisotropic thermal conductivity of suspended black phosphorus probed by opto-thermomechanical resonance spectromicroscopy,” Nano Lett. 18(12), 7683–7691 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Shen, C. Hu, S. Huo, Z. Sun, S. Fan, J. Liu, and X. Hu, “Wavelength tunable polarizer based on layered black phosphorus on Si/SiO2 substrate,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1255–1258 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Fang, Y. Liu, G. Han, Y. Shao, J. Zhang, and Y. Hao, “Localized plasmon resonances for black phosphorus bowtie nanoantennas at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 26(21), 27683–27693 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

S. Zhang, Y. Liu, Y. Shao, C. Fang, G. Han, J. Zhang, and Y. Hao, “Simulation investigation of strained black phosphorus photodetector for middle infrared range,” Opt. Express 25(20), 24705–24713 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. T. Smalley, F. Vallini, and Y. Fainman, “Detection of optical activity with diode-integrated hyperbolic metasurfaces,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(12), 5594–5603 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H.-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, and Z. Sun, “Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic two-dimensional layered materials,” ACS Photonics 4(12), 3023–3030 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pei, X. Gai, J. Yang, X. Wang, Z. Yu, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. Lu, “Producing air-stable monolayers of phosphorene and their defect engineering,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10450 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yue, D. Lee, Y. D. Jang, M. S. Choi, H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, and W. J. Yoo, “Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors,” Nanoscale 8(25), 12773–12779 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Moreno-Moreno, G. Lopez-Polin, A. Castellanos-Gomez, C. Gomez-Navarro, and J. Gomez-Herrero, “Environmental effects in mechanical properties of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 3(3), 031007 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Jia, X. Zheng, R. Yang, Z. Wang, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies,” Nanoscale 7(3), 877–884 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, A. Islam, R. Yang, X.-Q. Zheng, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Environmental, thermal, and electrical susceptibility of black phosphorus field effect transistors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(5), 052202 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Avsar, I. J. Vera-Marun, J. Y. Tan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Air-stable transport in graphene-contacted, fully encapsulated ultrathin black phosphorus-based field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4138–4145 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Lin, Y. L. Lo, C. C. Liao, and J. X. Lin, “Optical detection of glucose concentration in samples with scattering particles,” Appl. Opt. 54(35), 10425–10431 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K.-S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Yang, X.-Q. Zheng, Z. Wang, C. J. Miller, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Multilayer MoS2 transistors enabled by a facile dry-transfer technique and thermal annealing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 061203 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, J. Lee, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Spatial mapping of multimode Brownian motions in high-frequency silicon carbide microdisk resonators,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5158 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

J. Lee, Z. Wang, K. He, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “High frequency MoS2 nanomechanical resonators,” ACS Nano 7(7), 6086–6091 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Afshinmanesh, F.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Autere, A.

H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H.-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, and Z. Sun, “Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic two-dimensional layered materials,” ACS Photonics 4(12), 3023–3030 (2017).
[Crossref]

Avsar, A.

A. Avsar, I. J. Vera-Marun, J. Y. Tan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Air-stable transport in graphene-contacted, fully encapsulated ultrathin black phosphorus-based field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4138–4145 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basharat, M.

M. Basharat, M. Ding, H. Cai, Y. Li, and J. Fang, “Analysis of influence factors of Faraday rotation measurement by magneto-optic modulation,” Proc. SPIE 10621, 1062103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Blake, P.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, H.

M. Basharat, M. Ding, H. Cai, Y. Li, and J. Fang, “Analysis of influence factors of Faraday rotation measurement by magneto-optic modulation,” Proc. SPIE 10621, 1062103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Castellanos-Gomez, A.

M. Moreno-Moreno, G. Lopez-Polin, A. Castellanos-Gomez, C. Gomez-Navarro, and J. Gomez-Herrero, “Environmental effects in mechanical properties of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 3(3), 031007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Castro Neto, A. H.

A. Avsar, I. J. Vera-Marun, J. Y. Tan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Air-stable transport in graphene-contacted, fully encapsulated ultrathin black phosphorus-based field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4138–4145 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, K.-S.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K.-S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H.-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, and Z. Sun, “Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic two-dimensional layered materials,” ACS Photonics 4(12), 3023–3030 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. H.

A. Islam, W. Du, V. Pashaei, H. Jia, Z. Wang, J. Lee, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Discerning black phosphorus crystal orientation and anisotropy by polarized reflectance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(30), 25629–25637 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Jia, X. Zheng, R. Yang, Z. Wang, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies,” Nanoscale 7(3), 877–884 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, E.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K.-S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, D.-Y.

J. Pei, X. Gai, J. Yang, X. Wang, Z. Yu, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. Lu, “Producing air-stable monolayers of phosphorene and their defect engineering,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10450 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, M. S.

D. Yue, D. Lee, Y. D. Jang, M. S. Choi, H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, and W. J. Yoo, “Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors,” Nanoscale 8(25), 12773–12779 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curto, A. G.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

da Jornada, F. H.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Das, P. M.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, M.

M. Basharat, M. Ding, H. Cai, Y. Li, and J. Fang, “Analysis of influence factors of Faraday rotation measurement by magneto-optic modulation,” Proc. SPIE 10621, 1062103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Dresselhaus, M. S.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drndic, M.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, W.

A. Islam, W. Du, V. Pashaei, H. Jia, Z. Wang, J. Lee, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Discerning black phosphorus crystal orientation and anisotropy by polarized reflectance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(30), 25629–25637 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

Fan, S.

Fang, C.

Fang, J.

M. Basharat, M. Ding, H. Cai, Y. Li, and J. Fang, “Analysis of influence factors of Faraday rotation measurement by magneto-optic modulation,” Proc. SPIE 10621, 1062103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Feng, D.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, P. X.-L.

A. Islam, W. Du, V. Pashaei, H. Jia, Z. Wang, J. Lee, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Discerning black phosphorus crystal orientation and anisotropy by polarized reflectance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(30), 25629–25637 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Islam, A. van den Akker, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Anisotropic thermal conductivity of suspended black phosphorus probed by opto-thermomechanical resonance spectromicroscopy,” Nano Lett. 18(12), 7683–7691 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, A. Islam, R. Yang, X.-Q. Zheng, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Environmental, thermal, and electrical susceptibility of black phosphorus field effect transistors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(5), 052202 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, H. Jia, X. Zheng, R. Yang, Z. Wang, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies,” Nanoscale 7(3), 877–884 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, J. Lee, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Spatial mapping of multimode Brownian motions in high-frequency silicon carbide microdisk resonators,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5158 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Yang, X.-Q. Zheng, Z. Wang, C. J. Miller, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Multilayer MoS2 transistors enabled by a facile dry-transfer technique and thermal annealing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 061203 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, Z. Wang, K. He, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “High frequency MoS2 nanomechanical resonators,” ACS Nano 7(7), 6086–6091 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gai, X.

J. Pei, X. Gai, J. Yang, X. Wang, Z. Yu, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. Lu, “Producing air-stable monolayers of phosphorene and their defect engineering,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10450 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, Q.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Geohegan, D. B.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomez-Herrero, J.

M. Moreno-Moreno, G. Lopez-Polin, A. Castellanos-Gomez, C. Gomez-Navarro, and J. Gomez-Herrero, “Environmental effects in mechanical properties of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 3(3), 031007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gomez-Navarro, C.

M. Moreno-Moreno, G. Lopez-Polin, A. Castellanos-Gomez, C. Gomez-Navarro, and J. Gomez-Herrero, “Environmental effects in mechanical properties of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 3(3), 031007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, G.

Hao, Y.

Hasan, T.

H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H.-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, and Z. Sun, “Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic two-dimensional layered materials,” ACS Photonics 4(12), 3023–3030 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hasdeo, E. H.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, K.

J. Lee, Z. Wang, K. He, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “High frequency MoS2 nanomechanical resonators,” ACS Nano 7(7), 6086–6091 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hersam, M. C.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K.-S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hikita, Y.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hill, E. W.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hu, C.

Hu, X.

Huang, S.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huo, S.

Hwang, H. Y.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Islam, A.

A. Islam, W. Du, V. Pashaei, H. Jia, Z. Wang, J. Lee, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Discerning black phosphorus crystal orientation and anisotropy by polarized reflectance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(30), 25629–25637 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Islam, A. van den Akker, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Anisotropic thermal conductivity of suspended black phosphorus probed by opto-thermomechanical resonance spectromicroscopy,” Nano Lett. 18(12), 7683–7691 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, A. Islam, R. Yang, X.-Q. Zheng, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Environmental, thermal, and electrical susceptibility of black phosphorus field effect transistors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(5), 052202 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jang, Y. D.

D. Yue, D. Lee, Y. D. Jang, M. S. Choi, H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, and W. J. Yoo, “Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors,” Nanoscale 8(25), 12773–12779 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jariwala, D.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K.-S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, H.

A. Islam, W. Du, V. Pashaei, H. Jia, Z. Wang, J. Lee, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Discerning black phosphorus crystal orientation and anisotropy by polarized reflectance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(30), 25629–25637 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Jia, X. Zheng, R. Yang, Z. Wang, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies,” Nanoscale 7(3), 877–884 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, D.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jin, C.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, D.-Y.

D. Yue, D. Lee, Y. D. Jang, M. S. Choi, H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, and W. J. Yoo, “Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors,” Nanoscale 8(25), 12773–12779 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jussila, H.

H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H.-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, and Z. Sun, “Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic two-dimensional layered materials,” ACS Photonics 4(12), 3023–3030 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Komsa, H.-P.

H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H.-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, and Z. Sun, “Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic two-dimensional layered materials,” ACS Photonics 4(12), 3023–3030 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kong, J.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauhon, L. J.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K.-S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

D. Yue, D. Lee, Y. D. Jang, M. S. Choi, H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, and W. J. Yoo, “Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors,” Nanoscale 8(25), 12773–12779 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

A. Islam, W. Du, V. Pashaei, H. Jia, Z. Wang, J. Lee, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Discerning black phosphorus crystal orientation and anisotropy by polarized reflectance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(30), 25629–25637 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, J. Lee, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Spatial mapping of multimode Brownian motions in high-frequency silicon carbide microdisk resonators,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5158 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, Z. Wang, K. He, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “High frequency MoS2 nanomechanical resonators,” ACS Nano 7(7), 6086–6091 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, W.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

M. Basharat, M. Ding, H. Cai, Y. Li, and J. Fang, “Analysis of influence factors of Faraday rotation measurement by magneto-optic modulation,” Proc. SPIE 10621, 1062103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lian, B.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, L.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, C. C.

Lin, J. X.

Lin, L. H.

Ling, X.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Liu, X.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K.-S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Lo, Y. L.

Lopez-Polin, G.

M. Moreno-Moreno, G. Lopez-Polin, A. Castellanos-Gomez, C. Gomez-Navarro, and J. Gomez-Herrero, “Environmental effects in mechanical properties of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 3(3), 031007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Louie, S. G.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

J. Pei, X. Gai, J. Yang, X. Wang, Z. Yu, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. Lu, “Producing air-stable monolayers of phosphorene and their defect engineering,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10450 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luther-Davies, B.

J. Pei, X. Gai, J. Yang, X. Wang, Z. Yu, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. Lu, “Producing air-stable monolayers of phosphorene and their defect engineering,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10450 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marks, T. J.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K.-S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meunier, V.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, C. J.

R. Yang, X.-Q. Zheng, Z. Wang, C. J. Miller, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Multilayer MoS2 transistors enabled by a facile dry-transfer technique and thermal annealing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 061203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moreno-Moreno, M.

M. Moreno-Moreno, G. Lopez-Polin, A. Castellanos-Gomez, C. Gomez-Navarro, and J. Gomez-Herrero, “Environmental effects in mechanical properties of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 3(3), 031007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nam, H. J.

D. Yue, D. Lee, Y. D. Jang, M. S. Choi, H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, and W. J. Yoo, “Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors,” Nanoscale 8(25), 12773–12779 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Neto, A. H. C.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nugraha, A. R. T.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ou, X.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Özyilmaz, B.

A. Avsar, I. J. Vera-Marun, J. Y. Tan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Air-stable transport in graphene-contacted, fully encapsulated ultrathin black phosphorus-based field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4138–4145 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parkin, W. M.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pashaei, V.

A. Islam, W. Du, V. Pashaei, H. Jia, Z. Wang, J. Lee, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Discerning black phosphorus crystal orientation and anisotropy by polarized reflectance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(30), 25629–25637 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pei, J.

J. Pei, X. Gai, J. Yang, X. Wang, Z. Yu, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. Lu, “Producing air-stable monolayers of phosphorene and their defect engineering,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10450 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puretzky, A. A.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiu, D. Y.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, W.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saito, R.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sangwan, V. K.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K.-S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shan, J.

Z. Wang, H. Jia, X. Zheng, R. Yang, Z. Wang, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies,” Nanoscale 7(3), 877–884 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, Z. Wang, K. He, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “High frequency MoS2 nanomechanical resonators,” ACS Nano 7(7), 6086–6091 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, Y.

Shen, W.

Shen, Z.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, Z.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smalley, J. S. T.

Sumpter, B. G.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Z.

W. Shen, C. Hu, S. Huo, Z. Sun, S. Fan, J. Liu, and X. Hu, “Wavelength tunable polarizer based on layered black phosphorus on Si/SiO2 substrate,” Opt. Lett. 43(6), 1255–1258 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H.-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, and Z. Sun, “Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic two-dimensional layered materials,” ACS Photonics 4(12), 3023–3030 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tan, J. Y.

A. Avsar, I. J. Vera-Marun, J. Y. Tan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Air-stable transport in graphene-contacted, fully encapsulated ultrathin black phosphorus-based field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4138–4145 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Taniguchi, T.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Avsar, I. J. Vera-Marun, J. Y. Tan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Air-stable transport in graphene-contacted, fully encapsulated ultrathin black phosphorus-based field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4138–4145 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tatsumi, Y.

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vallini, F.

van den Akker, A.

A. Islam, A. van den Akker, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Anisotropic thermal conductivity of suspended black phosphorus probed by opto-thermomechanical resonance spectromicroscopy,” Nano Lett. 18(12), 7683–7691 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vera-Marun, I. J.

A. Avsar, I. J. Vera-Marun, J. Y. Tan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Air-stable transport in graphene-contacted, fully encapsulated ultrathin black phosphorus-based field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4138–4145 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

J. Pei, X. Gai, J. Yang, X. Wang, Z. Yu, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. Lu, “Producing air-stable monolayers of phosphorene and their defect engineering,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10450 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

A. Islam, W. Du, V. Pashaei, H. Jia, Z. Wang, J. Lee, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Discerning black phosphorus crystal orientation and anisotropy by polarized reflectance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(30), 25629–25637 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, A. Islam, R. Yang, X.-Q. Zheng, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Environmental, thermal, and electrical susceptibility of black phosphorus field effect transistors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(5), 052202 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, H. Jia, X. Zheng, R. Yang, Z. Wang, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies,” Nanoscale 7(3), 877–884 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Jia, X. Zheng, R. Yang, Z. Wang, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies,” Nanoscale 7(3), 877–884 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Yang, X.-Q. Zheng, Z. Wang, C. J. Miller, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Multilayer MoS2 transistors enabled by a facile dry-transfer technique and thermal annealing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 061203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, J. Lee, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Spatial mapping of multimode Brownian motions in high-frequency silicon carbide microdisk resonators,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5158 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, Z. Wang, K. He, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “High frequency MoS2 nanomechanical resonators,” ACS Nano 7(7), 6086–6091 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, K.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Avsar, I. J. Vera-Marun, J. Y. Tan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Air-stable transport in graphene-contacted, fully encapsulated ultrathin black phosphorus-based field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4138–4145 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wells, S. A.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K.-S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, J. D.

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K.-S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, G.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, F.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H.-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, and Z. Sun, “Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic two-dimensional layered materials,” ACS Photonics 4(12), 3023–3030 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Pei, X. Gai, J. Yang, X. Wang, Z. Yu, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. Lu, “Producing air-stable monolayers of phosphorene and their defect engineering,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10450 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, R.

Z. Wang, A. Islam, R. Yang, X.-Q. Zheng, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Environmental, thermal, and electrical susceptibility of black phosphorus field effect transistors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(5), 052202 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, H. Jia, X. Zheng, R. Yang, Z. Wang, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies,” Nanoscale 7(3), 877–884 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Yang, X.-Q. Zheng, Z. Wang, C. J. Miller, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Multilayer MoS2 transistors enabled by a facile dry-transfer technique and thermal annealing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 061203 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ye, G.

H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H.-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, and Z. Sun, “Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic two-dimensional layered materials,” ACS Photonics 4(12), 3023–3030 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, G. J.

A. Islam, W. Du, V. Pashaei, H. Jia, Z. Wang, J. Lee, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Discerning black phosphorus crystal orientation and anisotropy by polarized reflectance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(30), 25629–25637 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Jia, X. Zheng, R. Yang, Z. Wang, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies,” Nanoscale 7(3), 877–884 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, W. J.

D. Yue, D. Lee, Y. D. Jang, M. S. Choi, H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, and W. J. Yoo, “Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors,” Nanoscale 8(25), 12773–12779 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Y.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

J. Pei, X. Gai, J. Yang, X. Wang, Z. Yu, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. Lu, “Producing air-stable monolayers of phosphorene and their defect engineering,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10450 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, D.

D. Yue, D. Lee, Y. D. Jang, M. S. Choi, H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, and W. J. Yoo, “Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors,” Nanoscale 8(25), 12773–12779 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, S.-C.

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, X.

Z. Wang, H. Jia, X. Zheng, R. Yang, Z. Wang, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies,” Nanoscale 7(3), 877–884 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, X.-Q.

Z. Wang, A. Islam, R. Yang, X.-Q. Zheng, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Environmental, thermal, and electrical susceptibility of black phosphorus field effect transistors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(5), 052202 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, X.-Q. Zheng, Z. Wang, C. J. Miller, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Multilayer MoS2 transistors enabled by a facile dry-transfer technique and thermal annealing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 061203 (2014).
[Crossref]

2D Mater. (1)

M. Moreno-Moreno, G. Lopez-Polin, A. Castellanos-Gomez, C. Gomez-Navarro, and J. Gomez-Herrero, “Environmental effects in mechanical properties of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 3(3), 031007 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

A. Islam, W. Du, V. Pashaei, H. Jia, Z. Wang, J. Lee, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Discerning black phosphorus crystal orientation and anisotropy by polarized reflectance measurement,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(30), 25629–25637 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

A. Avsar, I. J. Vera-Marun, J. Y. Tan, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, A. H. Castro Neto, and B. Özyilmaz, “Air-stable transport in graphene-contacted, fully encapsulated ultrathin black phosphorus-based field-effect transistors,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4138–4145 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lee, Z. Wang, K. He, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “High frequency MoS2 nanomechanical resonators,” ACS Nano 7(7), 6086–6091 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (1)

H. Yang, H. Jussila, A. Autere, H.-P. Komsa, G. Ye, X. Chen, T. Hasan, and Z. Sun, “Optical waveplates based on birefringence of anisotropic two-dimensional layered materials,” ACS Photonics 4(12), 3023–3030 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, “Making graphene visible,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 063124 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

R. Yang, X.-Q. Zheng, Z. Wang, C. J. Miller, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Multilayer MoS2 transistors enabled by a facile dry-transfer technique and thermal annealing,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32(6), 061203 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, A. Islam, R. Yang, X.-Q. Zheng, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Environmental, thermal, and electrical susceptibility of black phosphorus field effect transistors,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 33(5), 052202 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (3)

X. Ling, S. Huang, E. H. Hasdeo, L. Liang, W. M. Parkin, Y. Tatsumi, A. R. T. Nugraha, A. A. Puretzky, P. M. Das, B. G. Sumpter, D. B. Geohegan, J. Kong, R. Saito, M. Drndic, V. Meunier, and M. S. Dresselhaus, “Anisotropic electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in black phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(4), 2260–2267 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Wood, S. A. Wells, D. Jariwala, K.-S. Chen, E. Cho, V. K. Sangwan, X. Liu, L. J. Lauhon, T. J. Marks, and M. C. Hersam, “Effective passivation of exfoliated black phosphorus transistors against ambient degradation,” Nano Lett. 14(12), 6964–6970 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Islam, A. van den Akker, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Anisotropic thermal conductivity of suspended black phosphorus probed by opto-thermomechanical resonance spectromicroscopy,” Nano Lett. 18(12), 7683–7691 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (2)

D. Yue, D. Lee, Y. D. Jang, M. S. Choi, H. J. Nam, D.-Y. Jung, and W. J. Yoo, “Passivated ambipolar black phosphorus transistors,” Nanoscale 8(25), 12773–12779 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Jia, X. Zheng, R. Yang, Z. Wang, G. J. Ye, X. H. Chen, J. Shan, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Black phosphorus nanoelectromechanical resonators vibrating at very high frequencies,” Nanoscale 7(3), 877–884 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

J. Pei, X. Gai, J. Yang, X. Wang, Z. Yu, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and Y. Lu, “Producing air-stable monolayers of phosphorene and their defect engineering,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10450 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, J. Lee, and P. X.-L. Feng, “Spatial mapping of multimode Brownian motions in high-frequency silicon carbide microdisk resonators,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 5158 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (3)

H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita, Z. Shen, S.-C. Zhang, X. Chen, M. Brongersma, H. Y. Hwang, and Y. Cui, “Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p-n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(8), 707–713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Li, J. Kim, C. Jin, G. J. Ye, D. Y. Qiu, F. H. da Jornada, Z. Shi, L. Chen, Z. Zhang, F. Yang, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, W. Ren, S. G. Louie, X. H. Chen, Y. Zhang, and F. Wang, “Direct observation of the layer-dependent electronic structure in phosphorene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 12(1), 21–25 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Basharat, M. Ding, H. Cai, Y. Li, and J. Fang, “Analysis of influence factors of Faraday rotation measurement by magneto-optic modulation,” Proc. SPIE 10621, 1062103 (2018).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

L. D. Barron, Molecular Light Scattering and Optical Activity (Cambridge University Press, 1982).

A. Islam, J. Lee, and P. X.-L. Feng, “All-electrical transduction of black phosphorus tunable 2D nanoelectromechanical resonators”, in Proceedings of IEEE Int. Conf. on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE MEMS 2018), pp. 1052–1055, Belfast, UK, Jan. 21–25 (2018).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Black phosphorus (P) crystal and nanomechanical devices. (a) 3D illustration of crystal structure of black P. (b) Top view of the crystal showing in-plane armchair (AC) and zigzag (ZZ) directions and the nature of optical anisotropy. AAC and AZZ denote absorbance when incident light is polarized along AC and ZZ directions, respectively. (c) Fabrication process of making black P drumhead resonators. (d) 3D representation of a black P circular drumhead resonator.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Black P nanomechanical resonators and polarization dependent optical absorption. (a) and (b) Two black P resonators fabricated on SiO2-on-Si substrate with known crystal orientation (AC and ZZ directions). Insets show AFM measurement results with corresponding traces marked by yellow dashed lines drawn on the optical images of devices. (c) Ellipse of imaginary part (k) of complex refractive index (n) indicating the optical anisotropy of black P. (d) Illustration of multilayer reflection and interference effect. (e) and (f) Calculated variation of optical absorbance (ABP) and reflectance (RBP) of D#1 and D#2, respectively, for 633nm wavelength, with respect to polarization angle (ϕ) (defined as the angle between the electric field ( E ) and the AC direction) (shown in (c)).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Illustrations of measurement scheme and transduction diagram of polarization responsivity. (a) Transduction diagram of resonance frequency shift upon the change of polarization of normally incident laser illumination. (b) Scheme of thermomechanical resonance measurement for studying black P resonators by using optical interferometric readout and controlling the polarization to monitor the resonance frequency shift.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Resonance frequency shift with respect to varying polarization. (a) Measured fres upshifts upon change of polarization angle from 0° (AC) to 90° (ZZ) for D#1 (Plas = 0.7 mW). (b) Measured fres values plotted in polar plot with respect to the pre-determined crystal orientation for D#1. (c) and (d) Similar fres shift and polar plots for D#2 (Plas = 1.3 mW).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Optimization of the polarization responsivity. (a) Dependence of absorbance with respect to tBP for λ = 633 nm. (b) Scaling of fres with respect to the tBP for d = 8µm and d = 9µm. (c) Variation of fres depending on the polarization for different thicknesses of black P. (d) Difference in fres shift with respect to Plas depending on the polarization. (e) and (f) Plots depicting effects of d and γ0 in the resonator on Δf versus tBP, respectively.

Equations (7)

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n BP 2 (ϕ)= n AC 2 n ZZ 2 n AC 2 sin 2 ϕ+ n ZZ 2 cos 2 ϕ ,
R BP (ϕ)= | r 1 e i( φ 1 + φ 2 ) + r 2 e i( φ 1 φ 2 ) + r 3 e i( φ 1 + φ 2 ) + r 1 r 2 r 3 e i( φ 1 φ 2 ) e i( φ 1 + φ 2 ) + r 1 r 2 e i( φ 1 φ 2 ) + r 1 r 3 e i( φ 1 + φ 2 ) + r 2 r 3 e i( φ 1 φ 2 ) | 2 ,
T BP (ϕ)=| n Si n vacuum | | t 1 t 2 t 3 e i( φ 1 + φ 2 ) 1+ r 1 r 2 e 2i φ 1 + r 1 r 3 e 2i( φ 1 + φ 2 ) + r 2 r 3 e 2i φ 2 | 2 ,
A BP (ϕ)=1 R BP (ϕ) T BP (ϕ).
κ AC 2 T x 2 + κ ZZ 2 T y 2 = P las A BP t BP π σ lx σ ly e [ (x x 0 ) 2 2 σ lx 2 (y y 0 ) 2 2 σ ly 2 ] ,
γ th = t BP π a 2 E Y (x,y) ε th (x,y) dxdy,
f res = k 2 mn a 2π D ρ a 4 [ ( γ 0 + γ th ) D + ( k 2 mn a ) 2 ] ,

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